Endocytosis and Exocytosis in Leishmania amazonensis Are Modulated by Bromoenol Lactone.
ABSTRACT: In the protozoan pathogen Leishmania, endocytosis, and exocytosis occur mainly in the small area of the flagellar pocket membrane, which makes this parasite an interesting model of strikingly polarized internalization and secretion. Moreover, little is known about vesicle recognition and fusion mechanisms, which are essential for both endo/exocytosis in this parasite. In other cell types, vesicle fusion events require the activity of phospholipase A2 (PLA2), including Ca2+-independent iPLA2 and soluble, Ca2+-dependent sPLA2. Here, we studied the role of bromoenol lactone (BEL) inhibition of endo/exocytosis in promastigotes of Leishmania amazonensis. PLA2 activities were assayed in intact parasites, in whole conditioned media, and in soluble and extracellular vesicles (EVs) conditioned media fractions. BEL did not affect the viability of promastigotes, but reduced the differentiation into metacyclic forms. Intact parasites and EVs had BEL-sensitive iPLA2 activity. BEL treatment reduced total EVs secretion, as evidenced by reduced total protein concentration, as well as its size distribution and vesicles in the flagellar pocket of treated parasites as observed by TEM. Membrane proteins, such as acid phosphatases and GP63, became concentrated in the cytoplasm, mainly in multivesicular tubules of the endocytic pathway. BEL also prevented the endocytosis of BSA, transferrin and ConA, with the accumulation of these markers in the flagellar pocket. These results suggested that the activity inhibited by BEL, which is one of the irreversible inhibitors of iPLA2, is required for both endocytosis and exocytosis in promastigotes of L. amazonensis.
Project description:PLA2 (phospholipase A2) enzymes play critical roles in membrane phospholipid homoeostasis and in generation of lysophospholipid growth factors. In the present study, we show that the activity of the cytosolic iPLA2 (calcium-independent PLA2), but not that of the calcium-dependent cPLA2 (cytosolic PLA2), is required for growth-factor-independent, autonomous replication of ovarian carcinoma cells. Blocking iPLA2 activity with the pharmacological inhibitor BEL (bromoenol lactone) induces cell cycle arrest in S- and G2/M-phases independently of the status of the p53 tumour suppressor. Inhibition of iPLA2 activity also leads to modest increases in apoptosis of ovarian cancer cells. The S- and G2/M-phase accumulation is accompanied by increased levels of the cell cycle regulators cyclins B and E. Interestingly, the S-phase arrest is released by supplementing the growth factors LPA (lysophosphatidic acid) or EGF (epidermal growth factor). However, inhibition of iPLA2 activity with BEL remains effective in repressing growth-factor- or serum-stimulated proliferation of ovarian cancer cells through G2/M-phase arrest. Down-regulation of iPLA2b expression with lentivirus-mediated RNA interference inhibited cell proliferation in culture and tumorigenicity of ovarian cancer cell lines in nude mice. These results indicate an essential role for iPLA2 in cell cycle progression and tumorigenesis of ovarian carcinoma cells.
Project description:Ongoing studies suggest an important role for iPLA2? in a multitude of biological processes and it has been implicated in neurodegenerative, skeletal and vascular smooth muscle disorders, bone formation, and cardiac arrhythmias. Thus, identifying an iPLA2?inhibitor that can be reliably and safely used in vivo is warranted. Currently, the mechanism-based inhibitor bromoenol lactone (BEL) is the most widely used to discern the role of iPLA2? in biological processes. While BEL is recognized as a more potent inhibitor of iPLA2 than of cPLA2 or sPLA2, leading to its designation as a "specific" inhibitor of iPLA2, it has been shown to also inhibit non-PLA2 enzymes. A potential complication of its use is that while the S and R enantiomers of BEL exhibit preference for cytosol-associated iPLA2? and membrane-associated iPLA2?, respectively, the selectivity is only 10-fold for both. In addition, BEL is unstable in solution, promotes irreversible inhibition, and may be cytotoxic, making BEL not amenable for in vivo use. Recently, a fluoroketone (FK)-based compound (FKGK18) was described as a potent inhibitor of iPLA2?. Here we characterized its inhibitory profile in beta-cells and find that FKGK18: (a) inhibits iPLA2? with a greater potency (100-fold) than iPLA2?, (b) inhibition of iPLA2? is reversible, (c) is an ineffective inhibitor of ?-chymotrypsin, and (d) inhibits previously described outcomes of iPLA2? activation including (i) glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, (ii) arachidonic acid hydrolysis; as reflected by PGE2 release from human islets, (iii) ER stress-induced neutral sphingomyelinase 2 expression, and (iv) ER stress-induced beta-cell apoptosis. These findings suggest that FKGK18 is similar to BEL in its ability to inhibit iPLA2?. Because, in contrast to BEL, it is reversible and not a non-specific inhibitor of proteases, it is suggested that FKGK18 is more ideal for ex vivo and in vivo assessments of iPLA2? role in biological functions.
