Transport of Ca2+ and Ca2+-Dependent Permeability Transition in the Liver and Heart Mitochondria of Rats with Different Tolerance to Acute Hypoxia.
ABSTRACT: The work examines the kinetic parameters of Ca2+ uptake via the mitochondrial calcium uniporter complex (MCUC) and the opening of the Ca2+-dependent permeability transition pore (MPT pore) in the liver and heart mitochondria of rats with high resistance (HR) and low resistance (LR) to acute hypoxia. We found that the rate of Ca2+ uptake by mitochondria of the liver and heart in HR rats is higher than that in LR rats, which is associated with a higher level of the channel-forming subunit MCU in liver mitochondria of HR rats and a lower content of the dominant-negative channel subunit MCUb in heart mitochondria of HR rats. It was shown that the liver mitochondria of HR rats are more resistant to the induction of the MPT pore than those of LR rats (the calcium retention capacity of liver mitochondria of HR rats was found to be 1.3 times greater than that of LR rats). These data correlate with the fact that the level of F0F1-ATP synthase, a possible structural element of the MPT pore, in the liver mitochondria of HR rats is lower than in LR rats. In heart mitochondria of rats of the two phenotypes, no statistically significant difference in the formation of the MPT pore was revealed. The paper discusses how changes in the expression of the MCUC subunits and the putative components of the MPT pore can affect Ca2+ homeostasis of mitochondria in animals with originally different tolerance to hypoxia and in hypoxia-induced tissue injury.
Project description:Mitochondrial Ca2+ elevations enhance ATP production, but uptake must be balanced by efflux to avoid overload. Uptake is mediated by the mitochondrial Ca2+ uniporter channel complex (MCUC), and extrusion is controlled largely by the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger (NCLX), both driven electrogenically by the inner membrane potential (??m). MCUC forms hotspots at the cardiac mitochondria-junctional SR (jSR) association to locally receive Ca2+ signals; however, the distribution of NCLX is unknown. Our fractionation-based assays reveal that extensively jSR-associated mitochondrial segments contain a minor portion of NCLX and lack Na+-dependent Ca2+ extrusion. This pattern is retained upon in vivo NCLX overexpression, suggesting extensive targeting to non-jSR-associated submitochondrial domains and functional relevance. In cells with non-polarized MCUC distribution, upon NCLX overexpression the same given increase in matrix Ca2+ expends more ??m. Thus, cardiac mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake and extrusion are reciprocally polarized, likely to optimize the energy efficiency of local calcium signaling in the beating heart.
Project description:Mitochondria are involved in a variety of physiological and pathological processes. Ca2+ uptake is one of the important functions of the organelle for maintenance of cellular Ca2+ homeostasis. In pathological conditions such as ischemia reperfusion injury, Ca2+ overload into mitochondria induces mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT), a critical step for cell death. Because inhibition of MPT is a promising approach to protecting cells and organs, it is important for drug discovery to identify novel chemicals or mechanisms to inhibit MPT. Here we report upon a small-molecule compound DS44170716 that inhibits Ca2+-induced MPT in rat liver isolated mitochondria. DS44170716 protects human liver HepG2 cells from Ca2+-induced death with a level of protection similar to cyclosporin A (CsA). The inhibitory mechanism of DS44170716 against MPT is independent on PPIF, a target of CsA. DS44170716 blocks Ca2+ flux into the mitochondria by decreasing mitochondrial membrane potential, while potently inhibiting mitochondrial complex III activities and weakly inhibiting complex IV and V activities. Similarly, complex III inhibitor antimycin A, complex IV inhibitor KCN or complex V inhibitor oligomycin inhibits Ca2+ uptake of isolated mitochondria. These results show that DS44170716 is a novel class inhibitor of MPT by blocking of mitochondrial complexes and Ca2+-overload into mitochondria.
