Enhancement of Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities of Salvia miltiorrhiza Roots Fermented with Aspergillus oryzae.
ABSTRACT: The roots of Salvia miltiorrhiza are known to exhibit antioxidant and antibacterial activities. To improve the antioxidant and antibacterial activities of S. miltiorrhiza roots, the roots were fermented with Aspergillus oryzae at 25 °C for 3 weeks. The non-fermented (SME) and fermented (SMBE) roots of S. miltiorrhiza were extracted with 70% ethanol, respectively, and then fractionated with organic solvents. By fermentation, total phenolic and flavonoid contents, as well as antioxidant activity of SMBE, were increased by about 1.2 to 1.3 times compared with those of SME. The antibacterial activity of SMBE was also twice as high as that of SME. The antibacterial activity of SMBE against Bacillus cereus was lower in the n-hexane and chloroform fractions, but higher in the ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions, compared with those of SME. These results indicate that the bioactive components of S. miltiorrhiza roots exhibiting antibacterial activity were converted to more polar compounds by fermentation of A. oryzae. Gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and LC-MS analyses of SME and SMBE demonstrate that these changes are due to the acylation of dihydrofuran-2(3H)-one, dealkylation of 4-methylbenzene-1,2-diol and 4-ethylbenzene-1,2-diol, and esterification of hexadecanoic acid and (9Z, 12Z)-octadec-9,12-dienoic acid during fermentation.
Project description:Fermented vinegar is prepared from grains and medicinal plants. Here, we produced vinegar from peeled and unpeeled roots of bellflowers (Platycodon grandiflorum) using Acetobacter pasteurianus A11-2 and analyzed bellflower vinegar (BV) samples using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry over 15 days of fermentation to assess the quality. We also evaluated their antibacterial and immunoenhancing effects using RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. The major metabolites in BV are organic acids, with the main volatile compounds being ethyl acetate, isoamyl acetate, 1-pentanol, hydroxypropanoic acid, and malonic acid. When we fermented BV from unpeeled roots for 10 days with a starter culture, we observed significant antibacterial and immunoenhancing effects in macrophages. Therefore, we could determine the metabolite and functional differences in vinegar obtained from bellflower roots and proposed that bellflower roots with peel are an effective substrate for developing vinegar and healthy food products.
Project description:Rice koji, used early in the manufacturing process for many fermented foods, produces diverse metabolites and enzymes during fermentation. Using gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF-MS), ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography linear trap quadrupole ion trap tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-LTQ-IT-MS/MS), and multivariate analysis we generated the metabolite profiles of rice koji produced by fermentation with Aspergillus oryzae (RK_AO) or Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (RK_BA) for different durations. Two principal components of the metabolomic data distinguished the rice koji samples according to their fermenter species and fermentation time. Several enzymes secreted by the fermenter species, including ?-amylase, protease, and ?-glucosidase, were assayed to identify differences in expression levels. This approach revealed that carbohydrate metabolism, serine-derived amino acids, and fatty acids were associated with rice koji fermentation by A. oryzae, whereas aromatic and branched chain amino acids, flavonoids, and lysophospholipids were more typical in rice koji fermentation by B. amyloliquefaciens. Antioxidant activity was significantly higher for RK_BA than for RK_AO, as were the abundances of flavonoids, including tricin, tricin glycosides, apigenin glycosides, and chrysoeriol glycosides. In summary, we have used MS-based metabolomics and enzyme activity assays to evaluate the effects of using different microbial species and fermentation times on the nutritional profile of rice koji.
Project description:Antioxidant phenolic compounds (PCs) are gaining popularity day by day for their health promoting properties. Wheat is a very good source of natural antioxidant PCs. In the present study, extraction of PCs was improved by solid-state fermentation (SSF) of wheat by Rhizopus oryzae RCK2012 which helped to release the bound compounds from matrix. Different extraction conditions such as solvent composition (water, methanol, 70% methanol, ethanol, 70% ethanol, acetone and 70% acetone), extraction temperature (30-60 °C), extraction time (15-90 min) and solid-to-solvent ratio (1:2.5 to 1:20, w/v) have been optimized for the extraction of PCs from R. oryzae fermented wheat. Maximum PCs were extracted by water at 40 °C within 45 min with solid-to-solvent ratio of 1:15 (w/v). Compositional analysis of PCs was carried out by UPLC and TLC. Improved ABTS•+ [2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)] and DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl), hydroxyl radical and hydrogen peroxide scavenging capacities, ferric reducing property and in vivo antioxidant capacity using Saccharomyces cerevisiae were observed in case of freeze-dried water extract of fermented wheat as compared to unfermented sample. Hence, SSF could be a promising technology to enhance the production and extraction of phenolic compounds for the design of different functional foods and for the specific use as nutraceuticals.
