Prenatal Choline Supplementation during High-Fat Feeding Improves Long-Term Blood Glucose Control in Male Mouse Offspring.
ABSTRACT: Maternal obesity increases the risk of metabolic dysregulation in rodent offspring, especially when offspring are exposed to a high-fat (HF), obesogenic diet later in life. We previously demonstrated that maternal choline supplementation (MCS) in HF-fed mouse dams during gestation prevents fetal overgrowth and excess adiposity. In this study, we examined the long-term metabolic influence of MCS. C57BL/6J mice were fed a HF diet with or without choline supplementation prior to and during gestation. After weaning, their pups were exposed to either a HF or control diet for 6 weeks before measurements. Prenatal and post-weaning dietary treatments led to sexually dimorphic responses. In male offspring, while post-weaning HF led to impaired fasting glucose and worse glucose tolerance (p < 0.05), MCS in HF dams (HFCS) attenuated these changes. HFCS (versus maternal normal fat control) appeared to improve metabolic functioning of visceral adipose tissue during post-weaning HF feeding, preventing the elevation in leptin and increasing (p < 0.05) mRNA expression of insulin receptor substrate 1 (Irs1) that promotes peripheral insulin signaling in male offspring. In contrast, MCS had minimal effects on metabolic outcomes of female offspring. In conclusion, MCS during HF feeding in mice improves long-term blood glucose homeostasis in male offspring when they are faced with a postnatal obesogenic environment.
Project description:Background: It is well established that maternal exercise during pregnancy improves metabolic outcomes associated with obesity in mothers and offspring, however, its effects on the gut microbiota of both mother and offspring, are unknown. Here, we investigated whether wheel running exercise prior to and during pregnancy and prolonged feeding of an obesogenic diet were associated with changes in the gut microbiomes of Sprague-Dawley rat dams and their offspring. Female rats were fed either chow or obesogenic diet, and half of each diet group were given access to a running wheel 10 days before mating until delivery, while others remained sedentary. 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing was used to assess gut microbial communities in dams and their male and female offspring around the time of weaning. Results: Statistical analyses at the operational taxonomic unit (OTU) level revealed that maternal obesogenic diet decreased gut microbial alpha diversity and altered abundances of bacterial taxa previously associated with obesity such as Bacteroides and Blautia in dams, and their offspring of both sexes. Distance based linear modeling revealed that the relative abundances of Bacteroides OTUs were associated with adiposity measures in both dams and offspring. We identified no marked effects of maternal exercise on the gut microbiota of obesogenic diet dams or their offspring. In contrast, maternal exercise decreased gut microbial alpha diversity and altered the abundance of 88 microbial taxa in offspring of control dams. Thirty of these taxa were altered in a similar direction in offspring of sedentary obesogenic vs. control diet dams. In particular, the relative abundances of Oscillibacter OTUs were decreased in offspring of both exercised control dams and sedentary obesogenic diet dams, and associated with blood glucose concentrations and adiposity measures. Analyses of predicted bacterial metabolic pathways inferred decreased indole alkaloid biosynthesis in offspring of both obesogenic diet and exercised control dams. Conclusions: Our data suggest that maternal exercise prior to and during pregnancy resulted in gut dysbiosis in offspring of control dams. Importantly, alterations in the maternal gut microbiota by obesogenic diet or obesity were transferred to their offspring.
Project description:The developmental origins of health and disease hypothesis proposes that an adverse early life environment, including in utero exposure to a maternal obesogenic environment, can lead to an increased long-term risk of obesity and related metabolic complications in offspring. We assessed whether maternal supplementation with conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) could prevent some of these adverse effects in offspring exposed to a maternal high fat diet. Sprague-Dawley dams consumed either a: control (CD), control with CLA (CLA), high fat (HF) or high fat with CLA (HFCLA) diet 10 days prior to mating and throughout pregnancy/lactation. Male offspring were weaned onto a standard chow diet. Body composition was quantified by DXA and oral glucose tolerance tests conducted on adult offspring. Gene/protein expression and histological analysis were conducted in adipose tissue. Offspring from HF dams had increased body weight, body fat deposition, impaired insulin sensitivity and adipocyte hypertrophy; all of which were rescued in HFCLA offspring. Molecular and histological analyses of the adipose tissue suggest that disturbances in adipogenesis may mediate the metabolic dysfunction observed in HF offspring. Therefore, CLA supplementation to a maternal obesogenic diet may be a promising strategy to prevent adverse programming outcomes.
