Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in Africa: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Vitamin D deficiency is associated with non-communicable and infectious diseases, but the vitamin D status of African populations is not well characterised. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in children and adults living in Africa. METHODS:For this systematic review and meta-analysis, we searched PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, African Journals Online, and African Index Medicus for studies on vitamin D prevalence, published from database inception to Aug 6, 2019, without language restrictions. We included all studies with measured serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) concentrations from healthy participants residing in Africa. We excluded case reports and case series, studies that measured 25(OH)D only after a clinical intervention, and studies with only a meeting abstract or unpublished material available. We used a standardised data extraction form to collect information from eligible studies; if the required information was not available in the published report, we requested raw data from the authors. We did a random-effects meta-analysis to obtain the pooled prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in African populations, with use of established cutoffs and mean 25(OH)D concentrations. We stratified meta-analyses by participant age group, geographical region, and residence in rural or urban areas. The study is registered with PROSPERO, number CRD42018112030. FINDINGS:Our search identified 1692 studies, of which 129 studies with 21?474 participants from 23 African countries were included in the systematic review and 119 studies were included in the meta-analyses. The pooled prevalence of low vitamin D status was 18·46% (95% CI 10·66-27·78) with a cutoff of serum 25(OH)D concentration less than 30 nmol/L; 34·22% (26·22-43·68) for a cutoff of less than 50 nmol/L; and 59·54% (51·32-67·50) for a cutoff of less than 75 nmol/L. The overall mean 25(OH)D concentration was 67·78 nmol/L (95% CI 64·50-71·06). There was no evidence of publication bias, although heterogeneity was high (I2 ranged from 98·26% to 99·82%). Mean serum 25(OH)D concentrations were lower in populations living in northern African countries or South Africa compared with sub-Saharan Africa, in urban areas compared with rural areas, in women compared with men, and in newborn babies compared with their mothers. INTERPRETATION:The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency is high in African populations. Public health strategies in Africa should include efforts to prevent, detect, and treat vitamin D deficiency, especially in newborn babies, women, and urban populations. FUNDING:Wellcome Trust and the DELTAS Africa Initiative.
Project description:Pregnant women and newborns are at increased risk of vitamin D deficiency. Our objective was to create a global summary of maternal and newborn vitamin D status. We completed a systematic review (1959-2014) and meta-analysis of studies reporting serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentration in maternal and newborn populations. The 95 identified studies were unevenly distributed by World Health Organization (WHO) region: Americas (24), European (33), Eastern Mediterranean (13), South-East Asian (7), Western Pacific (16) and African (2). Average maternal 25(OH)D concentrations (nmol?L(-1) ) by region were 47-65 (Americas), 15-72 (European), 13-60 (Eastern Mediterranean), 20-52 (South-East Asian), 42-72 (Western Pacific) and 92 (African). Average newborn 25(OH)D concentrations (nmol?L(-1) ) were 35-77 (Americas), 20-50 (European), 5-50 (Eastern Mediterranean), 20-22 (South-East Asian), 32-67 (Western Pacific) and 27-35 (African). The prevalences of 25(OH)D?<50 and <25?nmol?L(-1) by WHO region in pregnant women were: Americas (64%, 9%), European (57%, 23%), Eastern Mediterranean (46%, 79%), South-East Asian (87%, not available) and Western Pacific (83%, 13%). Among newborns these values were: Americas (30%, 14%), European (73%, 39%), Eastern Mediterranean (60%, not available), South-East Asian (96%, 45%) and Western Pacific (54%, 14%). By global region, average 25(OH)D concentration varies threefold in pregnant women and newborns, and prevalence of 25(OH)D?<25?nmol?L(-1) varies eightfold in pregnant women and threefold in newborns. Maternal and newborn 25(OH)D concentrations are highly correlated. Addressing vitamin D deficiency in pregnant women and newborns should be a global priority. To protect children from the adverse effects of vitamin D deficiency requires appropriate interventions during both pregnancy and childhood.
