Synthesis of molecularly imprinted polymers using a functionalized initiator for chiral-selective recognition of propranolol.
ABSTRACT: We present a new concept of synthesis for preparation of molecularly imprinted polymers using a functionalized initiator to replace the traditional functional monomer. Using propranolol as a model template, a carboxyl-functionalized radical initiator was demonstrated to lead to high-selectivity polymer particles prepared in a standard precipitation polymerization system. When a single enantiomer of propranolol was used as template, the imprinted polymer particles exhibited clear chiral selectivity in an equilibrium binding experiment. Unlike the previous molecular imprinting systems where the active free radicals can be distant from the template-functional monomer complex, the method reported in this work makes sure that the actual radical polymerization takes place in the vicinity of the template-associated functional groups. The success of using functional initiator to synthesize molecularly imprinted polymers brings in new possibilities to improve the functional performance of molecularly imprinted synthetic receptors.
Project description:Herein, a novel method for molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) using methacrylic acid functionalized beta-cyclodextrin (MAA-?-CD) monomer is presented, which was designed as a potential water-compatible composite for the controlled release of atropine (ATP). The molecularly imprinted microspheres with pH-sensitive characteristics were fabricated using thermally-initiated precipitation polymerization, employing ATP as a template molecule. The effects of different compounds and concentrations of cross-linking agents were systematically investigated. Uniform microspheres were obtained when the ratio between ATP, MAA-?-CD, and trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate (TRIM) was 1:4:20 (mol/mol/mol) in polymerization system. The ATP loading equilibrium data was best suited to the Freundlich and Langmuir isotherm models. The in vitro drug release study was assessed under simulated oral administration conditions (pH 1.5 and 7.4). The potential usefulness of MIPs as drug delivery devices are much better than non-molecularly imprinted polymers (NIPs). The study shows that the prepared polymers are a pH stimuli-responsive system, which controlled the release of ATP, indicating the potential applications in the field of drug delivery.
Project description:This study investigated the effect of feed formulation: the template:functional monomer (T:fM) and functional monomer:crosslinker (fM:X) ratios as well as the initiator concentration, on the binding performance and selectivity of caffeine (CAF) and theophylline (THP) imprinted polymers obtained by precipitation polymerisation in acetonitrile at 60 °C using methacrylic acid (MAA) and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) as functional monomer and crosslinker, respectively. Template incorporation, monitored by quantitative ¹H-NMR spectroscopy, ranged from 8 to 77% and was found to be more favourable at both high and low T:fM ratios, low fM:X ratio and high initiator concentration. The resulting T:fM ratio in most MIPs were found to be lower than their feed ratios. Incorporation of THP into the polymers was observed to be consistently higher than CAF and, for most MIPs, the observed binding capacities represent less than 10% of the incorporated template. Improved imprinting factors were obtained from molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) with high crosslinker content, i.e., fM:X ratio of 1:10, and high initiator concentration, i.e., initiator:total monomer (I:tM) ratio of 1:5, while T:fM ratio (1:2 to 1:8) was found not to influence binding capacities and imprinting factors (IF). The NIPs showed no preference for either CAF or THP in competitive selectivity studies while MIPs were observed to bind preferentially to their template with THP displaying higher selectivity (72?94%) than CAF (63?84%). Template selectivity was observed to increase with increasing initiator concentration, with MIPs from I:tM ratio of 1:5 shown to be the most selective towards CAF (84%) and THP (93%). The fM:X ratio only showed minimal effect on MIP selectivity. Overall, for the MIP systems under study, template incorporation, binding capacity, imprinting factor and selectivity are enhanced at a faster rate of polymerisation using an I:tM ratio of 1:5. Polymer particles obtained were between 66 to 140 nm, with MIPs generally smaller than their NIP counterparts, and have been observed to decrease with increasing T:fM and fM:X ratios and increase with increasing initiator concentration.
Project description:A new interfacial nano and molecular imprinting approach is developed to prepare spherical molecularly imprinted polymers with well-controlled hierarchical structures. This method is based on Pickering emulsion polymerization using template-modified colloidal particles. The interfacial imprinting is carried out in particle-stabilized oil-in-water emulsions, where the molecular template is presented on the surface of silica nanoparticles during the polymerization of the monomer phase. After polymerization, the template-modified silica nanoparticles are removed from the new spherical particles to leave tiny indentations decorated with molecularly imprinted sites. The imprinted microspheres prepared using the new interfacial nano and molecular imprinting have very interesting features: a well-controlled hierarchical structure composed of large pores decorated with easily accessible molecular binding sites, group selectivity toward a series of chemicals having a common structural moiety (epitopes), and a hydrophilic surface that enables the MIPs to be used under aqueous conditions.