Project description:The extracellular vesicles (EVs) released by Leishmania can contribute to the establishment of infection and host immunomodulation. In this study, we characterized the shedding of EVs from Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis promastigotes. This species is the causative agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis, and its role during interactions with bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) and peritoneal B-1 cells was evaluated. Leishmania amazonensis promastigotes cultivated in vitro at different times and temperatures spontaneously released EVs. EVs were purified using size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) and quantitated by nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA). NTA revealed that the average size of the EVs was approximately 180 nm, with concentrations ranging from 1.8 × 108 to 2.4 × 109 vesicles/mL. In addition, the presence of LPG and GP63 were detected in EVs obtained at different temperatures. Naïve BMDMs stimulated with EVs exhibited increased IL-10 and IL-6 expression. However, incubating B-1 cells with parasite EVs did not stimulate IL-10 expression but led to an increase in the expression of IL-6 and TNF?. After 7 weeks post-infection, animals infected with L. amazonensis promastigotes in the presence of parasite EVs had significant higher parasite load and a polarization to Th2 response, as compared to the group infected with the parasite alone. This work demonstrated that EVs isolated from L. amazonensis promastigotes were able to stimulate macrophages and B-1 cells to express different types of cytokines. Moreover, the immunomodulatory properties of EVs probably contributed to an increase in parasite burden in mice. These findings suggest that the functionality of L. amazonensis EVs on immune system favor of parasite survival and disease progression.
Project description:We have previously reported that the majority of phospholipase A2 (PLA2) activity in rabbit ventricular myocytes is membrane-associated, calcium-independent (iPLA2), selective for arachidonylated plasmalogen phospholipids and inhibited by the iPLA2-selective inhibitor bromoenol lactone (BEL). Here, we identified the presence of iPLA2 in rabbit ventricular myocytes, determined the full length sequences for rabbit iPLA2beta and iPLA2gamma and compared their homology to the human isoforms. Rabbit iPLA2beta encoded a protein with a predicated molecular mass of 74 kDa that is 91% identical to the human iPLA2beta short isoform. Full length iPLA2gamma protein has a predicated molecular mass of 88 kDa and is 88% identical to the human isoform. Immunoblot analysis of iPLA2beta and gamma in membrane and cytosolic fractions from rabbit and human cardiac myocytes demonstrated a similar pattern of distribution with both isoforms present in the membrane fraction, but no detectable protein in the cytosol. Membrane-associated iPLA2 activity was inhibited preferentially by the R enantiomer of bromoenol lactone [(R)-BEL], indicating that the majority of activity is due to iPLA2gamma.
Project description:The parasite Trypanosoma brucei lives in the bloodstream of infected mammalian hosts, fully exposed to the adaptive immune system. It relies on a very high rate of endocytosis to clear bound antibodies from its cell surface. All endo- and exocytosis occurs at a single site on its plasma membrane, an intracellular invagination termed the flagellar pocket. Coiled around the neck of the flagellar pocket is a multiprotein complex containing the repeat motif protein T. brucei MORN1 (TbMORN1). In this study, the phenotypic effects of TbMORN1 depletion in the mammalian-infective form of T. brucei were analyzed. Depletion of TbMORN1 resulted in a rapid enlargement of the flagellar pocket. Dextran, a polysaccharide marker for fluid phase endocytosis, accumulated inside the enlarged flagellar pocket. Unexpectedly, however, the proteins concanavalin A and bovine serum albumin did not do so, and concanavalin A was instead found to concentrate outside it. This suggests that TbMORN1 may have a role in facilitating the entry of proteins into the flagellar pocket.
