Biodegradability of Dental Care Antimicrobial Agents Chlorhexidine and Octenidine by Ligninolytic Fungi.
ABSTRACT: Chlorhexidine (CHX) and octenidine (OCT), antimicrobial compounds used in oral care products (toothpastes and mouthwashes), were recently revealed to interfere with human sex hormone receptor pathways. Experiments employing model organisms-white-rot fungi Irpex lacteus and Pleurotus ostreatus-were carried out in order to investigate the biodegradability of these endocrine-disrupting compounds and the capability of the fungi and their extracellular enzyme apparatuses to biodegrade CHX and OCT. Up to 70% ± 6% of CHX was eliminated in comparison with a heat-killed control after 21 days of in vivo incubation. An additional in vitro experiment confirmed manganese-dependent peroxidase and laccase are partially responsible for the removal of CHX. Up to 48% ± 7% of OCT was removed in the same in vivo experiment, but the strong sorption of OCT on fungal biomass prevented a clear evaluation of the involvement of the fungi or extracellular enzymes. On the other hand, metabolites indicating the enzymatic transformation of both CHX and OCT were detected and their chemical structures were proposed by means of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Complete biodegradation by the ligninolytic fungi was not achieved for any of the studied analytes, which emphasizes their recalcitrant character with low possibility to be removed from the environment.
Project description:Bacterial adaptation to antiseptic selective pressure might be associated with decreased susceptibility to antibiotics. In Gram-negative bacteria, some correlations between reduced susceptibility to chlorhexidine (CHX) and polymyxins have been recently evidenced in <i>Klebsiella pneumoniae</i>. In the present study, four isolates belonging to distinct enterobacterial species, namely <i>K. pneumoniae</i>, <i>Escherichia coli</i>, <i>Klebsiella oxytoca</i> and <i>Enterobacter cloacae</i>, were submitted to in-vitro selective adaptation to two antiseptics, namely CHX and octenidine (OCT), and to the antibiotic colistin (COL). Using COL as selective agent, mutants showing high MICs for that molecule were recovered for <i>E. cloacae</i>, <i>K. pneumoniae</i> and <i>K. oxytoca</i>, exhibiting a moderate decreased susceptibility to CHX, whereas OCT susceptibility remained unchanged. Using CHX as selective agent, mutants with high MICs for that molecule were recovered for all four species, with a cross-resistance observed for COL, while OCT susceptibility remained unaffected. Finally, selection of mutants using OCT as selective molecule allowed recovery of <i>K. pneumoniae</i>, <i>K. oxytoca</i> and <i>E. cloacae</i> strains showing only slightly increased MICs for that molecule, without any cross-elevated MICs for the two other molecules tested. No <i>E. coli</i> mutant with reduced susceptibility to OCT could be obtained. It was therefore demonstrated that in-vitro mutants with decreased susceptibility to CHX and COL may be selected in <i>E. coli</i>, <i>K. pneumoniae</i>, <i>K. oxytoca</i> and <i>E. cloacae</i>, showing cross-decreased susceptibility to COL and CHX, but no significant impact on OCT efficacy. On the other hand, mutants were difficult to obtain with OCT, being obtained for <i>K. pneumoniae</i> and <i>E. cloacae</i> only, showing only very limited decreased susceptibility in those cases, and with no cross effect on other molecules. Whole genome sequencing enabled deciphering of the molecular basis of adaptation of these isolates under the respective selective pressures, with efflux pumps or lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis being the main mechanisms of adaptation.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>Octenidine dihydrochloride is an antimicrobial cationic surfactant compound. We conducted a systematic review to determine the efficacy of octenidine-based mouthwash on plaque formation, gingivitis, and oral microbial growth in subjects with or without periodontal disease.<h4>Materials and methods</h4>PubMed/MEDLINE, ScienceDirect, Google Scholar, and Cochrane Library were searched for relevant studies. The review was conducted per PRISMA guidelines. Only randomized controlled trials and observational studies comparing octenidine with placebo or other mouthwashes in healthy subjects with or without periodontal disease, were considered for this review. The endpoints included percentage reduction in plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), absolute reduction in the mean number of colony-forming units (CFU/ml [log<sub>10</sub> ]) and adverse effects (AEs; tooth staining/mucosal tolerance).