Project description:Children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) are at increased risk of vitamin D deficiency, which might make them more susceptible to developing adverse events. Previous studies showed that low vitamin D levels were associated with an increased inflammatory mucosal state and impaired mucosal tissue barriers. We examined the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and studied the association between vitamin D levels and methotrexate (MTX)-induced oral mucositis in pediatric ALL.We assessed 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D3) and 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (24,25(OH)2D3) levels in 99 children with ALL before the start of 4?×?5 g/m2 high-dose methotrexate (HD-MTX) (T0) and in 81/99 children after discontinuation of HD-MTX (T1). Two cutoff values for vitamin D deficiency exist: 25(OH)D3 levels <?30 and <?50 nmol/L. Oral mucositis was defined as grade ??3 according to the National Cancer Institute Criteria.Vitamin D deficiency occurred in respectively 8% (<?30 nmol/L) and 33% (<?50 nmol/L) of the patients at T0, and more frequently in children >?4 years of age as compared to children between 1 and 4 years of age. A decrease in 25(OH)D3 levels during HD-MTX therapy was associated with developing severe oral mucositis (OR 1.6; 95% CI [1.1-2.4]). 25(OH)D3 and 24,25(OH)2D3 levels at T0 and the change in 24,25(OH)2D3 levels during therapy were not associated with the development of severe oral mucositis.This study showed that vitamin D deficiency occurs frequently in pediatric ALL patients above the age of 4 years. A decrease in 25(OH)D3 levels during MTX therapy was observed in children with ALL that developed severe oral mucositis.
Project description:To estimate the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency (25(OH)D) <50 nmol/L among recently arrived immigrants from Africa and Asia in Oslo, and to explore 25(OH)D levels according to origin, gender and age.A cross-sectional study.Primary healthcare unit in Oslo, Norway, offering family immigrants, asylum seekers, United Nations (UN) refugees or individuals granted asylum a free medical examination on arrival.All individuals from African and Asian countries (n=591) referred to the Centre of Migrant Health, Health Agency, Oslo, Norway in 2010, estimated to cover 60% of the targeted population.25(OH)D <50 nmol/L was very prevalent in immigrants from the Middle East (81% (95% CI 75.4% to 86.6%)), South Sahara Africa (73% (CI 67.5% to 78.5%)) and South Asia (75% (CI 64.0% to 86.0%)), in contrast to East Asians (24% (CI 12.6% to 35.4%)), p<0.001 for differences. The prevalence of 25(OH)D<25 nmol/L was lower but followed the same pattern (Middle East: 38% (CI 31.1% to 45.0%), South Sahara Africa: 24% (CI 18.7% to 29.3%) and South Asia: 35% (CI 22.9% to 47.1%), although it was not observed in East Asians (p<0.001 for differences)). The ethnic differences persisted after adjusting for the duration of residence, seasonality and residence status in multiple linear regression analyses. Female adolescents from South Asia, the Middle East and South Sahara Africa had the lowest levels of 25(OH)D. Further, country-specific median levels of 25(OH)D were low (24-38 nmol/L) among groups from Somalia, Eritrea, Afghanistan and Iraq, the countries with the largest number of immigrants in our study.The majority of recently settled immigrant groups from the Middle East, South Asia and Africa had 25(OH)D <50 nmol/L, in contrast to East Asians. Female adolescents from these regions had the lowest levels of 25(OH)D.
