Development and evaluation of a high-fidelity lactation simulation model for health professional breastfeeding education.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:A key reason for premature cessation of breastfeeding is inadequate support from healthcare providers. Most physicians and nurses do not feel confident in their ability to support families with breastfeeding initiation or maintenance. Increasing health professional confidence in clinical lactation skills is key to improving maternal and child health outcomes. High-fidelity (realistic) simulators encourage learner engagement, resulting in increased clinical skills competency, confidence, and transfer to patient care. Lactation educators teach with low-fidelity cloth and single breast models. There are no high-fidelity breast simulators for health professional education in clinical lactation. DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF A HIGH-FIDELITY LACTATION SIMULATION MODEL: In this commentary we describe the development of a high-fidelity Lactation Simulation Model (LSM) and how physician residents, nurse-midwifery students, and clinical lactation experts provided feedback on LSM prototypes. LIMITATIONS:The user-testing described in this commentary does not represent comprehensive validation of the LSM due to small sample sizes and the significant conflict of interest. CONCLUSION:For breastfeeding rates to improve, mothers need support from their nurses, midwives, pediatricians, obstetricians and gynecologists, and all healthcare staff who interact with pregnant and lactating women. Clinical education with high-fidelity breastfeeding simulators could be the ideal learning modality for trainees and hospital staff to build confidence in clinical lactation skills. The ability of a high-fidelity breastfeeding simulator to increase a learner's lactation knowledge and psychomotor skills acquisition, retention, and transfer to patient care still needs to be tested.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Midwives are expected to support women with lactation initiation and maintenance. Midwifery students engaged in a simulation-based exercise (LactSim OSCE) where they role-played the clinician and the breastfeeding patient by wearing a high-fidelity breast model. We provided participants opportunities for reflecting in and on practice to compare their perceived self-confidence in clinical lactation skills to actual clinical performance. We also describe feasibility of implementing the LactSim OSCE with an emphasis on preparation and time spent on tasks during the OSCE.<h4>Methods</h4>Audio-video recordings from the LactSim OSCE were viewed and assessed using a technical skills checklist by an independent rater and by the study participants as part of the self-reflection. Mixed data on participants' self-efficacy in clinical lactation, experience with the LactSim OSCE, and self-assessment of clinical performance were collected in survey instruments and a focus group. Time spent on each component and clinical lactation skill during the LactSim OSCE was documented.<h4>Results</h4>Immediately following the LactSim OSCE, participants' confidence in clinical lactation was high (5.7/7), but after a guided video reflection exercise, their self-efficacy was 4.4/7. Participants spent approximately 2 of the allotted 10?min per case scenario discussing the OSCE logistics due to inadequate preparation. Participants spent approximately 2?min of the total encounter performing hands-on clinical lactation skills by touching, looking at, or using the high-fidelity breast model worn by their peer.<h4>Conclusion</h4>We described the development and evaluation of the first simulated experience in clinical lactation with all three components of fidelity: conceptual, psychological, and physical. Multiple opportunities for reflecting on performance allowed the nurse-midwifery students to evaluate their competence in decision-making, technical, and counseling skills which resulted in a more realistic approximation of their perceived self-confidence in breastfeeding skills. Another innovation of this pilot work is the documentation of how long a learner spends on various tasks relevant to lactation support in a simulated encounter. Our findings highlight the importance of providing multiple opportunities for self-reflection using guided video reflection and checklists for objective self-assessment in the clinical lactation field.