<h4>Results</h4>Ten randomized controlled and six observational studies fulfilled the selection criteria. Twice or thrice daily rinsing with 0.1% octenidine for 30-60 s produced significant reduction in plaque, gingivitis and oral microbial growth. Compared to control mouthwash or baseline, 0.1% octenidine inhibited plaque formation by ~38.7%-92.9%, which was either equal or greater than that of chlorhexidine gluconate. 0.1% octenidine reduced gingivitis by ~36.4%-68.37% versus control mouthwash or baseline and microbial growth by 0.37-5.3 colony-forming units (vs. chlorhexidine: 0.4-4.23 colony-forming units). Additional benefits of 0.1% octenidine were significant reduction in the number of bleeding sites, papilla bleeding index, sulcus bleeding index, and gingival fluid flow.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Within the limitations of this study, there exists moderate evidence that 0.1% OCT was found to be an effective antiplaque agent. Octenidine inhibited plaque formation upto 93% and gingivitis upto 68% versus placebo and was either superior or comparable to chlorhexidine. Octenidine was well-tolerated and safe and can be an effective alternative to CHX and other contemporary mouthwashes.
Project description:<h4>Objectives</h4>To investigate plaque inhibition of 0.1% octenidine mouthwash (OCT) vs. placebo over 5 days in the absence of mechanical plaque control.<h4>Materials and methods</h4>For this randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel group, multi-center phase 3 study, 201 healthy adults were recruited. After baseline recording of plaque index (PI) and gingival index (GI), collection of salivary samples, and dental prophylaxis, subjects were randomly assigned to OCT or placebo mouthwash in a 3:1 ratio. Rinsing was performed twice daily for 30 s. Colony forming units in saliva were determined before and after the first rinse. At day 5, PI, GI, and tooth discoloration index (DI) were assessed. Non-parametric van Elteren tests were applied with a significance level of p < 0.05.<h4>Results</h4>Treatment with OCT inhibited plaque formation more than treatment with placebo (PI: 0.36 vs. 1.29; p < 0.0001). OCT reduced GI (0.04 vs. placebo 0.00; p = 0.003) and salivary bacterial counts (2.73 vs. placebo 0.24 lgCFU/ml; p < 0.0001). Tooth discoloration was slightly higher under OCT (DI: 0.25 vs. placebo 0.00; p = 0.0011). Mild tongue staining and dysgeusia occurred.<h4>Conclusions</h4>OCT 0.1% mouthwash inhibits plaque formation over 5 days. It therefore can be recommended when regular oral hygiene is temporarily compromised.<h4>Clinical relevance</h4>When individual plaque control is compromised, rinsing with octenidine mouthwash is recommended to maintain healthy oral conditions while side effects are limited.
Project description:Irpex lacteus is one of the most potent white rot fungi for biological pretreatment of lignocellulose for second biofuel production. To elucidate the underlying molecular mechanism involved in lignocellulose deconstruction, genomic and transcriptomic analyses were carried out for I. lacteus CD2 grown in submerged fermentation using ball-milled corn stover as the carbon source.Irpex lacteus CD2 efficiently decomposed 74.9% lignin, 86.3% cellulose, and 83.5% hemicellulose in corn stover within 9 days. Manganese peroxidases were rapidly induced, followed by accumulation of cellulase and hemicellulase. Genomic analysis revealed that I. lacteus CD2 possessed a complete set of lignocellulose-degrading enzyme system composed mainly of class II peroxidases, dye-decolorizing peroxidases, auxiliary enzymes, and 182 glycoside hydrolases. Comparative transcriptomic analysis substantiated the notion of a selection mode of degradation. These analyses also suggested that free radicals, derived either from MnP-organic acid interplay or from Fenton reaction involving Fe2+ and H2O2, could play an important role in lignocellulose degradation.The selective strategy employed by I. lacteus CD2, in combination with low extracellular glycosidases cleaving plant cell wall polysaccharides into fermentable sugars, may account for high pretreatment efficiency of I. lacteus. Our study also hints the importance of free radicals for future designing of novel, robust lignocellulose-degrading enzyme cocktails.