Project description:Vitamin D deficiency has been described as being pandemic, but serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] distribution data for the European Union are of very variable quality. The NIH-led international Vitamin D Standardization Program (VDSP) has developed protocols for standardizing existing 25(OH)D values from national health/nutrition surveys.This study applied VDSP protocols to serum 25(OH)D data from representative childhood/teenage and adult/older adult European populations, representing a sizable geographical footprint, to better quantify the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in Europe.The VDSP protocols were applied in 14 population studies [reanalysis of subsets of serum 25(OH)D in 11 studies and complete analysis of all samples from 3 studies that had not previously measured it] by using certified liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry on biobanked sera. These data were combined with standardized serum 25(OH)D data from 4 previously standardized studies (for a total n= 55,844). Prevalence estimates of vitamin D deficiency [using various serum 25(OH)D thresholds] were generated on the basis of standardized 25(OH)D data.An overall pooled estimate, irrespective of age group, ethnic mix, and latitude of study populations, showed that 13.0% of the 55,844 European individuals had serum 25(OH)D concentrations <30 nmol/L on average in the year, with 17.7% and 8.3% in those sampled during the extended winter (October-March) and summer (April-November) periods, respectively. According to an alternate suggested definition of vitamin D deficiency (<50 nmol/L), the prevalence was 40.4%. Dark-skinned ethnic subgroups had much higher (3- to 71-fold) prevalence of serum 25(OH)D <30 nmol/L than did white populations.Vitamin D deficiency is evident throughout the European population at prevalence rates that are concerning and that require action from a public health perspective. What direction these strategies take will depend on European policy but should aim to ensure vitamin D intakes that are protective against vitamin D deficiency in the majority of the European population.
Project description:While the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency is well described in various populations, limited data are available regarding longitudinal variation in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations.To evaluate the temporal trends in serum 25(OH)D, prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and factors influencing these trends.Adults enrolled in the Dallas Heart Study, a longitudinal, probability-based, multiethnic, population study in Dallas, Texas, USA.Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and predictors of change in serum 25(OH)D.A total of 2045 participants had serum 25(OH)D measured on two occasions (2000-2002 and 2007-2009) at a median interval of 7 years. Serum 25(OH)D decreased (42.7-39.4 nmol/L, P<.001) and the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency [25(OH)D <50 nmol/L] increased significantly (60.6%-66.4%, P<.0001) despite vitamin D supplementation increasing over the interval (7.2%-23.0%; P<.0001). In a multivariable model adjusting for sex, race, BMI, age, season of blood draw, smoking and exercise, a greater decline in serum 25(OH)D was noted in men compared with women (-8.0 vs -3.5 nmol/L, P<.0001), in participants of Hispanic ethnicity vs White and Black ethnicity (P<.0001), in nonobese vs obese participants (-7.2 vs -4.0 nmol/L, P=.005) and in nonusers vs users of vitamin D supplements (-5.7 vs -1.7 nmol/L, P=.032).Despite increased vitamin D supplementation, serum 25(OH)D decreased in an ethnically diverse cohort of Dallas County residents between 2000-2002 and 2007-2009. Features most predictive of a decline in serum 25(OH)D include male sex, Hispanic ethnicity and weight gain.
Project description:Vitamin D deficiency is common worldwide and young children are among the most affected groups. Animal studies suggest a key role for vitamin D in brain development. However, studies investigating the effects of vitamin D on neurobehavioural outcomes in children are inconclusive and evidence is limited in sub-Saharan Africa. We evaluated the effect of vitamin D status on cognitive and motor outcomes using prospective data from the Entebbe Mother and Baby Study birth cohort. We analysed data from 302 Ugandan children with 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) measurements below five years and developmental measures at five years of age. We used multivariable linear regression, adjusted for potential confounders, to estimate the effect of 25(OH)D on cognitive and motor outcomes. Of 302 children, eight (2.7%) had 25(OH)D levels <50 nmol/L, 105 (35.8%) had levels 50-75 nmol/L and 189 (62.6%) had levels >75 nmol/L. There was no evidence that earlier vitamin D status was associated with cognitive and motor outcomes in five-year-old Ugandan children. This study adds to the sparse literature and highlights the need for further longitudinal studies on vitamin D and neurobehavioural outcomes in children living in sub-Saharan Africa.