Project description:<h4>Importance</h4>The human patient simulators that are currently used in multidisciplinary operating room team training scenarios cannot simulate surgical tasks because they lack a realistic surgical anatomy. Thus, they eliminate the surgeon's primary task in the operating room. The surgical trainee is presented with a significant barrier when he or she attempts to suspend disbelief and engage in the scenario.<h4>Objective</h4>To develop and test a simulation-based operating room team training strategy that challenges the communication abilities and teamwork competencies of surgeons while they are engaged in realistic operative maneuvers.<h4>Design, setting, and participants</h4>This pre-post educational intervention pilot study compared the gains in teamwork skills for midlevel surgical residents at Wake Forest Baptist Medical Center after they participated in a standardized multidisciplinary team training scenario with 3 possible levels of surgical realism: (1) SimMan (Laerdal) (control group, no surgical anatomy); (2) "synthetic anatomy for surgical tasks" mannequin (medium-fidelity anatomy), and (3) a patient simulated by a deceased donor (high-fidelity anatomy).<h4>Interventions</h4>Participation in the simulation scenario and the subsequent debriefing.<h4>Main outcomes and measures</h4>Teamwork competency was assessed using several instruments with extensive validity evidence, including the Nontechnical Skills assessment, the Trauma Management Skills scoring system, the Crisis Resource Management checklist, and a self-efficacy survey instrument. Participant satisfaction was assessed with a Likert-scale questionnaire.<h4>Results</h4>Scenario participants included midlevel surgical residents, anesthesia providers, scrub nurses, and circulating nurses. Statistical models showed that surgical residents exposed to medium-fidelity simulation (synthetic anatomy for surgical tasks) team training scenarios demonstrated greater gains in teamwork skills compared with control groups (SimMan) (Nontechnical Skills video score: 95% CI, 1.06-16.41; Trauma Management Skills video score: 95% CI, 0.61-2.90) and equivalent gains in teamwork skills compared with high-fidelity simulations (deceased donor) (Nontechnical Skills video score: 95% CI, -8.51 to 6.71; Trauma Management Skills video score: 95% CI, -1.70 to 0.49).<h4>Conclusions and relevance</h4>Including a surgical task in operating room team training significantly enhanced the acquisition of teamwork skills among midlevel surgical residents. Incorporating relatively inexpensive, medium-fidelity synthetic anatomy in human patient simulators was as effective as using high-fidelity anatomies from deceased donors for promoting teamwork skills in this learning group.
Project description:Lactation is a dynamic process that has evolved to produce a complex biological fluid that provides nutritive and nonnutritive factors to the nursing offspring. It has long been assumed that once lactation is successfully initiated, the primary factor regulating milk production is infant demand. Thus, most interventions have focused on improving breastfeeding education and early lactation support. However, in addition to infant demand, increasing evidence from studies conducted in experimental animal models, production animals, and breastfeeding women suggests that a diverse array of maternal factors may also affect milk production and composition. In this review, we provide an overview of our current understanding of the role of maternal genetics and modifiable factors, such as diet and environmental exposures, on reproductive endocrinology, lactation physiology, and the ability to successfully produce milk. To identify factors that may affect lactation in women, we highlight some information gleaned from studies in experimental animal models and production animals. Finally, we highlight the gaps in current knowledge and provide commentary on future research opportunities aimed at improving lactation outcomes in breastfeeding women to improve the health of mothers and their infants.
Project description:Abstract <h4>Introduction/purpose</h4> Ultrasound teaching has traditionally relied on access to patients or live model volunteers for the development of trainees' psychomotor skills. With recent developments in technology, simulators are increasingly becoming integrated into formal clinical skills training in medical and allied health education. This study aimed to develop and test the effectiveness of using a high‐fidelity ultrasound simulator as the sole training tool to teach mid‐trimester obstetric ultrasound skills to novice health and medical professionals who had no previous experience in using ultrasound imaging. <h4>Methods</h4> This pilot study used a prospective cohort design to recruit and train a small sample (n = 10) of health professionals who had no prior experience in obstetric ultrasound skills. The entire training programme used a high‐fidelity simulator as the sole skills trainer across three training sessions. Testing points occurred at each session throughout the 5‐week training programme. The final testing point, using live model patients, evaluated how well the skills learned using the simulator could be transferred to a more realistic setting. <h4>Results/Discussion</h4> The skills of trainees improved and the time taken to perform the skills decreased significantly over the training period. These findings are consistent with a broad acceptance that simulated learning advances psychomotor skills. However, at the final simulator testing, trainees did not reach a level of full competency, and this was replicated in the live model testing. Simulated training to develop obstetric sonography skills appears to be useful in alleviating some of the burden of training from the clinical setting.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Breastfeeding rates in the United States are suboptimal. Health professionals (HPs) have a unique opportunity to support breastfeeding because of the frequency and timing of their visits with mothers and infants as well as their call by professional organizations to do so. The objective of this study was to understand HPs' perceived roles and experiences with providing breastfeeding-related care.<h4>Materials and methods</h4>In-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with 34 HPs (obstetricians, midwives, pediatricians, nurses, and lactation consultants) who care for pregnant or lactating women. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed, and verified for accuracy; content analysis was used to identify themes using a grounded theory approach.<h4>Results</h4>The overarching theme was discontinuity in breastfeeding care across the continuum. Most HPs relied on other HPs to provide breastfeeding care, which resulted from and contributed to problematic gaps in care that were reported. A minority of HPs attempted to bridge gaps in breastfeeding care or improve continuity. Contributing to the discontinuity were a lack of time, lack of skills, inconsistent messages, and low communication across stages of care. HPs were unsure whether their help was effective and whether required follow-up was completed.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Despite HPs' recognition of breastfeeding as the best choice for infant feeding, breastfeeding care may be disjointed and a barrier to achieving breastfeeding recommendations. These problems should be investigated and systemically addressed in future research so that maternal-infant dyad breastfeeding care can be improved.
