SWS Brain-Wave Music May Improve the Quality of Sleep: An EEG Study.
ABSTRACT: Aim:This study investigated the neural mechanisms of brain-wave music on sleep quality. Background:Sleep disorders are a common health problem in our society and may result in fatigue, depression, and problems in daytime functioning. Previous studies have shown that brain-wave music generated from electroencephalography (EEG) signals could emotionally affect our nervous system and have positive effects on sleep. However, the neural mechanisms of brain-wave music on the quality of sleep need to be clarified. Methods:A total of 33 young participants were recruited and randomly divided into three groups. The participants listened to rapid eye movement (REM) brain-wave music (Group 1: 13 subjects), slow-wave sleep (SWS) brain-wave music (Group 2: 11 subjects), or white noise (WN) (Control Group: 9 subjects) for 20 min before bedtime for 6 days. EEG and other physiological signals were recorded by polysomnography. Results:We found that the sleep efficiency increased in the SWS group but decreased in REM and WN groups. The sleep efficiency in the SWS group was ameliorated [t(10) = -1.943, p = 0.076]. In the EEG power spectral density analysis, the delta power spectral density in the REM group and in the control group increased, while that in the SWS group decreased [F(2,31) = 7.909, p = 0.005]. In the network analysis, the functional connectivity (FC), assessed with Pearson correlation coefficients, showed that the connectivity strength decreased [t(10) = 1.969, p = 0.073] between the left frontal lobe (F3) and left parietal lobe (C3) in the SWS group. In addition, there was a negative correlation between the FC of the left frontal lobe and the left parietal lobe and sleep latency in the SWS group (r = -0.527, p = 0.064). Conclusion:Slow-wave sleep brain-wave music may have a positive effect on sleep quality, while REM brain-wave music or WN may not have a positive effect. Furthermore, better sleep quality might be caused by a decrease in the power spectral density of the delta band of EEG and an increase in the FC between the left frontal lobe and the left parietal lobe. SWS brain-wave music could be a safe and inexpensive method for clinical use if confirmed by more data.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>There is growing interest in the relation between the brain and music. The appealing similarity between brainwaves and the rhythms of music has motivated many scientists to seek a connection between them. A variety of transferring rules has been utilized to convert the brainwaves into music; and most of them are mainly based on spectra feature of EEG.<h4>Methodology/principal findings</h4>In this study, audibly recognizable scale-free music was deduced from individual Electroencephalogram (EEG) waveforms. The translation rules include the direct mapping from the period of an EEG waveform to the duration of a note, the logarithmic mapping of the change of average power of EEG to music intensity according to the Fechner's law, and a scale-free based mapping from the amplitude of EEG to music pitch according to the power law. To show the actual effect, we applied the deduced sonification rules to EEG segments recorded during rapid-eye movement sleep (REM) and slow-wave sleep (SWS). The resulting music is vivid and different between the two mental states; the melody during REM sleep sounds fast and lively, whereas that in SWS sleep is slow and tranquil. 60 volunteers evaluated 25 music pieces, 10 from REM, 10 from SWS and 5 from white noise (WN), 74.3% experienced a happy emotion from REM and felt boring and drowsy when listening to SWS, and the average accuracy for all the music pieces identification is 86.8%(kappa = 0.800, P<0.001). We also applied the method to the EEG data from eyes closed, eyes open and epileptic EEG, and the results showed these mental states can be identified by listeners.<h4>Conclusions/significance</h4>The sonification rules may identify the mental states of the brain, which provide a real-time strategy for monitoring brain activities and are potentially useful to neurofeedback therapy.
Project description:Mammals and birds engage in two distinct states of sleep, slow wave sleep (SWS) and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. SWS is characterized by slow, high amplitude brain waves, while REM sleep is characterized by fast, low amplitude waves, known as activation, occurring with rapid eye movements and reduced muscle tone. However, monotremes (platypuses and echidnas), the most basal (or 'ancient') group of living mammals, show only a single sleep state that combines elements of SWS and REM sleep, suggesting that these states became temporally segregated in the common ancestor to marsupial and eutherian mammals. Whether sleep in basal birds resembles that of monotremes or other mammals and birds is unknown. Here, we provide the first description of brain activity during sleep in ostriches (Struthio camelus), a member of the most basal group of living birds. We found that the brain activity of sleeping ostriches is unique. Episodes of REM sleep were delineated by rapid eye movements, reduced muscle tone, and head movements, similar to those observed in other birds and mammals engaged in REM sleep; however, during REM sleep in ostriches, forebrain activity would flip between REM sleep-like activation and SWS-like slow waves, the latter reminiscent of sleep in the platypus. Moreover, the amount of REM sleep in ostriches is greater than in any other bird, just as in platypuses, which have more REM sleep than other mammals. These findings reveal a recurring sequence of steps in the evolution of sleep in which SWS and REM sleep arose from a single heterogeneous state that became temporally segregated into two distinct states. This common trajectory suggests that forebrain activation during REM sleep is an evolutionarily new feature, presumably involved in performing new sleep functions not found in more basal animals.
