Enhanced Production of D-Lactate in Cyanobacteria by Re-Routing Photosynthetic Cyclic and Pseudo-Cyclic Electron Flow.
ABSTRACT: Cyanobacteria are promising chassis strains for the photosynthetic production of platform and specialty chemicals from carbon dioxide. Their efficient light harvesting and metabolic flexibility abilities have allowed a wide range of biomolecules, such as the bioplastic polylactate precursor D-lactate, to be produced, though usually at relatively low yields. In order to increase photosynthetic electron flow towards the production of D-lactate, we have generated several strains of the marine cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 (Syn7002) with deletions in genes involved in cyclic or pseudo-cyclic electron flow around photosystem I. Using a variant of the Chlamydomonas reinhardtii D-lactate dehydrogenase (LDHSRT, engineered to efficiently utilize NADPH in vivo), we have shown that deletion of either of the two flavodiiron flv homologs (involved in pseudo-cyclic electron transport) or the Syn7002 pgr5 homolog (proposed to be a vital part of the cyclic electron transport pathway) is able to increase D-lactate production in Syn7002 strains expressing LDHSRT and the Escherichia coli LldP (lactate permease), especially at low temperature (25°C) and 0.04% (v/v) CO2, though at elevated temperatures (38°C) and/or high (1%) CO2 concentrations, the effect was less obvious. The ?pgr5 background seemed to be particularly beneficial at 25°C and 0.04% (v/v) CO2, with a nearly 7-fold increase in D-lactate accumulation in comparison to the wild-type background (?1000 vs ?150 mg/L) and decreased side effects in comparison to the flv deletion strains. Overall, our results show that manipulation of photosynthetic electron flow is a viable strategy to increase production of platform chemicals in cyanobacteria under ambient conditions.
Project description:Plants experience a highly variable light environment over the course of the day. To reveal the molecular mechanisms of their photosynthetic response to fluctuating light, we examined the role of two cyclic electron flows around photosystem I (CEF-PSI)--one depending on PROTON GRADIENT REGULATION 5 (PGR5) and one on NADH dehydrogenase-like complex (NDH)--in photosynthetic regulation under fluctuating light in rice (Oryza sativa L.). The impairment of PGR5-dependent CEF-PSI suppressed the photosynthetic response immediately after sudden irradiation, whereas the impairment of NDH-dependent CEF-PSI did not. However, the impairment of either PGR5-dependent or NDH-dependent CEF-PSl reduced the photosynthetic rate under fluctuating light, leading to photoinhibition at PSI and consequently a reduction in plant biomass. The results highlight that (1) PGR5-dependent CEF-PSI is a key regulator of rapid photosynthetic responses to high light intensity under fluctuating light conditions after constant high light; and (2) both PGR5-dependent and NDH-dependent CEF-PSI have physiological roles in sustaining photosynthesis and plant growth in rice under repeated light fluctuations. The highly responsive regulatory system managed by CEF-PSI appears able to optimize photosynthesis and plant growth under naturally fluctuating light conditions.
Project description:In plants and cyanobacteria, the PGR5 protein contributes to cyclic electron flow around photosystem I. In plants, PGR5 interacts with PGRL1 during cyclic electron flow, but cyanobacteria appear to lack PGRL1 proteins. We have heterologously expressed the PGR5 and PGRL1 proteins from the plant Arabidopsis in various genetic backgrounds in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis. Our results show that plant PGR5 suffices to re-establish cyanobacterial cyclic electron flow (CEF), albeit less efficiently than the cyanobacterial PGR5 or the plant PGR5 and PGRL1 proteins together. A mutation that inactivates Arabidopsis PGR5 destabilises the protein in Synechocystis. Furthermore, the Synechocystis protein Sll1217, which exhibits weak sequence similarity with PGRL1, physically interacts with both plant and cyanobacterial PGR5 proteins, and stimulates CEF in Synechocystis. Therefore, Sll1217 partially acts as a PGRL1 analogue, the mode of action of PGR5 and PGRL1/Sll1217 proteins is similar in cyanobacteria and plants, and PGRL1 could have evolved from a cyanobacterial ancestor.
Project description:Cyclic electron flow (CEF) around photosystem I is thought to balance the ATP/NADPH energy budget of photosynthesis, requiring that its rate be finely regulated. The mechanisms of this regulation are not well understood. We observed that mutants that exhibited constitutively high rates of CEF also showed elevated production of H2O2. We thus tested the hypothesis that CEF can be activated by H2O2 in vivo. CEF was strongly increased by H2O2 both by infiltration or in situ production by chloroplast-localized glycolate oxidase, implying that H2O2 can activate CEF either directly by redox modulation of key enzymes, or indirectly by affecting other photosynthetic processes. CEF appeared with a half time of about 20 min after exposure to H2O2, suggesting activation of previously expressed CEF-related machinery. H2O2-dependent CEF was not sensitive to antimycin A or loss of PGR5, indicating that increased CEF probably does not involve the PGR5-PGRL1 associated pathway. In contrast, the rise in CEF was not observed in a mutant deficient in the chloroplast NADPH:PQ reductase (NDH), supporting the involvement of this complex in CEF activated by H2O2. We propose that H2O2 is a missing link between environmental stress, metabolism, and redox regulation of CEF in higher plants.