Project description:The mitochondrial calcium uniporter complex (MCUC) is a highly selective channel that conducts calcium ions across the organelle inner membrane. We previously characterized Trypanosoma brucei's MCU (TbMCU) as an essential component of the MCUC required for parasite viability and infectivity. In this study, we characterize its paralog T. brucei MCUb (TbMCUb) and report the identification of two novel components of the complex that we named TbMCUc and TbMCUd. These new MCUC proteins are unique and conserved only in trypanosomatids. In situ tagging and immunofluorescence microscopy revealed that they colocalize with TbMCU and TbMCUb to the mitochondria of T. brucei Blue Native PAGE and immunodetection analyses indicated that the MCUC proteins exist in a large protein complex with a molecular weight of approximately 380 kDa. RNA interference (RNAi) or overexpression of the TbMCUc and TbMCUd genes significantly reduced or enhanced mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake in T. brucei, respectively, without affecting the mitochondrial membrane potential, indicating that they are essential components of the MCUC of this parasite. The specific interactions of TbMCU with TbMCUb, TbMCUc, or TbMCUd were confirmed by coimmunoprecipitation and split-ubiquitin membrane-based yeast two-hybrid (MYTH) assays. Furthermore, combining mutagenesis analysis with MYTH assays revealed that transmembrane helices (TMHs) were determinant of the interactions between TbMCUC subunits. In summary, our study has identified two novel essential components of the MCUC of T. brucei and defined their direct physical interactions with the other subunits that result in a hetero-oligomeric MCUC.IMPORTANCETrypanosoma brucei causes human African trypanosomiasis and nagana in animals. The finding of a mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU) conserved in this parasite was essential for the discovery of the gene encoding the pore subunit. Mitochondrial Ca2+ transport mediated by the MUC complex is critical in Trypanosoma brucei for shaping the dynamics of cytosolic Ca2+ increases, for the bioenergetics of the cells, and for viability and infectivity. We found that one component of the complex (MCUb) does not act as a dominant negative effector of the channel as in vertebrate cells and that the TbMCUC possesses two unique subunits (MCUc and MCUd) present only in trypanosomatids and required for Ca2+ transport. The study of the interactions between these four subunits (MCU, MCUb, MCUc, and MCUd) by a variety of techniques that include coimmunoprecipitation, split-ubiquitin membrane-based yeast two-hybrid assays, and site-directed mutagenesis suggests that they interact through their transmembrane helices to form hetero-oligomers.
Project description:There is a known connection between selenium supplementation and chemo-protective anti-cancer activity. This biological phenomenon may be due to the ability of selenium to instigate cellular apoptosis. However, the mechanism by which selenium promotes cellular apoptosis is still obscure. The present study shows that sodium selenite, a common dietary form of selenium, promotes the mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) in isolated rat liver mitochondria both in vitro and following in vivo supplementation. A low selenium concentration (0.1-10 microM) strongly induced cyclosporin A-sensitive mitochondrial swelling. Selenium also promoted both calcium release from the matrix of isolated mitochondria and uncoupled respiration. The MPT-inducing effect of selenium provoked the release of cytochrome c, a pro-apoptotic factor, into the incubation medium. Selenium did not increase intra-mitochondrial peroxide production, but did consume endogenous mitochondrial glutathione. Moreover, the effect of MPT induction was greatly potentiated in the presence of thiol-bearing antioxidants, e.g. N -acetylcysteine and lipoamide. During MPT progression, selenium induced NADH oxidation via electron acceptance from complex I. Supplementation for 20 days with 16 p.p.m. selenium in the drinking water of rats increased the propensity of mitochondria to undergo the MPT. More marked mitochondrial swelling in response to calcium and lower calcium-uptake capacity were observed, in the absence of liver damage or the intensive oxidation of reduced glutathione. Therefore selenite facilitates MPT pore opening via its thiol- and NADH/complex I-dependent reduction, and thereby may provide chemo-protection by potentiation of the capacity of the mitochondria to regulate programmed cell death. Data from the present study suggest that selenium can regulate important mitochondrial functions both in vivo and in vitro.
Project description:Retention of bile acids within the liver is a primary factor in the pathogenesis of cholestatic liver disorders, which are more common in human infants. The objective of this study was to evaluate developmental changes in mitochondrial factors involved in bile acid-induced hepatocyte injury. Hepatic mitochondria from adult rats (aged 9 wk) underwent a mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) and release of cytochrome c upon exposure to glycochenodeoxycholic acid. In contrast, mitochondria from young rats (age 6-36 d) were resistant to MPT induction and cytochrome c release. Neither mitochondrial levels of MPT-associated proteins (voltage-dependent anion channel, cyclophilin D, or adenine nucleotide translocase), Bcl-2 family proteins, nor antioxidant enzymes explained this resistance. Mitochondria from young rats contained 2- to 3-fold higher alpha-tocopherol (alpha-TH). In vivo alpha-TH enrichment of adult hepatic mitochondria increased their MPT resistance. Tetra-linoleoyl cardiolipin (TL-CL), the primary molecular species of CL, was reduced in mitochondria of the young rat; however, enrichment with CL and TL-CL only modestly increased their MPT susceptibility. In conclusion, we observed an unexpected resistance in young rats to bile acid induction of mitochondrial cell death pathways, which may be related to developmental differences in membrane composition.