Project description:Maternal obesity increases fetal adiposity which may adversely affect metabolic health of the offspring. Choline regulates lipid metabolism and thus may influence adiposity. This study investigates the effect of maternal choline supplementation on fetal adiposity in a mouse model of maternal obesity. C57BL/6J mice were fed either a high-fat (HF) diet or a control (NF) diet and received either 25 mM choline supplemented (CS) or control untreated (CO) drinking water for 6 weeks before timed-mating and throughout gestation. At embryonic day 17.5, HF feeding led to higher (p < 0.05) percent total body fat in fetuses from the HFCO group, while the choline supplemented HFCS group did not show significant difference versus the NFCO group. Similarly, HF feeding led to higher (p < 0.05) hepatic triglyceride accumulation in the HFCO but not the HFCS fetuses. mRNA levels of lipogenic genes such as Acc1, Fads1, and Elovl5, as well as the transcription factor Srebp1c that favors lipogenesis were downregulated (p < 0.05) by maternal choline supplementation in the HFCS group, which may serve as a mechanism to reduce fat accumulation in the fetal liver during maternal HF feeding. In summary, maternal choline supplementation improves indices of fetal adiposity in obese dams at late gestation.
Project description:A maternal high-fat (HF) diet during pregnancy can lead to metabolic compromise, such as insulin resistance in adult offspring. Skeletal muscle mitochondrial dysfunction is one mechanism contributing to metabolic impairments in insulin resistant states. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate whether mitochondrial dysfunction is evident in metabolically compromised offspring born to HF-fed dams. Sprague-Dawley dams were randomly assigned to receive a purified control diet (CD; 10% kcal from fat) or a high fat diet (HFD; 45% kcal from fat) for 10 days prior to mating, throughout pregnancy and during lactation. From weaning, all male offspring received a standard chow diet and soleus muscle was collected at day 150. Expression of the mitochondrial transcription factors nuclear respiratory factor-1 (NRF1) and mitochondrial transcription factor A (mtTFA) were downregulated in HF offspring. Furthermore, genes encoding the mitochondrial electron transport system (ETS) respiratory complex subunits were suppressed in HF offspring. Moreover, protein expression of the complex I subunit, NDUFB8, was downregulated in HF offspring (36%), which was paralleled by decreased maximal catalytic linked activity of complex I and III (40%). Together, these results indicate that exposure to a maternal HF diet during development may elicit lifelong mitochondrial alterations in offspring skeletal muscle.
Project description:We evaluate the impact of maternal and post-weaning high-fat (HF) diet on ovarian follicular population, steroidogenesis, and gene expression with a focus on the circadian clock system and insulin-like growth factor 2 (Igf2) in adult offspring ovaries, and to elucidate whether a maternal and post-weaning diet confers similar risks.Virgin Sprague-Dawley rats were fed with normal chow (C) diet or HF diet for 5 weeks before mating, during gestation, and lactation. Female offspring were fed with the C or HF diet from weaning to 6 months of age, resulting in four study groups (n = 6 per group): C/C, C/HF, HF/C, and HF/HF.Ovaries from offspring exposed to post-weaning HF diet (i.e., the C/HF and HF/HF groups) had a decrease in small follicle numbers, but with similar numbers of antral follicles and corpora lutea. Offspring from HF-fed dams (i.e., the HF/C and HF/HF groups) had increased plasma estradiol concentrations and decreased luteinizing hormone levels at 6 months of age. In addition, Igf2 and each of the circadian rhythm core genes Clock, Per1, Per2, and Per3 were increased in the ovaries of offspring exposed to maternal HF diet (both HF/C and HF/HF groups).Maternal and post-weaning HF diet programs the reproductive profile of the female offspring in adult life through different manners. Post-weaning HF intake resulted in the reduction of small follicles in adulthood, whereas maternal HF diet had long-term deleterious consequences on female offspring steroidogenesis and coincided with alteration of the upregulation of the imprinted gene Igf2 and changes in ovarian circadian rhythms.