Project description:Memory reactivation during slow-wave sleep (SWS) influences the consolidation of recently acquired knowledge. This reactivation occurs spontaneously during sleep but can also be triggered by presenting learning-related cues, a technique known as targeted memory reactivation (TMR). Here we examined whether TMR can improve vocabulary learning. Participants learned the meanings of 60 novel words. Auditory cues for half the words were subsequently presented during SWS in an afternoon nap. Memory performance for cued versus uncued words did not differ at the group level but was systematically influenced by REM sleep duration. Participants who obtained relatively greater amounts of REM showed a significant benefit for cued relative to uncued words, whereas participants who obtained little or no REM demonstrated a significant effect in the opposite direction. We propose that REM after SWS may be critical for the consolidation of highly integrative memories, such as new vocabulary. Reactivation during SWS may allow newly encoded memories to be associated with other information, but this association can include disruptive linkages with pre-existing memories. Subsequent REM sleep may then be particularly beneficial for integrating new memories into appropriate pre-existing memory networks. These findings support the general proposition that memory storage benefits optimally from a cyclic succession of SWS and REM.
Project description:Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and its main oscillatory feature, frontal theta, have been related to the processing of recent emotional memories. As memories constitute much of the source material for our dreams, we explored the link between REM frontal theta and the memory sources of dreaming, so as to elucidate the brain activities behind the formation of dream content. Twenty participants were woken for dream reports in REM and slow wave sleep (SWS) while monitored using electroencephalography. Eighteen participants reported at least one REM dream and 14 at least one SWS dream, and they, and independent judges, subsequently compared their dream reports with log records of their previous daily experiences. The number of references to recent waking-life experiences in REM dreams was positively correlated with frontal theta activity in the REM sleep period. No such correlation was observed for older memories, nor for SWS dreams. The emotional intensity of recent waking-life experiences incorporated into dreams was higher than the emotional intensity of experiences that were not incorporated. These results suggest that the formation of wakefulness-related dream content is associated with REM theta activity, and accords with theories that dreaming reflects emotional memory processing taking place in REM sleep.
Project description:Neural activity patterns of recent experiences are reactivated during sleep in structures critical for memory storage, including hippocampus and neocortex. This reactivation process is thought to aid memory consolidation. Although synaptic rearrangement dynamics following learning involve an interplay between slow-wave sleep (SWS) and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, most physiological evidence implicates SWS directly following experience as a preferred window for reactivation. Here, we show that reactivation occurs in both REM and SWS and that coordination of REM and SWS activation on the same day is associated with rapid learning of a motor skill. We performed 6 h recordings from cells in rats' motor cortex as they were trained daily on a skilled reaching task. In addition to SWS following training, reactivation occurred in REM, primarily during the pre-task rest period, and REM and SWS reactivation occurred on the same day in rats that acquired the skill rapidly. Both pre-task REM and post-task SWS activation were coordinated with muscle activity during sleep, suggesting a functional role for reactivation in skill learning. Our results provide the first demonstration that reactivation in REM sleep occurs during motor skill learning and that coordinated reactivation in both sleep states on the same day, although at different times, is beneficial for skill learning. This article is part of the Theo Murphy meeting issue 'Memory reactivation: replaying events past, present and future'.
Project description:A suite of complex electroencephalographic patterns of sleep occurs in mammals. In sleeping zebra finches, we observed slow wave sleep (SWS), rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, an intermediate sleep (IS) stage commonly occurring in, but not limited to, transitions between other stages, and high amplitude transients reminiscent of K-complexes. SWS density decreased whereas REM density increased throughout the night, with late-night characterized by substantially more REM than SWS, and relatively long bouts of REM. Birds share many features of sleep in common with mammals, but this collective suite of characteristics had not been known in any one species outside of mammals. We hypothesize that shared, ancestral characteristics of sleep in amniotes evolved under selective pressures common to songbirds and mammals, resulting in convergent characteristics of sleep.
Project description:Virtually all land mammals and birds have two sleep states: slow-wave sleep (SWS) and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep [1, 2]. After deprivation of REM sleep by repeated awakenings, mammals increase REM sleep time , supporting the idea that REM sleep is homeostatically regulated. Some evidence suggests that periods of REM sleep deprivation for a week or more cause physiological dysfunction and eventual death [4, 5]. However, separating the effects of REM sleep loss from the stress of repeated awakening is difficult [2, 6]. The northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus) is a semiaquatic mammal . It can sleep on land and in seawater. The fur seal is unique in showing both the bilateral SWS seen in most mammals and the asymmetric sleep previously reported in cetaceans . Here we show that when the fur seal stays in seawater, where it spends most of its life , it goes without or greatly reduces REM sleep for days or weeks. After this nearly complete elimination of REM, it displays minimal or no REM rebound upon returning to baseline conditions. Our data are consistent with the hypothesis that REM sleep may serve to reverse the reduced brain temperature and metabolism effects of bilateral nonREM sleep, a state that is greatly reduced when the fur seal is in the seawater, rather than REM sleep being directly homeostatically regulated. This can explain the absence of REM sleep in the dolphin and other cetaceans and its increasing proportion as the end of the sleep period approaches in humans and other mammals.