Project description:Continuous hydrogen photo-production under sulfur deprivation was studied in the Chlamydomonas reinhardtii pgr5 pgrl1 double mutant and respective single mutants. Under medium light conditions, the pgr5 exhibited the highest performance and produced about eight times more hydrogen than the wild type, making pgr5 one of the most efficient hydrogen producer reported so far. The pgr5 pgrl1 double mutant showed an increased hydrogen burst at the beginning of sulfur deprivation under high light conditions, but in this case the overall amount of hydrogen produced by pgr5 pgrl1 as well as pgr5 was diminished due to photo-inhibition and increased degradation of PSI. In contrast, the pgrl1 was effective in hydrogen production in both high and low light. Blocking photosynthetic electron transfer by DCMU stopped hydrogen production almost completely in the mutant strains, indicating that the main pathway of electrons toward enhanced hydrogen production is via linear electron transport. Indeed, PSII remained more active and stable in the pgr mutant strains as compared to the wild type. Since transition to anaerobiosis was faster and could be maintained due to an increased oxygen consumption capacity, this likely preserves PSII from photo-oxidative damage in the pgr mutants. Hence, we conclude that increased hydrogen production under sulfur deprivation in the pgr5 and pgrl1 mutants is caused by an increased stability of PSII permitting sustainable light-driven hydrogen production in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.
Project description:Photosynthetic organisms support cell metabolism by harvesting sunlight to fuel the photosynthetic electron transport. The flow of excitation energy and electrons in the photosynthetic apparatus needs to be continuously modulated to respond to dynamics of environmental conditions, and Flavodiiron (FLV) proteins are seminal components of this regulatory machinery in cyanobacteria. FLVs were lost during evolution by flowering plants, but are still present in nonvascular plants such as Physcomitrella patens We generated P. patens mutants depleted in FLV proteins, showing their function as an electron sink downstream of photosystem I for the first seconds after a change in light intensity. flv knock-out plants showed impaired growth and photosystem I photoinhibition when exposed to fluctuating light, demonstrating FLV's biological role as a safety valve from excess electrons on illumination changes. The lack of FLVs was partially compensated for by an increased cyclic electron transport, suggesting that in flowering plants, the FLV's role was taken by other alternative electron routes.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Diatoms contribute 20% of the global primary production and are adaptable in dynamic environments. Diatoms always bloom earlier in the annual phytoplankton succession instead of dinoflagellates. However, how diatoms acclimate to a dynamic environment, especially under changing light conditions, remains unclear.<h4>Results</h4>We compared the growth and photosynthesis under fluctuating light conditions of red tide diatom Skeletonema costatum, red tide dinoflagellate Amphidinium carterae, Prorocentrum donghaiense, Karenia mikimotoi, model diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum, Thalassiosira pseudonana and model dinoflagellate Dinophycae Symbiodinium. Diatoms grew faster and maintained a consistently higher level of photosynthesis. Diatoms were sensitive to the specific inhibitor of Proton Gradient Regulation 5 (PGR5) depending photosynthetic electron flow, which is a crucial mechanism to protect their photosynthetic apparatus under fluctuating light. In contrast, the dinoflagellates were not sensitive to this inhibitor. Therefore, we investigate how PGR5 functions under light fluctuations in the model diatom P. tricornutum by knocking down and overexpressing PGR5. Overexpression of PGR5 reduced the photosystem I acceptor side limitation (Y (NA)) and increased growth rate under severely fluctuating light in contrast to the knockdown of PGR5.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Diatoms acclimatize to fluctuating light conditions better than dinoflagellates. PGR5 in diatoms can regulate their photosynthetic electron flow and accelerate their growth under severe light fluctuation, supporting fast biomass accumulation under dynamic environments in pioneer blooms.
