Base-Promoted C-C Bond Activation Enables Radical Allylation with Homoallylic Alcohols.
ABSTRACT: The C?-C? bond in homoallylic alcohols can be activated under basic conditions, qualifying these nonstrained acyclic systems as radical allylation reagents. This reactivity is exemplified by photoinitiated (with visible light and/or blue LEDs) allylation of perfluoroalkyl and alkyl radicals generated from perfluoroalkyl iodides and alkylpyridinium salts, respectively, with homoallylic alcohols. C-radical addition to the double bond of the title reagents and subsequent base-promoted homolytic C?-C? cleavage leads to the formation of the corresponding allylated products along with ketyl radicals that act as single electron reductants to sustain the chain reactions. Substrate scope is documented and the role of base in the C-C bond activation is studied by computation.
Project description:Catalytic Asymmetric allylation of aldehydes with functionalized allylic reagents represents an important process in synthetic organic chemistry because the resulting chiral homoallylic alcohols are valuable building blocks in diverse research fields. Despite the obvious advantages of allyl halides as allylation reagent under Barbier-type conditions, catalytic asymmetric version using functionalized allyl halides remains largely underdeveloped. Here, we addressed this issue by employing a chromium-catalysis system. The use of readily available allyl bromides with ? substitutions including trimethylsilyl, fluorinated methyl and phenylthio groups provided an efficient and convenient method to introduce those privileged functionalities into homoallylic alcohols. Good yields, high anti-diastereo- and excellent enantioselectivities were achieved under mild reaction conditions.
Project description:Transition-metal-free radical ?-perfluoroalkylation with the accompanying vicinal ?-alkenylation of unactivated alkenes is presented. These radical cascades proceed by means of 1,4- or 1,5-alkenyl migration by electron catalysis on readily accessed allylic alcohols. The reactions comprise a regioselective perfluoroalkyl radical addition with subsequent alkenyl migration and concomitant deprotonation to generate a ketyl radical anion that sustains the chain as a single-electron-transfer reducing reagent.
Project description:Following an optimized multicomponent procedure, an aryl amine, a ketone, and a cyclic ether or an alcohol molecule are assembled in a one-pot synthesis by nucleophilic radical addition of ketyl radicals to ketimines generated in situ. The reaction occurs under mild conditions by mediation of the TiCl4/Zn/t-BuOOH system, leading to the formation of quaternary ?-amino-ethers and -alcohols. The new reaction conditions guarantee good selectivity by preventing the formation of secondary products. The secondary products are possibly derived from a competitive domino reaction, which involves further oxidation of the ketyl radicals.
Project description:Trifluoroethanol and difluoroethanol units are important motifs in bioactive molecules, but the methods to direct incorporate these units are limited. Herein, we report two organosilicon reagents for the transfer of trifluoroethanol and difluoroethanol units into molecules. Through intramolecular C-Si bond activation by alkoxyl radicals, these reagents were applied in allylation, alkylation and alkenylation reactions, enabling efficient synthesis of various tri(di)fluoromethyl group substituted alcohols. The broad applicability and general utility of the approach are highlighted by late-stage introduction of these fluoroalkyl groups to complex molecules, and the synthesis of antitumor agent Z and its difluoromethyl analog Z'.
Project description:Indium-mediated allylation of aldehydes with 2-chloro-3-iodopropene, followed by a palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling reaction with triarylindium reagents or arylboronic acids, leads to aryl-substituted homoallylic alcohols in good to excellent yields and diastereoselectivities. The products obtained from reactions conducted with d-glyceraldehyde acetonide can be transformed into 2-deoxy-beta-C-aryl ribofuranosides in high overall yields. Similarly, 2-deoxy-beta-C-aryl allopyranosides may be prepared efficiently from 2,4-O-benzylidene erythrose.
Project description:A visible-light-initiated ?-perfluoroalkyl-?-heteroarylation of various alkenes with perfluoroalkyl iodides and quinoxalin-2(1 H)-ones is presented. This three-component radical cascade reaction allows an efficient synthesis of a range of perfluoroalkyl containing quinoxalin-2(1 H)-one derivatives in moderate to excellent yields under mild conditions. Reactions proceed via acidic aminyl radicals that are readily deprotonated to give the corresponding radical anions able to sustain the radical chain as single electron transfer reducing reagents. Hence, the overall cascade classifies as an electron-catalyzed process.
Project description:[reaction: see text] We report the catalytic asymmetric allylation of ketones under highly concentrated reaction conditions with a catalyst generated from titanium tetraisopropoxide and BINOL (1:2 ratio) in the presence of isopropanol. This catalyst promotes the addition of tetraallylstannane to a variety of ketones to produce tertiary homoallylic alcohols in excellent yield (80-99%) with high enantioselectivities (79-95%). The resulting homoallylic alcohols can also be epoxidized in situ using tert-butyl hydroperoxide (TBHP) to afford cyclic epoxy alcohols in high yield (84-87%).
Project description:Chiral ruthenium(II) complexes modified by Josiphos ligands catalyze the reaction of alkynes with primary alcohols to form homoallylic alcohols with excellent control of regio-, diastereo-, and enantioselectivity. These processes represent the first examples of enantioselective carbonyl allylation using alkynes as allylmetal equivalents.
Project description:Cu-catalyzed stereoselective synthesis of (E)-δ-silyl-anti-homoallylic alcohols from 1,3-dienylsilane was developed. Mechanistic studies revealed that the borocupration of dienylsilane proceeded through a 1,2-addition pathway to give an allylcopper intermediate with Cu distal to the silyl group. However, the subsequent aldehyde allylation proceeded via Curtin-Hammett control to give (E)-δ-silyl-anti-homoallylic alcohols with high diastereoselectivities. This method was applied to the synthesis of the C1-9 fragment of a polyketide natural product, mycinolide IV.
Project description:Generation of a ketyl radical from unactivated aliphatic carbonyl compounds is an important strategy in organic synthesis. Herein, catalytic generation and use of a ketyl radical for the reductive coupling of aliphatic carbonyl compounds and styrenes by organic photoredox catalysis is described. The method is applicable to both aliphatic ketones and aldehydes to afford the corresponding tertiary and secondary alcohols in continuous flow and batch. Preliminary mechanistic investigation suggests the catalytic formation of a ketyl radical intermediate.