Project description:Octenidine dihydrochloride (OCT) is a widely used antiseptic molecule, promoting skin wound healing accompanied with improved scar quality after surgical procedures. However, the mechanisms by which OCT is contributing to tissue regeneration are not yet completely clear. In this study, we have used a superficial wound model by tape stripping of ex vivo human skin. Protein profiles of wounded skin biopsies treated with OCT-containing hydrogel and the released secretome were analyzed using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), respectively. Proteomics analysis of OCT-treated skin wounds revealed significant lower levels of key players in tissue remodeling as well as reepithelization after wounding such as pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-8, IL-6) and matrix-metalloproteinases (MMP1, MMP2, MMP3, MMP9) when compared to controls. In addition, enzymatic activity of several released MMPs into culture supernatants was significantly lower in OCT-treated samples. Our data give insights on the mode of action based on which OCT positively influences wound healing and identified anti-inflammatory and protease-inhibitory activities of OCT.
Project description:In the present research, Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Irpex Lacteus simultaneously degraded lignin and cellulose in ramie stalks, whereas Pleurotus ostreatus and Pleurotus eryngii could depolymerize lignin but little cellulose. Comparative proteomic analysis of these four white-rot fungi was used to investigate the molecular mechanism of this selective ligninolysis. 292 proteins, including CAZymes, sugar transporters, cytochrome P450, proteases, phosphatases and proteins with other function, were successfully identified. A total of 58 CAZyme proteins were differentially expressed, and at the same time, oxidoreductases participated in lignin degradation were expressed at higher levels in P. eryngii and P. ostreatus. Enzyme activity results indicated that cellulase activities were higher in P. chrysosporium and I. lacteus, while the activities of lignin-degrading enzymes were higher in P. eryngii and P. ostreatus. In addition to the lignocellulosic degrading enzymes, several proteins including sugar transporters, cytochrome P450 monooxygenases, peptidases, proteinases, phosphatases and kinases were also found to be differentially expressed among these four species of white-rot fungi. In summary, the protein expression patterns of P. eryngii and P. ostreatus exhibit co-upregulated oxidoreductase potential and co-downregulated cellulolytic capability relative to those of P. chrysosporium and I. lacteus, providing a mechanism consistent with selective ligninolysis by P. eryngii and P. ostreatus.
Project description:Titanium (Ti) implants with long-term antibacterial ability and good biocompatibility are highly desirable materials that can be used to prevent implant-associated infections. In this study, titania nanotubes (TNTs) were synthesized on Ti surfaces through electrochemical anodization. Octenidine dihydrochloride (OCT)/poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) was infiltrated into TNTs using a simple solvent-casting technique. OCT/PLGA-TNTs demonstrated sustained drug release and maintained the characteristic hollow structures of TNTs. TNTs (200?nm in diameter) alone exhibited slight antibacterial effect and good osteogenic activity but also evidently impaired adhesion and proliferation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs). OCT/PLGA-TNTs (100?nm in diameter) supported BMSC adhesion and proliferation and showed good osteogenesis-inducing ability. OCT/PLGA-TNTs also exhibited good long-term antibacterial ability within the observation period of 7?d. The synthesized drug carrier with relatively long-term antibacterial ability and enhanced excellent biocompatibility demonstrated significant potential in bone implant applications.