Project description:The 11 plastid ndh genes have hovered frequently on the edge of dispensability, being absent in the plastid DNA of many algae and certain higher plants. We have compared the photosynthetic activity of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum, cv. Petit Havana) with five transgenic lines (?ndhF, pr-?ndhF, T181D, T181A, and ndhF FC) and found that photosynthetic performance is impaired in transgenic ndhF-defective tobacco plants at rapidly fluctuating light intensities and higher than ambient CO2 concentrations. In contrast to wild type and ndhF FC, which reach the maximum photosynthetic rate in less than 1 min when light intensity suddenly increases, ndh defective plants (?ndhF and T181A) show up to a 5 min delay in reaching the maximum photosynthetic rate at CO2 concentrations higher than the ambient 360 ppm. Net photosynthesis was determined at different CO2 concentrations when sequences of 130, 870, 61, 870, and 130 ?mol m(-2) s(-1) PAR sudden light changes were applied to leaves and photosynthetic efficiency and entropy production (Sg) were determined as indicators of photosynthesis performance. The two ndh-defective plants, ?ndhF and T181A, had lower photosynthetic efficiency and higher Sg than wt, ndhF FC and T181D tobacco plants, containing full functional ndh genes, at CO2 concentrations above 400 ppm. We propose that the Ndh complex improves cyclic electron transport by adjusting the redox level of transporters during the low light intensity stage. In ndhF-defective strains, the supply of electrons through the Ndh complex fails, transporters remain over-oxidized (specially at high CO2 concentrations) and the rate of cyclic electron transport is low, impairing the ATP level required to rapidly reach high CO2 fixation rates in the following high light phase. Hence, ndh genes could be dispensable at low but not at high atmospheric concentrations of CO2.
Project description:PSI photoinhibition is usually avoided through P700 oxidation. Without this protective mechanism, excess light represents a potentially lethal threat to plants. PGR5 is suggested to be a major component of cyclic electron transport around PSI and is important for P700 oxidation in angiosperms. The known Arabidopsis PGR5 deficient mutant, <i>pgr5-1</i>, is incapable of P700 oxidation regulation and has been used in numerous photosynthetic studies. However, here it was revealed that <i>pgr5-1</i> was a double mutant with exaggerated PSI photoinhibition. <i>pgr5-1</i> significantly reduced growth compared to the newly isolated PGR5 deficient mutant, <i>pgr5<sup>hope1</sup></i>. The introduction of PGR5 into <i>pgr5-1</i> restored P700 oxidation regulation, but remained a pale-green phenotype, indicating that <i>pgr5-1</i> had additional mutations. Both <i>pgr5-1</i> and <i>pgr5<sup>hope1</sup></i> tended to cause PSI photoinhibition by excess light, but <i>pgr5-1</i> exhibited an enhanced reduction in PSI activity. Introducing AT2G17240, a candidate gene for the second mutation into <i>pgr5-1</i> restored the pale-green phenotype and partially restored PSI activity. Furthermore, a deficient mutant of PGRL1 complexing with PGR5 significantly reduced PSI activity in the double-deficient mutant with AT2G17240. From these results, we concluded that AT2G17240, named PSI photoprotection 1 (PTP1), played a role in PSI photoprotection, especially in PGR5/PGRL1 deficient mutants.
Project description:In plants and algae, PGR5-dependent cyclic electron flow (CEF) is an important regulator of acclimation to fluctuating environments, but how PGR5 participates in CEF is unclear. In this work, we analyzed two PGR5s in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) under different conditions and found that CsPGR5a played the dominant role in PGR5-dependent CEF. The results of yeast two-hybrid, biomolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC), blue native PAGE, and coimmunoprecipitation (CoIP) assays showed that PGR5a interacted with PetC, Lhcb3, and PsaH. Furthermore, the intensity of the interactions was dynamic during state transitions, and the abundance of PGR5 attached to cyt b<sub>6</sub>f decreased during the transition from state 1 to state 2, which revealed that the function of PGR5a is related to the state transition. We proposed that PGR5 is a small mobile protein that functions when attached to protein complexes.
Project description:Plants experience low ambient temperature and low red to far-red ratios (L-R/FR) of light due to vegetative shading and longer twilight durations in cool seasons. Low temperature induce photoinhibition through inactivation of the photosynthetic apparatus, however, the role of light quality on photoprotection during cold stress remains poorly understood. Here, we report that L-R/FR significantly prevents the overreduction of the entire intersystem electron transfer chain and the limitation of photosystem I (PSI) acceptor side, eventually alleviating the cold-induced photoinhibition. During cold stress, L-R/FR activated cyclic electron flow (CEF), enhanced protonation of PSII subunit S (PsbS) and de-epoxidation state of the xanthophyll cycle, and promoted energy-dependent quenching (qE) component of non-photochemical quenching (NPQ), enzyme activity of Foyer-Halliwell-Asada cycle and D1 proteins accumulation. However, L-R/FR -induced photoprotection pathways were compromised in tomato <i>PROTON GRADIENT REGULATION5</i> (<i>PGR5</i>) and <i>PGR5-LIKE PHOTOSYNTHETIC PHENOTYPE1A</i> (<i>PGRL1A</i>) co-silenced plants and <i>NADH DEHYDROGENASE-LIKE COMPLEX M</i> (<i>NDHM</i>) -silenced plants during cold stress. Our results demonstrate that both PGR5/PGRL1- and NDH-dependent CEF mediate L-R/FR -induced cold tolerance by enhancing the thermal dissipation and the repair of photodamaged PSII, thereby mitigating the overreduction of electron carriers and the accumulation of reactive oxygen species. The study indicates that there is an anterograde link between photoreception and photoprotection in tomato plants during cold stress.