Project description:This study aimed to control characteristics of fermented rice products by using functional fungi and yeasts isolated from traditional rice cake starters in Thailand. Amylolytic fungi, amylolytic yeasts, alcoholic yeasts and aromatic yeasts were isolated from rice cake starters through different isolation protocols. Among the protocols tested, the enrichment in rice cake fermentation prior to isolation was the most suitable protocol for isolation of amylolytic fungi from all rice cake starters. While the enrichment in submerged fermentation prior to isolation could increase the numbers of yeast isolates. The selected amylolytic fungus and amylolytic yeast were identified as Rhizopus oryzae F63S and Saccharomycopsis fibuligera Y71R, respectively. The yeast with high production of ethanol and aromatic ester was identified as Pichia anomala Y11E. Fermented rice cakes with different characteristics were prepared using various combinations of fungi and yeast. The combination of R. oryzae F63S with S. fibuligera Y71R exhibited strong amylolytic activity and produced an extra sweet fermented rice cake. While the combination of R. oryzae F63S with P. anomala Y11E showed higher alcoholic and aromatic flavors. Moreover, the pure yeast P. anomala Y11E added with commercial amylase has been proven as an innovative starter for fast fermentation. This concept may contribute greatly to the further development of fermented food with desired properties at industrial level.
Project description:Seeds of Pinus halepensis are used for preparing zgougou, a spontaneously fermented matrix giving juice and seeds debris, consumed in many Arabian countries, including Tunisia. In the same way as all the food processes based on spontaneous fermentation, zgougou hides health risks due to eventual pathogenic microorganisms and derived toxins. This study aimed at investigating the effect of the use of autochthonous Lactobacillus paraplantarum A1 and Lactobacillus plantarum A2, as fermentation starters, on the microbiological characteristics, profiles of volatile organic compounds (VOC), antibacterial and antioxidant activities of juice and seeds debris from zgougou. The starter lactobacilli inhibited undesired bacteria (e.g., Enterobacter and Aeromonas) and coccus-shaped lactic acid bacteria, as shown by culture-dependent and-independent methods. The inhibitory effect was more evident in juice than in seeds debris. Some VOC (ethanol, acetoin, phenol,2-methoxy and caryophyllene) were present at higher concentrations in juice and seeds obtained upon spontaneous fermentation, compared to the samples deriving from fermentation with lactobacilli. The latter samples were characterized by higher concentrations of acetic acid, decane, 1-nonanol, bornyl acetate and bornyl formate. In addition, they showed a wider spectrum of antibacterial activity than spontaneously fermented juice and seeds. The use of autochthonous lactobacilli did not relevantly affect the antioxidant activity of zgougou. When juice from lactobacilli-driven fermentation was used to prepare a traditional Tunisian pudding ("Assidat-Zgougou"), it improved color and odor with respect to the pudding containing juice from spontaneous fermentation. This study showed that the use, at laboratory scale, of autochthonous lactobacilli is a feasible biotechnological tool to outgrow undesired bacteria, thus improving the safety of zgougou juice. Future studies should be undertaken to confirm the observed benefits at industrial scale.
Project description:The present study examined the effect of Lactobacillus plantarum ATCC14917 fermentation on the chemical composition and antioxidant activity of apple juice. Apple juice was fermented and examined of its antioxidant activity using chemical models and cellular antioxidant assay. Furthermore, the chemical composition of fermented apple juice was characterized by LC-MS/MS. Lactobacillus plantarum ATCC14917 fermentation showed an increase in DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activity as well as cellular antioxidant activity of apple juice. However, fermentation decreased the total phenolic and flavonoid content. Subsequent LC-MS/MS analysis of the phenolic profile indicated that the content of 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid (5-CQA), quercetin, and phloretin with strong antioxidant activity was increased significantly after fermentation. The modified phenolic composition may contribute to the increased antioxidant activity of fermented apple juice. Our findings showed that Lactobacillus plantarum ATCC14917 fermentation may be an efficient way to enhance the bioavailability of phenolic compounds and to protect cells from oxidative stress.
Project description:In the manufacture of sake, Japanese traditional rice wine, sake yeast is fermented with koji, which is steamed rice fermented with the non-pathogenic fungus Aspergillus oryzae. During fermentation, sake yeast requires lipids, such as unsaturated fatty acids and sterols, in addition to substances provided by koji enzymes for fermentation. However, the role of sphingolipids on the brewing characteristics of sake yeast has not been studied. In this study, we revealed that glycosylceramide, one of the sphingolipids abundant in koji, affects yeast fermentation. The addition of soy, A. oryzae, and Grifola frondosa glycosylceramide conferred a similar effect on the flavor profiles of sake yeast. In particular, the addition of A. oryzae and G. frondosa glycosylceramide were very similar in terms of the decreases in ethyl caprylate and ethyl 9-decenoate. The addition of soy glycosylceramide induced metabolic changes to sake yeast such as a decrease in glucose, increases in ethanol and glycerol and changes in several amino acids and organic acids concentrations. Tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, pyruvate metabolism, starch and sucrose metabolism, and glycerolipid metabolism were overrepresented in the cultures incubated with sake yeast and soy glycosylceramide. This is the first study of the effect of glycosylceramide on the flavor and metabolic profile of sake yeast.