Project description:Vascular hyporeactivity is one of the major causes responsible for refractory hypotension and associated mortality in severe hemorrhagic shock. Mitochondrial permeability transition (mPT) pore opening in arteriolar smooth muscle cells (ASMCs) is involved in the pathogenesis of vascular hyporeactivity. However, the molecular mechanism underlying mitochondrial injury in ASMCs during hemorrhagic shock is not well understood. Here we produced an in vivo model of severe hemorrhagic shock in adult Wistar rats. We found that sirtuin (SIRT)1/3 protein levels and deacetylase activities were decreased in ASMCs following severe shock. Immunofluorescence staining confirmed reduced levels of SIRT1 in the nucleus and SIRT3 in the mitochondria, respectively. Acetylation of cyclophilin D (CyPD), a component of mPT pore, was increased. SIRT1 activators suppressed mPT pore opening and ameliorated mitochondrial injury in ASMCs after severe shock. Furthermore, administration of SIRT1 activators improved vasoreactivity in rats under severe shock. Our data suggest that epigenetic mechanisms, namely histone post-translational modifications, are involved in regulation of mPT by SIRT1/SIRT3- mediated deacetylation of CyPD. SIRT1/3 is a promising therapeutic target for the treatment of severe hemorrhagic shock.
Project description:1. Langendorff-perfused rat hearts were treated, either alone or in combination, with acetate, adrenaline or supraphysiological [Ca2+] to mimic increased workload. No significant increases in the PPi content of the freeze-clamped tissue were observed. 2. In contrast with liver mitochondria, isolated rat heart mitochondria incubated at a free [Mg2+] of 1.5 mM showed little or no increase in matrix PPi content or volume in the presence of 0.75 microM Ca2+; neither did 5 mM acetate cause heart mitochondrial PPi to increase. 3. At 0.1 mM Mg2+ some increase in matrix PPi content of heart mitochondria was observed, and increases in liver mitochondria were significantly greater. 4. Substantial increases in heart mitochondrial-matrix PPi content were observed at 1.5 mM Mg2+ when [Ca2+] > 1 microM, especially in the presence of acetate, or at 0.75 microM Ca2+ in the presence of bongkrekic acid to inhibit the adenine nucleotide translocase. 5. Total pyrophosphatase activity was similar in heart and liver mitochondrial matrix extract and toluene-permeabilized mitochondria. 6. These data suggest that under physiological conditions Ca2+ does not regulate heart mitochondrial [PPi], because higher matrix [Mg2+] overcomes the inhibition of pyrophosphatase by Ca2+, and also significant loss of PPi from the matrix on the adenine nucleotide translocase may occur. 7. It is concluded that, in contrast with the situation in liver [Halestrap (1989) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 973, 355-382], Ca(2+)-induced PPi-mediated increases in mitochondrial volume are unlikely to play a physiological role in the heart. 8. The substantial swelling of liver and kidney mitochondria caused by addition of supraphysiological [Ca2+] (20 nmol/mg of protein) was associated with significant increases in PPi content, but was not observed in heart mitochondria. 9. This substantiates the role that we have proposed for PPi in the opening of a non-specific pore by Ca2+ overload of mitochondria [Halestrap and Davidson (1990) Biochem. J. 268, 153-160].
