Two ?-Electrons Make the Difference: From BODIPY to BODIIM Switchable Fluorescent Dyes.
ABSTRACT: (aza-)BODIPY dyes (boron dipyrromethene dyes) are well-established fluorophores due to their large quantum yields, stability, and diversity, which led to promising applications including imaging techniques, sensors, organic (opto)electronic materials, or biomedical applications. Although the control of the optical properties in (aza-)BODIPY dyes by peripheral functional groups is well studied, we herein present a novel approach to modify the 12??-electron core of the dipyrromethene scaffold. The replacement of two carbon atoms in the ?-position of a BODIPY dye by two nitrogen atoms afforded a 14??-electron system, which was termed BODIIM (boron diimidazolylmethene) in systematic analogy to the BODIPY dyes. Remarkably, the BODIIM dye was obtained with a BH2 -rigidifying entity, which is currently elusive and highly sought after for the BODIPY dye class. DFT-Calculations confirm the [12+2] ?-electron relationship between BODIPY and BODIIM and reveal a strong shape correlation between LUMO in the BODIPY and the HOMO of the BODIIM. The modification of the ?-system leads to a dramatic shift of the optical properties, of which the fluorescent emission is most noteworthy and occurs at much larger Stokes shift, that is, ?500?cm-1 in BODIPY versus >4170?cm-1 in BODIIM system in all solvents investigated. Nucleophilic reactivity was found at the meso-carbon atom in the formation of stable borane adducts with a significant shift of the fluorescent emission, and this behavior contrasts the reactivity of conventional BODIPY systems. In addition, the reverse decomplexation of the borane adducts was demonstrated in reactions with a representative N-heterocyclic carbene to retain the strongly fluorescent BODIIM compound, which suggests applications as fully reversible fluorescent switch.
Project description:Low water solubility and poor membrane permeability are major disadvantages that compromise applications of most fluorescent dyes. To resolve these problems, herein, using Boron-dipyrromethene (BODIPY) as a model fluorescent dye, for the first time, we provide a new strategy for the rapid and efficient production of a water-soluble and membrane-permeable dye by mixing with an amphiphilic protein named hydrophobin. Data shows BODIPY could be effectively solubilized and dispersed in 200 ?g/mL hydrophobin by simple mixing and sonication. Subsequent experiments indicated that hydrophobin self-assembled into a protein film on the surface of BODIPY forming stable hydrophobin-BODIPY complexes with a size range of 10-30 nm. Furthermore, we demonstrated hydrophobin-functionalized BODIPY are toxicity free to cells. The hydrophobin-BODIPY complex could pass through both the cell plasma membrane and nuclear membrane efficiently. Our work opens a novel route to modify and functionalize fluorescent dyes and may be developed as a general strategy for broadening their applications.
Project description:We report two novel functional dyes based on a boron-dipyrromethene (BODIPY) core displaying a panchromatic absorption with an extension to the near-infrared (NIR) range. An innovative synthetic approach for preparing the 2,3,5,6-tetramethyl-BODIPY unit is disclosed, and a versatile way to further functionalize this unit has been developed. The optoelectronic properties of the two dyes were computed by density functional theory modelling (DFT) and characterized through UV-vis spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry (CV) measurements. Finally, we report preliminary results obtained using these functional dyes as photosensitizers in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs).
Project description:Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a radiotherapeutic modality based on the nuclear capture of slow neutrons by stable 10B atoms followed by charged particle emission that inducing extensive damage on a very localized level (<10 ?m). To be efficient, a sufficient amount of 10B should accumulate in the tumor area while being almost cleared from the normal surroundings. A water-soluble aza-boron-dipyrromethene dyes (BODIPY) fluorophore was reported to strongly accumulate in the tumor area with high and BNCT compatible Tumor/Healthy Tissue ratios. The clinically used 10B-BSH (sodium borocaptate) was coupled to the water-soluble aza-BODIPY platform for enhanced 10B-BSH tumor vectorization. We demonstrated a strong uptake of the compound in tumor cells and determined its biodistribution in mice-bearing tumors. A model of chorioallantoic membrane-bearing glioblastoma xenograft was developed to evidence the BNCT potential of such compound, by subjecting it to slow neutrons. We demonstrated the tumor accumulation of the compound in real-time using optical imaging and ex vivo using elemental imaging based on laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy. The tumor growth was significantly reduced as compared to BNCT with 10B-BSH. Altogether, the fluorescent aza-BODIPY/10B-BSH compound is able to vectorize and image the 10B-BSH in the tumor area, increasing its theranostic potential for efficient approach of BNCT.
Project description:Real-time monitoring of newly acidified organelles during autophagy in living cells is highly desirable for a better understanding of intracellular degradative processes. Herein, we describe a reaction-based boron dipyrromethene (BODIPY) dye containing strongly electron-withdrawing diethyl 2-cyanoacrylate groups at the ?-positions. The probe exhibits intense red fluorescence in acidic organelles or the acidified cytosol while exhibiting negligible fluorescence in other regions of the cell. The underlying mechanism is a nucleophilic reaction at the central meso-carbon of the indacene core, resulting in the loss of ?-conjugation entailed by dramatic spectroscopic changes of more than 200?nm between its colorless, non-fluorescent leuco-BODIPY form and its red and brightly emitting form. The reversible transformation between red fluorescent BODIPY and leuco-BODIPY along with negligible cytotoxicity qualifies such dyes for rapid and direct intracellular lysosome imaging and cytosolic acidosis detection simultaneously without any washing step, enabling the real-time monitoring of newly acidified organelles during autophagy.
