Rosmarinus officinalis Essential Oil Improves Scopolamine-Induced Neurobehavioral Changes via Restoration of Cholinergic Function and Brain Antioxidant Status in Zebrafish (Danio rerio).
ABSTRACT: Rosmarinus officinalis L. is a traditional herb with various therapeutic applications such as antibacterial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antidepressant, and anticholinesterase activities, and can be used for the prevention or treatment of dementia. In the present study, we tested whether Rosmarinus officinalis L. could counteract scopolamine-induced anxiety, dementia, and brain oxidative stress in the zebrafish model and tried to find the underlying mechanism. Rosmarinus officinalis L. essential oil (REO: 25, 150, and 300 µL/L) was administered by immersion to zebrafish (Danio rerio) once daily for eight days while scopolamine (100 µM) treatment was delivered 30 min before behavioral tests. The antidepressant and cognitive-enhancing actions of the essential oil in the scopolamine zebrafish model was measured in the novel tank diving test (NTT) and Y-maze test. The chemical composition was identified by Gas chromatograph-Mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. The brain oxidative status and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity was also determined. REO reversed scopolamine-induced anxiety, memory impairment, and brain oxidative stress. In addition, a reduced brain AChE activity following the administration of REO in scopolamine-treated fish was observed. In conclusion, REO exerted antidepressant-like effect and cognitive-enhancing action and was able to abolish AChE alteration and brain oxidative stress induced by scopolamine.
Project description:Thymus vulgaris L. is an aromatic herb used for medicinal purposes such as antimicrobial, spasmolytic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, antitumor, and may have beneficial effects in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. The present study aimed to investigate whether Thymus vulgaris L. essential oil enhances cognitive function via the action on cholinergic neurons using scopolamine (Sco)-induced zebrafish (Danio rerio) model of memory impairments. Thymus vulgaris L. essential oil (TEO, 25, 150, and 300 µL/L) was administered by immersion to zebrafish once daily for 13 days, whereas memory impairment was induced by Sco (100 ?M), a muscarinic receptor antagonist, delivered 30 min before behavioral tests. Spatial memory was assessed using the Y-maze test and novel object recognition test (NOR). Anxiety and depression were measured in the novel tank diving test (NTT). Gas Chromatograph-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis was used to study the phytochemical composition of TEO. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity and oxidative stress response in the brain of zebrafish were determined. TEO ameliorated Sco-induced increasing of AChE activity, amnesia, anxiety, and reduced the brain antioxidant capacity. These results suggest that TEO may have preventive and/or therapeutic potentials in the management of memory deficits and brain oxidative stress in zebrafish with amnesia.
Project description:Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors represent a major class of drugs which provide symptomatic relief and improvement in cognitive function in Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this study, cubebin, a dibenzylbutyrolactone lignan, was isolated from Piper cubeba and investigated for its AChE inhibitory activity in an attempt to explore its potential for memory-enhancing activities in mice.Molecular docking of cubebin was carried out followed by in vitro AChE activity. Mice were treated with cubebin (25 & 50 mg/kg; i.p.), for three days and memory impairment was induced by scopolamine (3 mg/kg; i.p.). Memory function was evaluated by Morris water maze (MWM) test. Biochemical parameters of oxidative stress and cholinergic function were estimated in brain.Molecular docking study revealed that cubebin was well bound within the binding site of the AChE enzyme showing interactions such as π-π stacking and hydrogen bonding with residues present therein. Cubebin inhibited AChE enzyme in an in vitro assay with IC50value of 992 μM. Scopolamine administration caused a significant impairment of learning and memory in mice, as indicated by a marked decrease in MWM performance. Scopolamine administration also produced a significant enhancement of brain AChE activity and oxidative stress in mice brain. Pre-treatment of cubebin (25 and 50 mg/kg; i.p.) significantly prevented scopolamine-induced learning and memory deficits along with attenuation of scopolamine-induced rise in brain AChE activity and oxidative stress level.Cubebin showed promising protective activity in scopolamine-induced spatial memory impairment in mice. This could be attributed to its brain AChE inhibition and antioxidant activity.
Project description:The chemical composition of the essential oil from Salvia rosmarinus Spenn. collected in Calabrian Ionian (R1) and Tyrrhenian (R2) coast (Southern Italy) was examined by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Essential oils are mainly characterized by monoterpene hydrocarbons (39.32-40.70%) and oxygenated monoterpenes (36.08-39.47%). The 1,8-cineole, ?-pinene, camphor, and trans-caryophyllene are the most representative compounds. S. rosmarinus essential oils were investigated for their antioxidant activity by using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS), ferric reducing ability power (FRAP), and ?-carotene bleaching tests. Additionally, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) inhibitory activity assays were used to screen the neuroprotective effects of S. rosmarinus. R2 showed the highest antioxidant potential as confirmed by relative antioxidant capacity index (RACI) and exhibited a selective activity against AChE (half maximal inhibitory concentration, IC50, value of 41.86 ?g/mL). These results suggest S. rosmarinus essential oil as a potential source of bioactive compounds.