Project description:In this review, reports were retrieved in which vitamin D status, as assessed by serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels, was measured in South African population groups with varied skin colours and ethnicities. Healthy children and adults were generally vitamin D-sufficient [25(OH)D level >50 nmol/L] but the majority of those aged above 65 years were deficient. A major role for exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) in determining 25(OH)D levels was apparent, with the dietary contribution being minor. Limited data exist regarding the impact of recent changes in lifestyles on vitamin D status, such as urbanisation. With regard to disease susceptibility, 11 of 22 relevant publications indicated association between low 25(OH)D levels and disease, with deficiency most notably found in individuals with tuberculosis and HIV-1. Information on the relationship between vitamin D receptor variants and ethnicity, disease or treatment response in the South African population groups demonstrated complex interactions between genetics, epigenetics and the environment. Whether vitamin D plays an important role in protection against the range of diseases that currently constitute a large burden on the health services in South Africa requires further investigation. Only then can accurate advice be given about personal sun exposure or dietary vitamin D supplementation.
Project description:Maternal vitamin D deficiency has been suggested to influence fetal and neonatal health. Little is known about vitamin D status in Chinese pregnant women. The purpose of this study was to assess the vitamin D status of pregnant women residing in Beijing in winter and evaluate the impact of maternal factors on serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels. The study was conducted on 125 healthy pregnant women. For each individual, data concerning pre-pregnancy weight, educational status, use of multivitamins and behavioral factors such as daily duration of computer use, walking and sun exposure were obtained. Serum concentrations of 25(OH)D were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency (25(OH)D < 50 nmol/L) was 96.8% and almost half (44.8%) of women were severely vitamin D deficiency (25(OH)D < 25 nmol/L). The concentration of 25(OH)D was lower in women with shorter duration of sun exposure (? 0.5 h/day, 25.3 ± 8.9 nmol/L) than that in women with longer duration of sun exposure (> 0.5 h/day; 30.3 ± 9.5 nmol/L; P = 0.003). Thirty six women (28.8%) had sun exposure duration ? 1.5h/day. The 25(OH)D concentration in these women was 31.5 ± 9.4 nmol/L which was also much lower than the normal level. Women who reported taking a multivitamin supplement had significantly higher 25(OH)D concentrations (32.3 ± 9.5 nmol/L) when compared with non-users (24.9 ± 8.2 nmol/L; P < 0.001). Pregnant women in Beijing are at very high risk of vitamin D deficiency in winter. Duration of Sun exposure and the use of multivitamin were the most important determinants for vitamin D status. However, neither prolonging the time of sunlight exposure nor multivitamin supplements can effectively prevent pregnant women from vitamin D deficiency. Other measures might have to be taken for pregnant women to improve their vitamin D status in winter.
Project description:Vitamin D deficiency has become one of the most prevalent health problems in modern society. However, there has been no study that has reported the trend of vitamin D status in Asia. We performed an observational study to investigate the trend of vitamin D status in South Korea based on a representative national database acquired from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (KNHANES) conducted from 2008 to 2014. A total of 39,759 patients were included in the final analyses. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25 (OH)D) levels were measured by radioimmunoassay. The overall mean serum level of 25 (OH)D was 45.7?nmol/L in males and 40.9?nmol/L in females in KNHANES 2008 to 2014. There was a significant trend toward lower serum 25 (OH)D levels from 2008 to 2014 in males by -1.2 (95% confidence interval [CI] -1.5 to -0.9) nmol/L per year and in female by -0.7 (95% CI -0.9 to -0.4) nmol/L per year. The overall mean serum level of 25 (OH)D in 2008 was 53.0?nmol/L in males and 45.7?nmol/L in females. It decreased to 43.2?nmol/L in males and 39.2?nmol/L in females in 2014. Vitamin D deficiency, defined as the serum 25 (OH)D level of <50?nmol/L, was found in 65.7% of males and 76.7% of females in overall population. A significant increasing trend of vitamin D deficiency was also observed. The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in 2008 was 51.8% in males and 68.2% in females, but rose to 75.2% and 82.5%, respectively, in 2014. The present study demonstrated that vitamin D status in South Koreans is still deteriorating. More extensive and proactive measures are needed to improve vitamin D status in South Korea.