Project description:Objectives:To evaluate the effect of simulator fidelity on procedure skill training through a review of existing studies. Methods:MEDLINE, OVID and EMBASE databases were searched between January 1990 and January 2019. Search terms included "simulator fidelity and comparison" and "low fidelity" and "high fidelity" and "comparison" and "simulator". Author classification of low- and high-fidelity was used for non-laparoscopic procedures. Laparoscopic simulators are classified using a proposed schema. All included studies used a randomized methodology with two or more groups and were written in English. Data was abstracted to a standard data sheet and critically appraised from 17 eligible full papers. Results:Of 17 studies, eight were for laparoscopic and nine for other skill training. Studies employed evaluation methodologies, including subjective and objective measures. The evaluation was conducted once in 13/17 studies and before-after in 4/17. Didactic training only or control groups were used in 5/17 studies, while 10/17 studies included two groups only. Skill acquisition and simulator fidelity were different for the level of training in 1/17 studies. Simulation training was followed by clinical evaluation or a live animal evaluation in 3/17 studies. Low-fidelity training was not inferior to training with a high-fidelity simulator in 15/17 studies. Conclusions:Procedure skill after training with low fidelity simulators was not inferior to skill after training with high fidelity simulators in 15/17 studies. Some data suggest that the effectiveness of different fidelity simulators depends on the level of training of participants and requires further study.
Project description:At a time of significant global unrest and uncertainty surrounding how the delivery of clinical training will unfold over the coming years, we offer a systematic review, meta-analysis, and bibliometric analysis of global studies showing the crucial role simulation will play in training. Our aim was to determine the types of simulators in use, their effectiveness in improving clinical skills, and whether we have reached a point of global acceptance. A PRISMA-guided global systematic review of the neurosurgical simulators available, a meta-analysis of their effectiveness, and an extended analysis of their progressive scholarly acceptance on studies meeting our inclusion criteria of simulation in neurosurgical education were performed. Improvement in procedural knowledge and technical skills was evaluated. Of the identified 7405 studies, 56 studies met the inclusion criteria, collectively reporting 50 simulator types ranging from cadaveric, low-fidelity, and part-task to virtual reality (VR) simulators. In all, 32 studies were included in the meta-analysis, including 7 randomised controlled trials. A random effects, ratio of means effects measure quantified statistically significant improvement in procedural knowledge by 50.2% (ES 0.502; CI 0.355; 0.649, p < 0.001), technical skill including accuracy by 32.5% (ES 0.325; CI - 0.482; - 0.167, p < 0.001), and speed by 25% (ES - 0.25, CI - 0.399; - 0.107, p < 0.001). The initial number of VR studies (n = 91) was approximately double the number of refining studies (n = 45) indicating it is yet to reach progressive scholarly acceptance. There is strong evidence for a beneficial impact of adopting simulation in the improvement of procedural knowledge and technical skill. We show a growing trend towards the adoption of neurosurgical simulators, although we have not fully gained progressive scholarly acceptance for VR-based simulation technologies in neurosurgical education.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Only one-third of Canadian infants are exclusively breastfed for the first 6 months of life as recommended. Skilled lactation support in the early postpartum period is one strategy for improving breastfeeding outcomes by building breastfeeding self-efficacy and resolving difficulties. Access to such support is limited among vulnerable women, including those who are new immigrants, low income, under-educated, young or single. The Canada Prenatal Nutrition Program (CPNP) aims to improve birth and breastfeeding outcomes among vulnerable women, but currently lacks a formal framework for providing postpartum lactation support.