Project description:Although a pre-pregnancy dietary intervention is believed to be able to prevent offspring obesity, research evidence is absent. We hypothesize that a long period of pre-pregnancy maternal diet transition from a high-fat (HF) diet to a normal-fat (NF) diet effectively prevents offspring obesity, and this preventive effect is independent of maternal body weight change. In our study, female mice were either continued on an NF diet (NF group) or an HF diet (HF group) until weaning, or switched from an HF to an NF for 1 week (H1N group), 5 weeks (H5N group) or 9 weeks (H9N group) before pregnancy. After weaning, the offspring were given the HF diet for 12 weeks to promote obesity. The mothers, regardless of which group, did not display maternal body weight change and glucose intolerance either before pregnancy or after weaning. Compared to the HF group, the H1N and H5N, but not the H9N, offspring developed glucose intolerance earlier, with more severely imbalanced glucose homeostasis. These offspring also displayed hepatocyte degeneration and significant adipocyte hypertrophy associated with higher expression of lipogenesis genes. The molecular mechanistic study showed blunted insulin signaling, overactivated adipocyte Akt signaling and hepatic AMPK signaling with enhanced lipogenesis genes in the H1N and H5N versus the NF offspring. However, maternal H9N diets normalized glucose and lipid metabolism of the offspring via resensitized insulin signaling and normalized Akt and AMPK signaling. In summary, we showed that a long-term maternal diet intervention effectively released the intergenerational obesogenic effect of maternal HF diet independent of maternal weight management.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Metabolic and endocrine environment during early life is crucial for metabolic imprinting. When dams were fed a high fat diet (HF diet), rat offspring developed hypothalamic leptin resistance with lean phenotype when weaned on a normal diet. Interestingly, when grown on the HF diet, they appeared to be protected against the effects of HF diet as compared to offspring of normally fed dams. The mechanisms involved in the protective effect of maternal HF diet are unclear. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We thus investigated the impact of maternal high fat diet on offspring subjected to normal or high palatable diet (P diet) on metabolic and endocrine parameters. We compared offspring born to dams fed P or HF diet. Offspring born to dams fed control or P diet, when fed P diet exhibited a higher body weight, altered hypothalamic leptin sensitivity and metabolic parameters suggesting that maternal P diet has no protective effect on offspring. Whereas, maternal HF diet reduces body weight gain and circulating triglycerides, and ameliorates corpulence index of offspring, even when subjected to P diet. Interestingly, this protective effect is differently expressed in male and female offspring. Male offspring exhibited higher energy expenditure as mirrored by increased hypothalamic UCP-2 and liver AdipoR1/R2 expression, and a profound change in the arcuate nucleus astrocytic organization. In female offspring, the most striking impact of maternal HF diet is the reduced hypothalamic expression of NPY and POMC. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: HF diet given during gestation and lactation protects, at least partially, offspring from excessive weight gain through several mechanisms depending upon gender including changes in arcuate nucleus astrocytic organization and increased hypothalamic UCP-2 and liver AdipoR1/2 expression in males and reduced hypothalamic expression of NPY and POMC in females. Taken together our results reveal new mechanisms involved in the protective effect of maternal HF diet.