Project description:1. Isolated rat liver and heart mitochondria incubated in 150 mM-KSCN or sucrose medium in the presence of respiratory-chain inhibitors showed a large increase in swelling when exposed to 250 microM-Ca2+. Swelling was inhibited by bongkrekic acid and cyclosporin A in both media and by ADP in KSCN medium; the effect of ADP was reversed by carboxyatractyloside. These results demonstrate that this is a suitable technique with which to study the opening of the Ca2(+)-induced non-specific pore of the mitochondrial inner membrane and implicate the adenine nucleotide carrier in this process. 2. Titration of the rate of swelling with increasing concentrations of cyclosporin showed the number of cyclosporin-binding sites (+/- S.E.M.) in liver and heart mitochondria to be respectively 113.7 +/- 5.0 (n = 9) and 124.3 +/- 11.2 (n = 10) pmol/mg of protein, with a Ki of about 5 nM. 3. Liver and heart mitochondrial-matrix fractions were prepared free of membrane and cytosolic contamination and shown to contain cyclosporin-sensitive peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase (cyclophilin) activity. Titration of isomerase activity with cyclosporin gave values (+/- S.E.M.) of 110.6 +/- 10.1 (n = 5) and 165.4 +/- 15.0 (n = 3) pmol of enzyme/mg of liver and heart mitochondrial protein respectively, with a Ki of 2.5 nM. The similarity of these results to those from the swelling experiments suggest that the isomerase may be involved in the Ca2(+)-induced swelling. 4. The rapid light-scattering change induced in energized heart mitochondria exposed to submicromolar Ca2+ [Halestrap (1987) Biochem. J. 244, 159-164] was inhibited by ADP and bongkrekic acid, the former effect being reversed by carboxyatractyloside. These results suggest an interaction of Ca2+ with the adenine nucleotide carrier when the 'c' conformation. 5. A model is proposed in which mitochondrial peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase interacts with the adenine nucleotide carrier in the presence of Ca2+ to cause non-specific pore opening. The model also explains the involvement of the adenine nucleotide translocase in the PPi-mediated cyclosporin-insensitive increase in K+ permeability described in the preceding paper [Davidson & Halestrap (1990) Biochem. J. 268, 147-152]. 6. The physiological and pathological implications of the model are discussed in relation to reperfusion injury and cyclosporin toxicity.
Project description:1. Two processes of Ruthenium Red-insensitive Ca2+ efflux exist in liver and in heart mitochondria: one Na+-independent, and another Na+-dependent. The processes attain maximal rates of 1.4 and 3.0 nmol of Ca2+.min-1.mg-1 for the Na+-dependent and 1.2 and 2.0 nmol of Ca2+.min-1.mg-1 for the Na+-independent, in liver and heart mitochondria, respectively. 2. The Na+-dependent pathway is inhibited, both in heart and in liver mitochondria, by the Ca2+ antagonist diltiazem with a Ki of 4 microM. The Na+-independent pathway is inhibited by diltiazem with a Ki of 250 microM in liver mitochondria, while it behaves as almost insensitive to diltiazem in heart mitochondria. 3. Stretching of the mitochondrial inner membrane in hypo-osmotic media results in activation of the Na+-independent pathway both in liver and in heart mitochondria. 4. Both in heart and liver mitochondria the Na+-independent pathway is insensitive to variations of medium pH around physiological values, while the Na+-dependent pathway is markedly stimulated parallel with acidification of the medium. The pH-activated, Na+-dependent pathway maintains the diltiazem sensitivity. 5. In heart mitochondria, the Na+-dependent pathway is non-competitively inhibited by Mg2+ with a Ki of 0.27 mM, while the Na+-independent pathway is less affected; similarly, in liver mitochondria Mg2+ inhibits the Na+-dependent pathway more than it does the Na+-independent pathway. In the presence of physiological concentrations of Na+, Ca2+ and Mg2+, the Na+-independent and the Na+-dependent pathways operate at rates, respectively, of 0.5 and 1.0 nmol of Ca2+.min-1.mg-1 in heart mitochondria and 0.9 and 0.2 nmol of Ca2+.min-1.mg-1 in liver mitochondria. It is concluded that both heart and liver mitochondria possess two independent pathways for Ca2+ efflux operating at comparable rates.
Project description:The permeability properties of a putative Ca2(+)-activated pore in heart mitochondria, of possible relevance to re-perfusion-induced injury, have been investigated by a pulsed-flow solute-entrapment technique. The relative permeabilities of [14C]mannitol, [14C]sucrose and arsenazo III are consistent with permeation via a pore of about 2.3 nm diameter. Ca2+ removal with EGTA induced pore closure, and the mitochondria became 'resealed'. The permeability of the unresealed mitochondria during resealing was markedly stimulated by 200 microM-ADP, and the relative permeabilities to solutes of different size were stimulated equally, indicating an increase in open-pore number, rather than an increase in pore dimensions. This is paradoxical, since ADP also stimulated the rate of resealing. The rate of EGTA-induced resealing was also stimulated by the Ca2+ ionophore A23187, which indicates that the rate of removal of matrix free Ca2+ is limiting for pore closure. An explanation for the paradox is suggested in which ADP facilitates pore interconversion between the closed and open states in permeabilized mitochondria, and pore closure in Ca2(+)-free mitochondria occurs much faster than previously thought.