<h4>Methods</h4>This pre/post intervention study will examine the effect on breastfeeding outcomes of an evidence-based in-home lactation support intervention provided through the CPNP. We will enrol 210 pregnant women who intend to breastfeed and are registered CPNP clients at two sites in Toronto, Canada. During the intervention phase, postpartum home visits by International Board Certified Lactation Consultants (IBCLCs) will be pro-actively offered to registered clients of the two sites. Double-electric breast pumps will also be provided to those who meet specific criteria. Infant feeding data will be collected prospectively at seven time points from 2 weeks to 6 months postpartum. Descriptive and regression analyses will be conducted to measure intervention effects. The primary outcome is exclusive breastfeeding at 4 months postpartum. Secondary outcomes include the duration of any and exclusive breastfeeding, timing of introduction of breastmilk substitutes and timing of introduction of solid foods. Breastfeeding self-efficacy will be assessed prenatally and at 2 weeks and 2 months postpartum. Other measures include maternal socio-demographics, infant feeding intentions, maternal depression and anxiety, and household food insecurity. Monitoring data will be used to assess the reach, uptake and fidelity of intervention delivery.<h4>Discussion</h4>Increasing access to skilled lactation support through the CPNP may be an effective means of improving breastfeeding practices among vulnerable women and thereby enhancing health and development outcomes for their infants. This pre/post intervention study will contribute evidence on both the effectiveness and feasibility of this approach, in order to guide the development and further testing of appropriate models of integrating lactation support into the CPNP.<h4>Trial registration</h4>ClinicalTrials.gov ( NCT03589963 ) registered July 18, 2018.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Simulation is an important adjunct to aid in the acquisition of surgical skills of surgical trainees. The simulators used to adequately enable trainees to learn, practice and be assessed in surgical skills need to be of the highest standards. This study investigates the perceived requirements of simulation and simulators used to acquire skills in limb exploratory procedures in trauma. METHODS:Semi-structured interviews were conducted with an international group of 11 surgical educators and 11 surgical trainees who had experience with surgical simulation. The interviews focused on the perceptions of simulation, the integration of simulators within a curriculum and the features of a simulator itself. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and underwent thematic analysis. RESULTS:Analysis of the perspectives of surgical educators and surgical trainees on simulated training in limb trauma surgery yielded three main themes: (1) Attitudes to simulation. (2) Implementing simulation. (3) Features of an open skills simulator. The majority felt simulation was relevant, intuitive and a good way for procedure warmup and the supplementation of surgical logbooks. They felt simulation could be improved with increased accessibility and variety of simulator options tailored to the learner. Suggested simulator features included greater fidelity, haptic feedback and more complex inbuilt scenarios. On a practical level, there was a desire for cost effectiveness, easy set up and storage. The responses of the educators and the trainees were similar and reflected similar concerns and suggestions for improvement. CONCLUSION:There is a clear positive appetite for the incorporation of simulation into limb trauma training. The findings of this will inform the optimal requirements for high quality implementation of simulation into a surgical trauma curriculum and a reference to optimal features desired in simulator or task trainer design.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Adolescent mothers have lower rates of initiation, continuation, and exclusivity of breastfeeding, and even more so in the first pregnancy. Current interventions target adult women, and little evidence is available for breastfeeding promotion among adolescents.<h4>Methods</h4>This is a pilot study protocol with a parallel, single-blind, randomized, and controlled trial design, to evaluate the feasibility of the intervention "Lactation Counseling" in first-time adolescent mothers to maintain exclusive breastfeeding in the first 6 months of life. The control group will receive routine education in prenatal care and prenatal and childbirth classes, the experimental group will receive additionally the intervention "Lactation Counseling", for 4 weeks, both conducted by trained nurses. Feasibility outcome includes recruitment and dropout rates, and, pilot outcomes will be the exclusive breastfeeding rate and the breastfeeding knowledge. Measurements will be taken at baseline, post-intervention, and 2, 4, and 6 months after childbirth.<h4>Discussion</h4>Exclusive breastfeeding rates could be increased in adolescent mothers through nursing counseling interventions that are previously structured and evaluated from their feasibility. This study will allow the evaluation of the feasibility of an intervention in low-income, Latin American population adolescents.<h4>Trial registration</h4>ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04655846 , Registered 7 December 2020.