Reduced Sulfation Enhanced Oxytosis and Ferroptosis in Mouse Hippocampal HT22 Cells.
ABSTRACT: Sulfation is a common modification of extracellular glycans, tyrosine residues on proteins, and steroid hormones, and is important in a wide variety of signaling pathways. We investigated the role of sulfation on endogenous oxidative stress, such as glutamate-induced oxytosis and erastin-induced ferroptosis, using mouse hippocampal HT22 cells. Sodium chlorate competitively inhibits the formation of 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphosulfate, the high energy sulfate donor in cellular sulfation reactions. The treatment of HT22 cells with sodium chlorate decreased sulfation of heparan sulfate proteoglycans and chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans. Sodium chlorate and ?-d-xyloside, which prevents proteoglycan glycosaminoglycan chain attachment, exacerbated both glutamate- and erastin-induced cell death, suggesting that extracellular matrix influenced oxytosis and ferroptosis. Moreover, sodium chlorate enhanced the generation of reactive oxygen species and influx of extracellular Ca2+ in the process of oxytosis and ferroptosis. Interestingly, sodium chlorate did not affect antioxidant glutathione levels. Western blot analysis revealed that sodium chlorate enhanced erastin-induced c-Jun N-terminal kinase phosphorylation, which is preferentially activated by cell stress-inducing signals. Collectively, our findings indicate that sulfation is an important modification for neuroprotection against oxytosis and ferroptosis in neuronal hippocampal cells.
Project description:Ferroptosis has been defined as an oxidative and iron-dependent pathway of regulated cell death that is distinct from caspase-dependent apoptosis and established pathways of death receptor-mediated regulated necrosis. While emerging evidence linked features of ferroptosis induced e.g. by erastin-mediated inhibition of the Xc- system or inhibition of glutathione peroxidase 4 (Gpx4) to an increasing number of oxidative cell death paradigms in cancer cells, neurons or kidney cells, the biochemical pathways of oxidative cell death remained largely unclear. In particular, the role of mitochondrial damage in paradigms of ferroptosis needs further investigation. In the present study, we find that erastin-induced ferroptosis in neuronal cells was accompanied by BID transactivation to mitochondria, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, enhanced mitochondrial fragmentation and reduced ATP levels. These hallmarks of mitochondrial demise are also established features of oxytosis, a paradigm of cell death induced by Xc- inhibition by millimolar concentrations of glutamate. Bid knockout using CRISPR/Cas9 approaches preserved mitochondrial integrity and function, and mediated neuroprotective effects against both, ferroptosis and oxytosis. Furthermore, the BID-inhibitor BI-6c9 inhibited erastin-induced ferroptosis, and, in turn, the ferroptosis inhibitors ferrostatin-1 and liproxstatin-1 prevented mitochondrial dysfunction and cell death in the paradigm of oxytosis. These findings show that mitochondrial transactivation of BID links ferroptosis to mitochondrial damage as the final execution step in this paradigm of oxidative cell death.
Project description:The extracellular heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) is known to participate in cell migration and invasion. Recently, we have shown that cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) are involved in the binding and anchoring of extracellular Hsp90 to the plasma membrane, but the biological relevance of this finding was unclear. Here, we demonstrated that the digestion of heparan sulfate (HS) moieties of HSPGs with a heparinase I/III blend and the metabolic inhibition of the sulfation of HS chains by sodium chlorate considerably impair the migration and invasion of human glioblastoma A-172 and fibrosarcoma HT1080 cells stimulated by extracellular native Hsp90. Heparin, a polysaccharide closely related to HS, also reduced the Hsp90-stimulated migration and invasion of cells. Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, an intracellular inducer of cell motility bypassing the ligand activation of receptors, restored the basal migration of heparinase- and chlorate-treated cells almost to the control level, suggesting that the cell motility machinery was insignificantly affected in cells with degraded and undersulfated HS chains. On the other hand, the downstream phosphorylation of AKT in response to extracellular Hsp90 was substantially impaired in heparinase- and chlorate-treated cells as compared to untreated cells. Taken together, our results demonstrated for the first time that cell surface HSPGs play an important role in the migration and invasion of cancer cells stimulated by extracellular Hsp90 and that plasma membrane-associated HSPGs are required for the efficient transmission of signal from extracellular Hsp90 into the cell.