Project description:BACKGROUND:E. coccinae (SIMS) G. (Asteraceae) is an annual plant commonly found throughout the plain of the Central Africa and widely used in Cameroonian folk medicine for the treatment of fever and convulsions in children. We previously reported that the methanolic extract of this plant improved spatial memory. However no underlying mechanism was explored. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effects of the hydroalcoholic extract of Emilia coccinae on memory in scopolamine treated rats and to propose possible mechanisms of action. METHODS:Novel object recognition and Y-maze paradigm were used to test memory while oxidative profile, AChE and ACh level of the whole brain were assessed to outline the mechanism of nootropic activity of the extract. 200 and 400 mg/kg of the extract were chronically administrated during 14 consecutive days in separate groups of scopolamine intraperitoneal treated rats (1.5 mg/kg). RESULTS:The hydroalcoholic extract of Emilia coccinae (HEEC) at the dose of 200 mg/kg significantly improved the memory of rats and reversed the amnesia induced by scopolamine. In addition, we showed that this extract is decreasing the acetyl cholinesterase activity while also increasing the acetylcholine levels in the brain. HEEC (200 and 400 mg/kg) significantly increased antioxidant enzyme activities (SOD, GSH and CAT) and reduced lipid peroxidation (MDA level) in the rat whole brain homogenates. CONCLUSIONS:Taken together, our results suggested that the hydroalcoholic extract of Emilia coccinae ameliorated the cognitive dysfunction in scopolamine treated rats through the blockage of the oxidative effect of scopolamine and inhibition of AChE activity.
Project description:Mangosteen extracts (ME) contain high levels of polyphenolic compounds and antioxidant activity. Protective effects of ME against ?-amyloid peptide (A?), induced cytotoxicity have been reported. Here, we further studied the protective effects of ME against oxidative stress induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and demonstrated the protection against memory impairment in mice. The cytoprotective effects of ME were measured as cell viability and the reduction in ROS activity. In SK-N-SH cell cultures, 200 ?g/ml ME could partially antagonize the effects of 150 or 300 µM H2O2 on cell viability, ROS level and caspase-3 activity. At 200, 400 or 800 µg/ml, ME reduced AChE activity of SK-N-SH cells to about 60% of the control. In vivo study, Morris water maze and passive avoidance tests were used to assess the memory of the animals. ME, especially at 100 mg/kg body weight, could improve the animal's memory and also antagonize the effect of scopolamine on memory. The increase in ROS level and caspase-3 activity in the brain of scopolamine-treated mice were antagonized by the ME treatment. The study demonstrated cytoprotective effects of ME against H2O2 and PCB-52 toxicity and having AChE inhibitory effect in cell culture. ME treatment in mice could attenuate scopolamine-induced memory deficit and oxidative stress in brain.
Project description:Over recent years, utilization of green synthesized nanomaterials has been widely growing on human body because of its special properties. With the increasing acceptance of nanoparticle approach for various clinical treatments, the biosafety and toxicological effects on the vital organs such as central nervous system, have received more concern. Main focus of this study was to evaluate acute exposure of n-butanol fraction of Prosopis cineraria (L.) Druce hydroethanolic extract (BuPC) and green synthesized zinc oxide nanoparticles of BuPC (ZnOPC) on spatial cognition behavior, and to assess underlying mechanism by estimation of enzymatic antioxidative status along with acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in mice brain. Strongest in vitro antioxidant and AChE inhibitory activity exhibiting fraction, BuPC, was examined for inhibition kinetic study by Lineweaver-Burk and Dixon plots. BuPC was further used for fabrication ZnOPC and characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR), Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM), Energy Dispersive X ray (EDX), and Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) analysis. Old male swiss albino mice were randomly divided into seven groups and treated for 21 days. Subsequently spatial memory was determined by two behavioral models [Elevated plus maze (EPM) and Hebbs William maze (HWM)] and supernatant of brain homogenate was analyzed for enzymatic antioxidant level and AChE inhibitory activity. Zinc content of blood plasma and brain was estimated. Results showed prolonged transfer latency (TL) and time taken to reach reward chamber (TRC) by scopolamine was not ameliorated by the ZnOPC group, whereas BuPC group showed significant reduction in scopolamine induced increase in TL and TRC compared to control and scopolamine treated groups. ZnOPC alleviated enzymatic antioxidant activity and AChE as compared to donepezil and BuPC treated groups. Study concludes that ZnOPC attenuated spatial learning and memory by increase in oxidative stress and decrease in AChE activity at both dose levels. Our results suggest that BuPC exhibited a strong neuroprotective effect on cognitive deficit mice and it may be employed as a strong substance for the treatment of dementia whereas the green synthesized ZnOPC was not proficient to reverse the memory impairment induced by scopolamine.