Project description:Phosphoinositides are spatially restricted membrane signaling molecules. Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2]--a phosphoinositide that is highly enriched in, and present throughout, the plasma membrane--has been implicated in endocytosis. Trypanosoma brucei has one of the highest known rates of endocytosis, a process it uses to evade the immune system. To determine whether phosphoinositides play a role in endocytosis in this organism, we have identified and characterized one of the enzymes that is responsible for generating PI(4,5)P2. Surprisingly, this phosphoinositide was found to be highly concentrated in the flagellar pocket, the only site of endocytosis and exocytosis in this organism. The enzyme (designated TbPIPKA, annotated as Tb927.10.1620) was present at the neck of the pocket, towards the anterior-end of the parasite. Depletion of TbPIPKA led to depletion of PI(4,5)P2 and enlargement of the pocket, the result of impaired endocytosis. Taken together, these data suggest that TbPIPKA and its product PI(4,5)P2 are important for endocytosis and, consequently, for homeostasis of the flagellar pocket.
Project description:The cooling agents menthol and icilin act as agonists at TRPM8 and TRPA1. In vitro, activation of TRPM8 by icilin and cold, but not menthol, is dependent on the activity of a sub-type of phospholipase A2, iPLA2. Lysophospholipids (e.g. LPC) produced by PLA2 activity can also activate TRPM8. The role of TRPA1 as a primary cold sensor in vitro is controversial, although there is evidence that TRPA1 plays a role in behavioural responses to noxious cold stimuli. In this study, we have investigated the roles of TRPM8 and TRPA1 and the influence of iPLA2 on noxious cold sensitivities in naïve animals and after local administration of menthol, icilin and LPC. The roles of the channels in cold sensitivity were investigated in mice lacking either TRPM8 (Trpm8-/-) or TRPA1 (Trpa1-/-).Intraplantar administration of icilin evoked a dose-dependent increase in sensitivity to a 10 degrees C stimulus that was inhibited by iPLA2 inhibition with BEL. In contrast the cold hypersensitivities elicited by intraplantar menthol and LPC were not inhibited by BEL treatment. BEL had no effect on basal cold sensitivity and mechanical hypersensitivities induced by the TRPV1 agonist, capsaicin, and the P2X3 agonist alpha,beta-methylene ATP. Both Trpm8-/- and Trpa1-/- mice showed longer latencies for paw withdrawal from a 10 degrees C stimulus than wild-type littermates. Cold hypersensitivities induced by either icilin or LPC were absent in Trpm8-/- mice but were retained in Trpa1-/- mice. In contrast, cold hypersensitivity evoked by menthol was present in Trpm8-/- mice but was lost in Trpa1-/- mice.The findings that iPLA2 inhibition blocked the development of cold hypersensitivity after administration of icilin but failed to affect menthol-induced hypersensitivity agree well with our earlier in vitro data showing a differential effect of iPLA2 inhibition on the agonist activities of these agents. The ability of LPC to induce cold hypersensitivity supports a role for iPLA2 in modulating TRPM8 activity in vivo. Studies on genetically modified mice demonstrated that the effects of icilin and LPC were mediated by TRPM8 and not TRPA1. In contrast, menthol-induced cold hypersensitivity was dependent on expression of TRPA1 and not TRPM8.