Project description:Sleep and its sub-states are assumed to be important for brain function across the lifespan but which aspects of sleep associate with various aspects of cognition, mood and self-reported sleep quality has not yet been established in detail. Sleep was quantified by polysomnography, quantitative Electroencephalogram (EEG) analysis and self-report in 206 healthy men and women, aged 20-84 years, without sleep complaints. Waking brain function was quantified by five assessments scheduled across the day covering objectively assessed performance across cognitive domains including sustained attention and arousal, decision and response time, motor and sequence control, working memory, and executive function as well as self-reports of alertness, mood and affect. Controlled for age and sex, self-reported sleep quality was negatively associated with number of awakenings and positively associated with the duration of Rapid Eye Movement (REM) sleep, but no significant associations with Slow Wave Sleep (SWS) measures were observed. Controlling only for age showed that associations between objective and subjective sleep quality were much stronger in women than in men. Analysis of 51 performance measures demonstrated that, after controlling for age and sex, fewer awakenings and more REM sleep were associated significantly with better performance on the Goal Neglect task, which is a test of executive function. Factor analysis of the individual performance measures identified four latent variables labeled Mood/Arousal, Response Time, Accuracy, and Visual Perceptual Sensitivity. Whereas Mood/Arousal improved with age, Response Times became slower, while Accuracy and Visual perceptual sensitivity showed little change with age. After controlling for sex and age, nominally significant association between sleep and factor scores were observed such that Response Times were faster with more SWS, and Accuracy was reduced where individuals woke more often or had less REM sleep. These data identify a positive contribution of SWS to processing speed and in particular highlight the importance of sleep continuity and REM sleep for subjective sleep quality and performance accuracy across the adult lifespan. These findings warrant further investigation of the contribution of sleep continuity and REM sleep to brain function.
Project description:Sleep is critical for hippocampus-dependent memory consolidation. However, the underlying mechanisms of synaptic plasticity are poorly understood. The central controversy is on whether long-term potentiation (LTP) takes a role during sleep and which would be its specific effect on memory. To address this question, we used immunohistochemistry to measure phosphorylation of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (pCaMKII?) in the rat hippocampus immediately after specific sleep-wake states were interrupted. Control animals not exposed to novel objects during waking (WK) showed stable pCaMKII? levels across the sleep-wake cycle, but animals exposed to novel objects showed a decrease during subsequent slow-wave sleep (SWS) followed by a rebound during rapid-eye-movement sleep (REM). The levels of pCaMKII? during REM were proportional to cortical spindles near SWS/REM transitions. Based on these results, we modeled sleep-dependent LTP on a network of fully connected excitatory neurons fed with spikes recorded from the rat hippocampus across WK, SWS and REM. Sleep without LTP orderly rescaled synaptic weights to a narrow range of intermediate values. In contrast, LTP triggered near the SWS/REM transition led to marked swaps in synaptic weight ranking. To better understand the interaction between rescaling and restructuring during sleep, we implemented synaptic homeostasis and embossing in a detailed hippocampal-cortical model with both excitatory and inhibitory neurons. Synaptic homeostasis was implemented by weakening potentiation and strengthening depression, while synaptic embossing was simulated by evoking LTP on selected synapses. We observed that synaptic homeostasis facilitates controlled synaptic restructuring. The results imply a mechanism for a cognitive synergy between SWS and REM, and suggest that LTP at the SWS/REM transition critically influences the effect of sleep: Its lack determines synaptic homeostasis, its presence causes synaptic restructuring.
Project description:This study aimed to investigate the clinical characteristics and predictors of increased rapid eye movement (REM) sleep or slow wave sleep (SWS) in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) following positive airway pressure (PAP) therapy. The study retrospectively analyzed data from patients with OSA who underwent both diagnostic polysomnography (PSG) and pressure titration PSG at the Tangdu Hospital Sleep Medicine Center from 2011-2016. Paired diagnostic PSG and pressure titration studies from 501 patients were included. REM rebound was predicted by a higher oxygen desaturation index, lower REM proportion, higher arousal index, lower mean pulse oxygen saturation (SpO<sub>2</sub>), higher Epworth sleepiness score and younger age (adjusted R<sup>2</sup> = 0.482). The SWS rebound was predicted by a longer total duration of apneas and hypopneas, lower N3 duration, lower SpO<sub>2</sub> nadir, lower REM proportion in diagnostic PSG and younger age (adjusted R<sup>2</sup> = 0.286). Patients without REM rebound or SWS rebound had a high probability of comorbidities with insomnia and mood complaints. Some parameters (subjective and objective insomnia, excessive daytime sleepiness, age and OSA severity) indicate changes in REM sleep and SWS between diagnostic and titration PSG tests. Treatment of insomnia and mood disorders in patients with OSA may helpful to improve the use PAP.