Project description:For thousands of years, it has been widely believed that walnut is a kind of nut that has benefits for the human body. Walnut oil, accounting for about 70% of walnut, mainly consists of polyunsaturated fatty acids. To investigate the effect of walnut oil on memory impairment in mice, scopolamine (3 mg/kg body weight/d) was used to establish the animal model during Morris Water Maze (MWM) tests. Walnut oil was administrated orally at 10 mL/kg body weight/d for 8 consecutive weeks. The results showed that walnut oil treatment ameliorated the behavior of the memory-impaired mice in the MWM test. Additionally, walnut oil obviously inhibited acetylcholinesterase activity (1.26 ± 0.12 U/mg prot) (p = 0.013) and increased choline acetyltransferase activity (129.75 ± 6.76 U/mg tissue wet weight) in the brains of scopolamine-treated mice (p = 0.024), suggesting that walnut oil could prevent cholinergic function damage in mice brains. Furthermore, walnut oil remarkably prevented the decrease in total superoxide dismutase activity (93.30 ± 5.50 U/mg prot) (p = 0.006) and glutathione content (110.45 ± 17.70 mg/g prot) (p = 0.047) and the increase of malondialdehyde content (13.79 ± 0.96 nmol/mg prot) (p = 0.001) in the brain of scopolamine-treated mice, indicating that walnut oil could inhibit oxidative stress in the brain of mice. Furthermore, walnut oil prevented histological changes of neurons in hippocampal CA1 and CA3 regions induced by scopolamine. These findings indicate that walnut oil could prevent memory impairment in mice, which might be a potential way for the prevention of memory dysfunctions.
Project description:The present study investigated the capability of an essential oil mix (MO: 1% and 3%) in ameliorating amnesia and brain oxidative stress in a rat model of scopolamine (Sco) and tried to explore the underlying mechanism. The MO was administered by inhalation to rats once daily for 21 days, while Sco (0.7 mg/kg) treatment was delivered 30 min before behavioral tests. Donepezil (DP: 5 mg/kg) was used as a positive reference drug. The cognitive-enhancing effects of the MO in the Sco rat model were assessed in the Y-maze, radial arm maze (RAM), and novel object recognition (NOR) tests. As identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), the chemical composition of the MO is comprised by limonene (91.11%), followed by ?-terpinene (2.02%), ?-myrcene (1.92%), ?-pinene (1.76%), ?-pinene (1.01%), sabinene (0.67%), linalool (0.55%), cymene (0.53%), and valencene (0.43%). Molecular interactions of limonene as the major compound in MO with the active site of butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) was explored via molecular docking experiments, and Van der Waals (vdW) contacts were observed between limonene and the active site residues SER198, HIS438, LEU286, VAL288, and PHE329. The brain oxidative status and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and BChE inhibitory activities were also determined. MO reversed Sco-induced memory deficits and brain oxidative stress, along with cholinesterase inhibitory effects, which is an important mechanism in the anti-amnesia effect. Our present findings suggest that MO ameliorated memory impairment induced by Sco via restoration of the cholinergic system activity and brain antioxidant status.
Project description:Even though technologies involving nano/microparticles have great potential, it is crucial to determine possible toxicity of these technological products before extensive use. Fullerenes C60 are nanomaterials with unique physicochemical and biological properties that are important for the development of many technological applications. The aim of this study was to evaluate the consequences of nonphotoexcited fullerene C60 exposure in brain acetylcholinesterase expression and activity, antioxidant responses, and oxidative damage using adult zebrafish as an animal model. None of the doses tested (7.5, 15, and 30?mg/kg) altered AChE activity, antioxidant responses, and oxidative damage when zebrafish were exposed to nonphotoexcited C60 nano/microparticles during 6 and 12 hours. However, adult zebrafish exposed to the 30?mg/kg dose for 24 hours have shown enhanced AChE activity and augmented lipid peroxidation (TBARS assays) in brain. In addition, the up-regulation of brain AChE activity was neither related to the transcriptional control (RT-qPCR analysis) nor to the direct action of nonphotoexcited C60 nano/microparticles on the protein (in vitro results) but probably involved a posttranscriptional or posttranslational modulation of this enzymatic activity. Taken together these findings provided further evidence of toxic effects on brain after C60 exposure.
Project description:Fucoxanthin, a natural carotenoid abundant in edible brown seaweeds, has been shown to possess anti-cancer, anti-oxidant, anti-obesity and anti-diabetic effects. In this study, we report for the first time that fucoxanthin effectively protects against scopolamine-induced cognitive impairments in mice. In addition, fucoxanthin significantly reversed the scopolamine-induced increase of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity and decreased both choline acetyltransferase activity and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression. Using an in vitro AChE activity assay, we discovered that fucoxanthin directly inhibits AChE with an IC50 value of 81.2 ?M. Molecular docking analysis suggests that fucoxanthin likely interacts with the peripheral anionic site within AChE, which is in accordance with enzymatic activity results showing that fucoxanthin inhibits AChE in a non-competitive manner. Based on our current findings, we anticipate that fucoxanthin might exhibit great therapeutic efficacy for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease by acting on multiple targets, including inhibiting AChE and increasing BDNF expression.