Project description:Calcium independent group VIA phospholipase A2 (iPLA2?) and Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) are upregulated in many disease states; their involvement with cancer cell migration has been a recent subject for study. Further, the molecular mechanisms mediating nicotine-induced breast cancer cell progression have not been fully investigated. This study aims to investigate whether iPLA2? mediates nicotine-induced breast cancer cell proliferation and migration through both in-vitro and in-vivo techniques. Subsequently, the ability of Bromoenol Lactone (BEL) to attenuate the severity of nicotine-induced breast cancer was examined.We found that BEL significantly attenuated both basal and nicotine-induced 4T1 breast cancer cell proliferation, via an MTT proliferation assay. Breast cancer cell migration was examined by both a scratch and transwell assay, in which, BEL was found to significantly decrease both basal and nicotine-induced migration. Additionally, nicotine-induced MMP-9 expression was found to be mediated in an iPLA2? dependent manner. These results suggest that iPLA2? plays a critical role in mediating both basal and nicotine-induced breast cancer cell proliferation and migration in-vitro. In an in-vivo mouse breast cancer model, BEL treatment was found to significantly reduce both basal (p<0.05) and nicotine-induced tumor growth (p<0.01). Immunohistochemical analysis showed BEL decreased nicotine-induced MMP-9, HIF-1alpha, and CD31 tumor tissue expression. Subsequently, BEL was observed to reduce nicotine-induced lung metastasis.The present study indicates that nicotine-induced migration is mediated by MMP-9 production in an iPLA2? dependent manner. Our data suggests that BEL is a possible chemotherapeutic agent as it was found to reduce both nicotine-induced breast cancer tumor growth and lung metastasis.
Project description:Several Leishmania proteins have been identified and characterized in pursuit of understanding pathogenesis and protection in cutaneous leishmaniasis. In the present study, we utilized sera from infected BALB/c mice to screen a Leishmania amazonensis amastigote cDNA expression library and obtained the full-length gene that encodes a novel Trp-Asp (WD) protein designated LAWD (for Leishmania antigenic WD protein). The WD family of proteins mediates protein-protein interactions and coordinates the formation of protein complexes. The single-copy LAWD gene is transcribed as a approximately 3.1-kb mRNA in both promastigotes and amastigotes, with homologues being detected in several other Leishmania species. Immunoelectron microscopy revealed a predominant localization of the LAWD protein in the flagellar pocket. Analyses of sera from human patients with cutaneous and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis indicated that these individuals mounted significant humoral responses against LAWD. Given that recombinant LAWD protein elicited the production of high levels of gamma interferon, but no detectable levels of interleukin-10 (IL-10), in CD4(+) cells of L. amazonensis-infected mice, we further examined whether LAWD could elicit protective immunity. DNA vaccination with the LAWD and IL-12 genes significantly delayed lesion development, which correlated with a dramatic reduction in parasite burdens. Thus, we have successfully identified a promising vaccine candidate and antigenic vehicle to aid in the dissection of the complicated pathogenic immune response of L. amazonensis.
Project description:B-1 cells are considered an innate-like B cell population that participates in effective innate and adaptive responses to pathogens. B-1 cells produce immunoglobulins, cytokines, chemokines, migrate to inflammatory sites, and differentiate into mononuclear phagocyte-like cells. Murine B-1 cells phagocytosed Leishmania in vitro and in vivo and participate in immunity against Leishmania. Our group showed that B-1 cells or their extracellular vesicles (EVs) led to a resistance to experimental infection by L. amazonensis. However, the B-1 cells' responses to Leishmania or EVs isolated from parasites are still poorly characterized. Studying the activation and differentiation of B-1 cells in vivo can contribute to a better understanding of how these cells participate in immunity to L. amazonensis. Thus, we evaluated the expression of myeloid (M-csfr, G-csfr, Spi-1) and lymphoid (EBF, E2A, IL-7R) lineage commitment factors, Toll-like receptors (TLRs), activation cell surface markers, nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in murine peritoneal B-1 cells collected after 24 or 48 h post-infection with Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis promastigotes or EVs released by the parasites. Our results demonstrated that L. amazonensis infection did not stimulate the expression of CD40, CD80, CD86, F4/80, and MHC II in B-1 cells, but a significant decrease in the production of NO and ROS was observed. The infection induced a significantly higher arginase expression in B-1 cells, but the stimulation with EVs led to a decrease in this gene expression. TLR-2 and TLR-6 had significantly higher expression in B-1 cells from mice intraperitoneally stimulated with the parasite. The TLR-9 expression was higher in animals infected or stimulated for 48 h with EVs. Interestingly, in B-1 cells the stimulus with L. amazonensis led to a substantial increase in the expression of myeloid restricted transcription factors. Thus, our study suggests that the parasites or EVs differently modulated the activation and differentiation of B-1 cells.