Project description:Two analogues (1, 2) of free cholesterol and one analogue (3) of the immunosuppressive sphingolipid FTY720 containing a boron dipyrromethene chromophore (BODIPY) were synthesized. The synthetic routes involved preparation of boron dipyrromethene moieties (5, 11), bearing a phenylethynyl group at different positions of the chromophore, and lipids (13, 20) bearing an azido group. The dye was tethered to the lipid via a 1,2,3-triazole in the linker by the click reaction. Analogues derived from 11 [in which an (E)-styrylethynyl moiety is bonded to C-5 of BODIPY] exhibited a marked red shift (approximately 70-80 nm) compared with those derived from 5 (in which a phenylethynyl moiety is bonded to C-8 of BODIPY).
Project description:Fluorescent molecules that emit in the near infra-red are potentially useful as probes for biotechnology. A relatively under-explored design for probes of this type are the aza-BODIPY dyes; this study was performed to enhance our understanding of these materials and ways in which they may be used in dye cassette systems. Thus, the aza-BODIPY dyes 1a - g were prepared. An advanced intermediate towards an eighth compound in the series, 6h, was made but it could not be complexed with boron effectively to give 1h. Spectroscopic properties of these compounds were recorded, and correlations between substituent effects, UV absorbance, fluorescence emissions, and quantum yields were made. Compound 1a was coupled with a fluorescein-alkyne derivative to give the energy transfer cassettes 2 and 3. Both these compounds gave poor energy transfer, and the possible reasons for this were discussed.
Project description:We introduce herein boron-dipyrromethene (BODIPY) dyes as a new class of fluorophores for the design of reporter dyes for supramolecular host-guest complex formation with cucurbituril (CB7). The BODIPYs contain a protonatable aniline nitrogen in the <i>meso</i>-position of the BODIPY chromophore, which was functionalized with known binding motifs for CB7. The unprotonated dyes show low fluorescence due to photoinduced electron transfer (PET), whereas the protonated dyes are highly fluorescent. Encapsulation of the binding motif inside CB7 positions the aniline nitrogen at the carbonyl rim of CB7, which affects the p<i>K</i><sub>a</sub> value, and leads to a host-induced protonation and thus to a fluorescence increase. The possibility to tune binding affinities and p<i>K</i><sub>a</sub> values is demonstrated and it is shown that, in combination with the beneficial photophysical properties of BODIPYs, several new applications of host-dye reporter pairs can be implemented. This includes indicator displacement assays with favourable absorption and emission wavelengths in the visible spectral region, fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, and noncovalent surface functionalization with fluorophores.
Project description:The synthesis, characterization, and application of mesoporous materials containing boron-dipyrromethene (BODIPY) moieties that allow the sensitive and selective detection of HgII in aqueous environments by fluorescence enhancement is reported. For this purpose, BODIPY dye I containing a thia-aza crown ether receptor as the fluorescent probe for the detection of HgII in aqueous environments is encapsulated into mesoporous materials to avoid self-quenching or aggregation in water. Determination of HgII is accomplished within a few seconds with high selectivity and sensitivity, reaching a limit of detection of 12?ppt. The determination of trace amounts of HgII in natural waters and in fish extracts is demonstrated by using our sensing material. The incorporation of the material into several ?-PAD strips yields a portable, cheap, quick, and easy-to-handle tool for trace HgII analysis in water.
Project description:Small molecule fluorophores are indispensable tools for modern biomedical imaging techniques. In this report, we present the development of a new class of BODIPY dyes based on an alkoxy-fluoro-boron-dipyrromethene core. These novel fluorescent dyes, which we term MayaFluors, are characterized by good aqueous solubility and favorable in vitro physicochemical properties. MayaFluors are readily accessible in good yields in a one-pot, two-step approach starting from well-established BODIPY dyes, and allow for facile modification with functional groups of relevance to bioconjugate chemistry and bioorthogonal labeling. Biological profiling in living cells demonstrates excellent membrane permeability, low nonspecific binding, and lack of cytotoxicity.
Project description:The synthesis, characterization, and application of mesoporous materials containing boron-dipyrromethene (BODIPY) moieties that allow the sensitive and selective detection of Hg<sup>II</sup> in aqueous environments by fluorescence enhancement is reported. For this purpose, BODIPY dye <b>I</b> containing a thia-aza crown ether receptor as the fluorescent probe for the detection of Hg<sup>II</sup> in aqueous environments is encapsulated into mesoporous materials to avoid self-quenching or aggregation in water. Determination of Hg<sup>II</sup> is accomplished within a few seconds with high selectivity and sensitivity, reaching a limit of detection of 12 ppt. The determination of trace amounts of Hg<sup>II</sup> in natural waters and in fish extracts is demonstrated by using our sensing material. The incorporation of the material into several μ-PAD strips yields a portable, cheap, quick, and easy-to-handle tool for trace Hg<sup>II</sup> analysis in water.