Project description:Enzymatic treatment is an attractive method for mycotoxin detoxification, which ideally prefers the use of one or a few enzymes. However, this is challenged by the diverse structures and co-contamination of multiple mycotoxins in food and feed. Lignin-degrading fungi have been discovered to detoxify organics including mycotoxins. Manganese peroxidase (MnP) is a major enzyme responsible for lignin oxidative depolymerization in such fungi. Here, we demonstrate that eight MnPs from different lignocellulose-degrading fungi (five from Irpex lacteus, one from Phanerochaete chrysosporium, one from Ceriporiopsis subvermispora, and another from Nematoloma frowardii) could all degrade four major mycotoxins (aflatoxin B1, AFB1; zearalenone, ZEN; deoxynivalenol, DON; fumonisin B1, FB1) only in the presence of a dicarboxylic acid malonate, in which free radicals play an important role. The I. lacteus and C. subvermispora MnPs behaved similarly in mycotoxins transformation, outperforming the P. chrysosporium and N. frowardii MnPs. The large evolutionary diversity of these MnPs suggests that mycotoxin degradation tends to be a common feature shared by MnPs. MnP can, therefore, serve as a candidate enzyme for the degradation of multiple mycotoxins in food and feed if careful surveillance of the residual toxicity of degradation products is properly carried out.
Project description:Manganese peroxidase (MnP) is the one of the important ligninolytic enzymes produced by lignin-degrading fungi which has the great application value in the field of environmental biotechnology. Searching for new MnP with stronger tolerance to metal ions and organic solvents is important for the maximization of potential of MnP in the biodegradation of recalcitrant xenobiotics. In this study, it was found that oxalic acid, veratryl alcohol and 2,6-Dimehoxyphenol could stimulate the synthesis of MnP in the white-rot fungus Irpex lacteus CD2. A novel manganese peroxidase named as CD2-MnP was purified and characterized from this fungus. CD2-MnP had a strong capability for tolerating different metal ions such as Ca2+, Cd2+, Co2+, Mg2+, Ni2+ and Zn2+ as well as organic solvents such as methanol, ethanol, DMSO, ethylene glycol, isopropyl alcohol, butanediol and glycerin. The different types of dyes including the azo dye (Remazol Brilliant Violet 5R, Direct Red 5B), anthraquinone dye (Remazol Brilliant Blue R), indigo dye (Indigo Carmine) and triphenylmethane dye (Methyl Green) as well as simulated textile wastewater could be efficiently decolorized by CD2-MnP. CD2-MnP also had a strong ability of decolorizing different dyes with the coexistence of metal ions and organic solvents. In summary, CD2-MnP from Irpex lacteus CD2 could effectively degrade a broad range of synthetic dyes and exhibit a great potential for environmental biotechnology.
Project description:Fungal strains identified by phylogenetic analysis of the ITS rDNA region as Trametes versicolor (CMU-TA01), Irpex lacteus (CMU-84/13), and Phlebiopsis sp. (CMU-47/13) are able to grow on and bleach kraft pulp (KP) in a simple solid-state fermentation (SSF) assay conducted in Petri dishes. Kappa number reductions obtained with Phlebiopsis sp. (48.3%), T. versicolor (43%), and I. lacteus (39.3%), evidence their capability for lignin breakdown. Scanning electron microscopy images of KP fibers from SSF assays demonstrated increased roughness and striation, evidencing significant cell wall modification. T. versicolor produces laccase (Lac), manganese peroxidase (MnP), and lignin peroxidase (LiP) in potato dextrose broth (PDB), PDB + CuSO4, and PDB + KP, whereas Phlebiopsis sp. and I. lacteus showed no Lac and low LiP activities in all media. Compared to PDB, the highest increase in Lac (7.25-fold) and MnP (2.37-fold) activities in PDB + CuSO4 occur in T. versicolor; for LiP, the greatest changes (6.95-fold) were observed in I. lacteus. Incubation in PDB + KP shows significant increases in Lac and MnP for T. versicolor, MnP and LiP for Phlebiopsis sp., and none for I. lacteus. SSF assays in Petri plates are a valuable tool to select fungi that are able to delignify KP. Here, delignification by Phlebiopsis sp. of this substrate is reported for the first time, and MnP activity was strongly associated with the delignification ability of the studied strains. The obtained results suggest that the studied fungal strains have biotechnological potential for use in the paper industry.