Project description:Shenqu is a fermented product that is widely used in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) to treat indigestion; however, the microbial strains in the fermentation process are still unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate microbial diversity in Shenqu using different fermentation time periods. DGGE (polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis) profiles indicated that a strain of Pediococcus acidilactici (band 9) is the predominant bacteria during fermentation and that the predominant fungi were uncultured Rhizopus, Aspergillus oryzae, and Rhizopus oryzae. In addition, pathogenic bacteria, such as Enterobacter cloacae, Klebsiella oxytoca, Erwinia billingiae, and Pantoea vagan were detected in Shenqu. DGGE analysis showed that bacterial and fungal diversity declined over the course of fermentation. This determination of the predominant bacterial and fungal strains responsible for fermentation may contribute to further Shenqu research, such as optimization of the fermentation process.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Extracts and products (roots and/or aerial parts) from Echinacea ssp. represent a profitable market sector for herbal medicines thanks to different functional features. Alkamides and polyacetylenes, phenols like caffeic acid and its derivatives, polysaccharides and glycoproteins are the main bioactive compounds of Echinacea spp. This study aimed at investigating the capacity of selected lactic acid bacteria to enhance the antimicrobial, antioxidant and immune-modulatory features of E. purpurea with the prospect of its application as functional food, dietary supplement or pharmaceutical preparation. RESULTS: Echinacea purpurea suspension (5%, wt/vol) in distilled water, containing 0.4% (wt/vol) yeast extract, was fermented with Lactobacillus plantarum POM1, 1MR20 or C2, previously selected from plant materials. Chemically acidified suspension, without bacterial inoculum, was used as the control to investigate functional features. Echinacea suspension fermented with Lb. plantarum C2 exhibited a marked antimicrobial activity towards Gram-positive and -negative bacteria. Compared to control, the water-soluble extract from Echinacea suspension fermented with Lactobacillus plantarum 1MR20 showed twice time higher radical scavenging activity on DPPH. Almost the same was found for the inhibition of oleic acid peroxidation. The methanol extract from Echinacea suspension had inherent antioxidant features but the activity of extract from the sample fermented with strain 1MR20 was the highest. The antioxidant activities were confirmed on Balb 3T3 mouse fibroblasts. Lactobacillus plantarum C2 and 1MR20 were used in association to ferment Echinacea suspension, and the water-soluble extract was subjected to ultra-filtration and purification through RP-FPLC. The antioxidant activity was distributed in a large number of fractions and proportional to the peptide concentration. The antimicrobial activity was detected only in one fraction, further subjected to nano-LC-ESI-MS/MS. A mixture of eight peptides was identified, corresponding to fragments of plantaricins PlnH or PlnG. Treatments with fermented Echinacea suspension exerted immune-modulatory effects on Caco-2 cells. The fermentation with Lb. plantarum 1MR20 or with the association between strains C2 and 1MR20 had the highest effect on the expression of TNF-? gene. CONCLUSIONS: E. purpurea subjected to lactic acid fermentation could be suitable for novel applications as functional food dietary supplements or pharmaceutical preparations.
Project description:Aspergillus oryzae has been commonly used to make koji, meju, and soy sauce in traditional food fermentation industries. However, the metabolic behaviors of A. oryzae during fermentation in various culture environments are largely uncharacterized. Thus, we performed time resolved (0, 4, 8, 12, 16 day) secondary metabolite profiling for A. oryzae KCCM 12698 cultivated on malt extract agar and broth (MEA and MEB) under solid-state fermentation (SSF) and submerged fermentation (SmF) conditions using the ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-linear trap quadrupole-ion trap-mass spectrometry (UHPLC-LTQ-IT-MS/MS) followed by multivariate analyses. We observed the relatively higher proportions of coumarins and oxylipins in SSF, whereas the terpenoids were abundant in SmF. Moreover, we investigated the antimicrobial efficacy of metabolites that were extracted from SSF and SmF. The SSF extracts showed higher antimicrobial activities as compared to SmF, with higher production rates of bioactive secondary metabolites viz., ketone-citreoisocoumarin, pentahydroxy-anthraquinone, hexylitaconic acid, oxylipins, and saturated fatty acids. The current study provides the underpinnings of a metabolomic framework regarding the growth and bioactive compound production for A. oryzae under the primarily employed industrial cultivation states. Furthermore, the study holds the potentials for rapid screening and MS-characterization of metabolites helpful in determining the consumer safety implications of fermented foods involving Koji mold.