Project description:In the developing spinal cord neural stem and progenitor cells (NSPCs) secrete and are surrounded by extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules that influence their lineage decisions. The chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (CSPG) DSD-1-PG is an isoform of receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase-beta/zeta (RPTPβ/ζ), a <i>trans-</i>membrane receptor expressed by NSPCs. The chondroitin sulfate glycosaminoglycan chains are sulfated at distinct positions by sulfotransferases, thereby generating the distinct DSD-1-epitope that is recognized by the monoclonal antibody (mAb) 473HD. We detected the epitope, the critical enzymes and RPTPβ/ζ in the developing spinal cord. To obtain insight into potential biological functions, we exposed spinal cord NSPCs to sodium chlorate. The reagent suppresses the sulfation of glycosaminoglycans, thereby erasing any sulfation code expressed by the glycosaminoglycan polymers. When NSPCs were treated with chlorate and cultivated in the presence of FGF2, their proliferation rate was clearly reduced, while NSPCs exposed to EGF were less affected. Time-lapse video microscopy and subsequent single-cell tracking revealed that pedigrees of NSPCs cultivated with FGF2 were strongly disrupted when sulfation was suppressed. Furthermore, the NSPCs displayed a protracted cell cycle length. We conclude that the inhibition of sulfation with sodium chlorate interferes with the FGF2-dependent cell cycle progression in spinal cord NSPCs.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Sulfated glycosaminoglycan chains are known for their regulatory functions during neural development and regeneration. However, it is still unknown whether the sulfate residues alone influence, for example, neural precursor cell behavior or whether they act in concert with the sugar backbone. Here, we provide evidence that the unique 473HD-epitope, a representative chondroitin sulfate, is expressed by spinal cord neural precursor cells in vivo and in vitro, suggesting a potential function of sulfated glycosaminoglycans for spinal cord development.<h4>Results</h4>Thus, we applied the widely used sulfation inhibitor sodium chlorate to analyze the importance of normal sulfation levels for spinal cord neural precursor cell biology in vitro. Addition of sodium chlorate to spinal cord neural precursor cell cultures affected cell cycle progression accompanied by changed extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 or 2 activation levels. This resulted in a higher percentage of neurons already under proliferative conditions. In contrast, the relative number of glial cells was largely unaffected. Strikingly, both morphological and electrophysiological characterization of neural precursor cell-derived neurons demonstrated an attenuated neuronal maturation in the presence of sodium chlorate, including a disturbed neuronal polarization.<h4>Conclusions</h4>In summary, our data suggest that sulfation is an important regulator of both neural precursor cell proliferation and maturation of the neural precursor cell progeny in the developing mouse spinal cord.
Project description:Aims/Introduction:? Heparan sulfate (HS) mediates a variety of molecular recognition events that are essential for differentiation, morphogenesis and homeostasis through various HS forms that result from differential sulfate modification. Recently, we found that HS is localized exclusively around ?ß-cells in islets of adult mice and is required for insulin secretion. The aim of this study was to examine the contribution of HS sulfate groups to insulin secretion.? Glucose-induced insulin secretion (GIIS) was examined in mouse pancreatic islets, the mouse pancreatic ?-cell line MIN6 cells and its derivative MIN6T3 cells after removal of sulfate groups by sodium chlorate, a competitive inhibitor of glycosaminoglycan sulfation. Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was used for analyzing messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) expression of HS modification enzymes. Expression of HS 3-O-sulfotransferase isoform-1 (Hs3st1) was silenced and GIIS was examined.? Impaired insulin secretion by islets, MIN6 cells and MIN6T3 cells was observed after treatment with sodium chlorate. Sodium chlorate-treatment upregulated the mRNA expression of sulfotransferases expressed in MIN6T3 cells. Expression of the Hs3st1 was strongly upregulated by sodium chlorate-treatment, and its silencing by RNA interference reduced GIIS in MIN6T3 cells.? Our data suggest that the 3-O-sulfate group of HS that is modified by Hs3st1 plays a significant role(s) in the insulin secretory pathway, selectively through an interaction with factor(s) upstream of membrane depolarization in ?-cells. (J Diabetes Invest, doi: 10.1111/j.2040-1124.2012.00205.x, 2012).