Project description:Maternal over-nutrition can lead to metabolic disorders in offspring, whereas maternal dietary genistein may have beneficial effects on the metabolic health of offspring. Our objective was to determine whether maternal dietary genistein could attenuate the detrimental effects of a maternal high-fat diet on their offspring's metabolism and to explore the role of the gut microbiota on their offspring's glucose and lipid metabolism. C57BL/6 female mice were fed either a high-fat diet without genistein (HF), high-fat diet with low-dose genistein (0.25 g/kg diet) (HF.LG), high-fat diet with high-dose genistein (0.6 g/kg diet) (HF.HG) or normal control diet (Control) for 3 weeks prior to breeding and throughout gestation and lactation. The female offspring in the HF group had lower birth weights and glucose intolerance and higher serum insulin, triacylglycerol (TG) and total cholesterol (TC) levels at weaning compared with the Control group. Offspring from HF.LG dams had increased birth weight, improved glucose tolerance, and decreased fasting insulin, whereas the serum TG and TC levels were decreased in HF.HG offspring in comparison with HF offspring. The significant enrichment of Bacteroides and Akkermansia in offspring from genistein-fed dams might play vital roles in improving glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity, and the significantly increased abundance of Rikenella and Rikenellaceae_RC9_ gut_group in the HF.HG group may be associated with the decreased serum levels of TG and TC. In conclusion, maternal dietary genistein negates the harmful effects of a maternal high-fat diet on glucose and lipid metabolism in female offspring, in which the altered gut microbiota plays crucial roles. The ability of maternal genistein intake to improve offspring metabolism is important since this intervention could fight the transmission of diabetes to subsequent generations.
Project description:While the adverse metabolic effects of exposure to obesogenic diets during both the prenatal and early postnatal period are well established, the relative impact of exposure during these separate developmental windows remains unclear. This study aimed to assess the relative contribution of exposure to a maternal cafeteria diet during pregnancy and lactation on body weight, fat mass and expression of lipogenic and adipokine genes in the offspring.Wistar rats were fed either a control chow (Control, n = 14) or obesogenic cafeteria diet (CAF, n = 12) during pregnancy and lactation. Pups were cross-fostered to another dam in either the same or different dietary group within 24 h of birth. Body weight, body fat mass and expression of lipogenic and adipokine genes in subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissues were determined in offspring at weaning and 3 weeks post-weaning.Offspring suckled by CAF dams had a lower body weight (P < 0.05), but ~ 2-fold higher percentage body fat at weaning than offspring suckled by Control dams (P < 0.01), independent of whether they were born to a Control or CAF dam. At 6 weeks of age, after all offspring were weaned onto standard chow, males and females suckled by CAF dams remained lighter (P < 0.05) than offspring suckled by Control dams, but the percentage fat mass was no longer different between groups. Sterol Regulatory Element Binding Protein-1c (SREBP-1c) mRNA expression was ~ 25% lower in offspring suckled by cafeteria dams in males at weaning (P < 0.05) and in females at 6 weeks of age (P < 0.05). Exposure to a cafeteria diet during the suckling period alone also resulted in increased adipocyte Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) mRNA expression in females, and adiponectin and leptin mRNA expression in both sexes at weaning.The findings from this study point to the critical role of the suckling period for deposition of adipose tissue in rodents, and the potential role of altered adipocyte gene expression in mediating these effects.
Project description:To determine the impact of maternal and post-weaning consumption of a high fat diet on endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation and redox regulation in adult male mouse offspring.Female C57BL6J mice were fed an obesogenic high fat diet (HF, 45% kcal fat) or standard chow (C, 21% kcal fat) pre-conception and throughout pregnancy and lactation. Post-weaning, male offspring were continued on the same diet as their mothers or placed on the alternative diet to give 4 dietary groups (C/C, HF/C, C/HF and HF/HF) which were studied at 15 or 30 weeks of age.There were significant effects of maternal diet on offspring body weight (p<0.004), systolic blood pressure (p = 0.026) and endothelium-dependent relaxation to ACh (p = 0.004) and NO production (p = 0.005) measured in the femoral artery. With control for maternal diet there was also an effect of offspring post-weaning dietary fat to increase systolic blood pressure (p<0.0001) and reduce endothelium-dependent relaxation (p = 0.022) and ACh-mediated NO production (p = 0.007). There was also a significant impact of age (p<0.005). Redox balance was perturbed, with altered regulation of vascular enzymes involved in ROS/NO signalling.Maternal consumption of a HF diet is associated with changes in vascular function and oxidative balance in the offspring of similar magnitude to those seen with consumption of a high fat diet post-weaning. Further, this disadvantageous vascular phenotype is exacerbated by age to influence the risk of developing obesity, raised blood pressure and endothelial dysfunction in adult life.