Project description:The mouse hippocampal cell line HT22 is an excellent model for studying the consequences of endogenous oxidative stress. Addition of extracellular glutamate depletes the cells of glutathione (GSH) by blocking the glutamate-cystine antiporter system x(c)(-). GSH is the main antioxidant in neurons and its depletion induces a well-defined program of cell death called oxytosis, which is probably synonymous with the iron-dependent form of non-apoptotic cell death termed ferroptosis. Oxytosis is characterized by an increase of reactive oxygen species and a strong calcium influx preceding cell death. We found a significant reduction in store-operated calcium entry (SOCE) in glutamate-resistant HT22 cells caused by downregulation of the Ca(2+) channel ORAI1, but not the Ca(2+) sensors STIM1 or STIM2. Pharmacological inhibition of SOCE mimicked this protection similarly to knockdown of ORAI1 by small interfering RNAs. Long-term calcium live-cell imaging after induction of the cell death program showed a specific reduction in Ca(2+)-positive cells by ORAI1 knockdown. These results suggest that dysregulated Ca(2+) entry through ORAI1 mediates the detrimental Ca(2+) entry in programmed cell death induced by GSH depletion. As this detrimental Ca(2+) influx occurs late in the course of the cell death program, it might be amenable to therapeutic intervention in diseases caused by oxidative stress.
Project description:The hepatitis E virus (HEV), a nonenveloped RNA virus, is the causative agent of hepatitis E. The mode by which HEV attaches to and enters into target cells for productive infection remains unidentified. Open reading frame 2 (ORF2) of HEV encodes its major capsid protein, pORF2, which is likely to have the determinants for virus attachment and entry. Using an approximately 56-kDa recombinant pORF2 that can self-assemble as virus-like particles, we demonstrated that cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs), specifically syndecans, play a crucial role in the binding of pORF2 to Huh-7 liver cells. Removal of cell surface heparan sulfate by enzymatic (heparinase) or chemical (sodium chlorate) treatment of cells or competition with heparin, heparan sulfate, and their oversulfated derivatives caused a marked reduction in pORF2 binding to the cells. Syndecan-1 is the most abundant proteoglycan present on these cells and, hence, plays a key role in pORF2 binding. Specificity is likely to be dictated by well-defined sulfation patterns on syndecans. We show that pORF2 binds syndecans predominantly via 6-O sulfation, indicating that binding is not entirely due to random electrostatic interactions. Using an in vitro infection system, we also showed a marked reduction in HEV infection of heparinase-treated cells. Our results indicate that, analogous to some enveloped viruses, a nonenveloped virus like HEV may have also evolved to use HSPGs as cellular attachment receptors.
Project description:Extracellular membrane-bound and secreted heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) is known to be involved in cell motility and invasion. The mechanism of Hsp90 anchoring to the plasma membrane remains obscure. We showed that treatment of human glioblastoma A-172 and fibrosarcoma HT1080 cells with sodium chlorate, heparinase, and heparin causes a prominent loss of 2 Hsp90 cytosolic isoforms, Hsp90? and Hsp90?, from the cell surface and strongly inhibits the binding of exogenous Hsp90 to cells. We revealed that Hsp90? and Hsp90? are partly colocalized with heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) on the cell surface and that this colocalization was sensitive to heparin. The results demonstrate that cell surface HSPGs are involved in the binding/anchoring of Hsp90? and Hsp90? to the plasma membrane.
Project description:Ferroptosis is crucial to the pathology of many neurological diseases. Here, we found pre-treatment with myriocin, an inhibitor of <i>de novo</i> synthesis of sphingolipid, significantly decreased the erastin- or glutamate-induced ferroptosis of HT22 cells without requiring the recovery of intracellular glutathione. The transcriptome analysis of HT22 cells treated with or without myriocin identified the hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) pathway as a prime and novel drug target. Further study validated that HIF1α was required for the cytoprotective effects of myriocin. Myriocin treatment promoted the expression of HIF-1 pathway effectors including PDK1 and BNIP3 and altered the intracellular levels of glucose metabolites. Additionally, myriocin treatment stabilized HIF1α protein by decreasing its ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation. Similar effects of myriocin on HIF1α stabilization were also found in other mammalian cell lines indicating this is a common mechanism for the cytoprotective role of myriocin.
Project description:Glycosaminoglycan (GAG) side chains endow extracellular matrix proteoglycans with diversity and complexity based upon the length, composition and charge distribution of the polysaccharide chain. Using cultured primary neurons, we show that specific sulfation in the GAG chains of chondroitin sulfate mediates neuronal guidance cues and axonal growth inhibition. Chondroitin-4-sulfate (CS-A), but not chondroitin-6-sulfate (CS-C), exhibits a strong negative guidance cue to mouse cerebellar granule neurons. Enzymatic and gene-based manipulations of 4-sulfation in the GAG side chains alter their ability to direct growing axons. Furthermore, 4-sulfated chondroitin sulfate GAG chains are rapidly and significantly increased in regions that do not support axonal regeneration proximal to spinal cord lesions in mice. Thus, our findings show that specific sulfation along the carbohydrate backbone carries instructions to regulate neuronal function.