Project description:Stainless steel wire mesh supported molecularly imprinted composite membranes for selective separation of Ebracteolata Compound B (ECB) were prepared based on surface polymerization using ECB separated from Euphorbia fischeriana as a template, acrylamide as a functional monomer, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as a cross-linker, azodiisobutyronitrile as an initiator, and stainless steel wire mesh as support. Structure and purity of ECB were characterized by nuclear magenetic resonance (¹H-NMR, 13C-NMR) and ultra high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC). The molecularly imprinted composite membranes were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The membrane adsorbed on the ECB reached equilibrium about 30 min later, with a maximum adsorption amount of 3.39 ?mol/cm². Adsorption behavior between ECB and the molecularly imprinted composite membranes followed pseudo-second-order kinetics equation and Freundlich isotherm model. The molecularly imprinted composite membranes that could selectively identify and transport ECB in similar structures have a permeation rate of 38.71% to ECB. The ECB content in the permeation solution derived from the extract of Euphorbia fischeriana through the imprinted membrane was 87%. Overall, the obtained results demonstrated that an efficient approach with the molecularly imprinted composite membranes for selective separation of ECB from Euphorbia fischeriana.
Project description:Biodegradable polymer nanoparticles are promising carriers for targeted drug delivery in nanomedicine applications. Molecu- lar imprinting is a potential strategy to target polymer nanoparticles through binding of endogenous ligands that may promote recognition and active transport into specific cells and tissues. However, the lock-and-key mechanism of molecular imprinting requires relatively rigid cross-linked structures, unlike those of many biodegradable polymers. To date, no fully biodegradable molecularly imprinted particles have been reported in the literature. This paper reports the synthesis of a novel molecularly- imprinted nanocarrier, based on poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) and acrylic acid, that combines biodegradability and molec- ular recognition properties. A novel three-arm biodegradable cross-linker was synthesized by ring-opening polymerization of glycolide and lactide initiated by glycerol. The resulting macromer was functionalized by introduction of end-functions through reaction with acryloyl chloride. Macromer and acrylic acid were used for the synthesis of narrowly-dispersed nanoparticles by radical polymerization in diluted conditions in the presence of biotin as template molecule. The binding capacity of the imprinted nanoparticles towards biotin and biotinylated bovine serum albumin was twentyfold that of non-imprinted nanoparti- cles. Degradation rates and functional performances were assessed in in vitro tests and cell cultures, demonstrating effective biotin-mediated cell internalization.
Project description:This work presents three new experimental methods for studying molecular imprinting. The electric conductivity measurements of the pre-polymerization mixture of amine templates in an aprotic solvent provide evidence of ionic dissociation of the pre-polymerization complexes. The displacement measurement of the template propranolol from its molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) using a quaternary ammonium ion in toluene, shows that this MIP behaves as an ion exchanger even in a non-polar solvent. The same experiment also shows that template binding to the MIP from toluene involves ionic interaction. The third experimental method introduced here serves to study the models of template binding on MIPs. To this end the binding isotherm of propranolol (PR) has been measured on a polymer mixture consisting of non-imprinted control polymer (NIP) and a stronger binding acidic polymer, respectively. All three methods are suitable for studying several other imprinting systems.
Project description:In this article we present a model for molecularly imprinted polymers, which considers both complexation processes in the pre-polymerization mixture and adsorption in the imprinted structures within a single consistent framework. As a case study we investigate MAA/EGDMA polymers imprinted with pyrazine and pyrimidine. A polymer imprinted with pyrazine shows substantial selectivity towards pyrazine over pyrimidine, thus exhibiting molecular recognition, whereas the pyrimidine imprinted structure shows no preferential adsorption of the template. Binding sites responsible for the molecular recognition of pyrazine involve one MAA molecule and one EGDMA molecule, forming associations with the two functional groups of the pyrazine molecule. Presence of these specific sites in the pyrazine imprinted system and lack of the analogous sites in the pyrimidine imprinted system is directly linked to the complexation processes in the pre-polymerization solution. These processes are quite different for pyrazine and pyrimidine as a result of both enthalpic and entropic effects.
Project description:Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) mimic the binding sites of antibodies by substituting the amino acid-scaffold of proteins by synthetic polymers. In this work, the first MIP for the recognition of the diagnostically relevant enzyme butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) is presented. The MIP was prepared using electropolymerization of the functional monomer o-phenylenediamine and was deposited as a thin film on a glassy carbon electrode by oxidative potentiodynamic polymerization. Rebinding and removal of the template were detected by cyclic voltammetry using ferricyanide as a redox marker. Furthermore, the enzymatic activity of BuChE rebound to the MIP was measured via the anodic oxidation of thiocholine, the reaction product of butyrylthiocholine. The response was linear between 50 pM and 2 nM concentrations of BuChE with a detection limit of 14.7 pM. In addition to the high sensitivity for BuChE, the sensor responded towards pseudo-irreversible inhibitors in the lower mM range.
Project description:A versatile approach for the preparation of photoswitchable molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) is proposed where the selective recognition and the photoresponsive function are assumed by two different monomers. As a proof of concept, MIP microspheres were synthesized by precipitation polymerization for recognizing terbutylazine, a triazine-type herbicide. Formation of the selective binding sites was based upon H-bonding interactions between the template and the functional monomer methacrylic acid, whereas a polymerizable spiropyran unit was incorporated into the polymer matrix to provide light-controllable characteristics. A trifunctional monomer, trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate, was used as a cross-linker. The imprinted particles exhibited considerable morphological differences compared to their nonimprinted counterparts as observed by scanning electron microscopy. The imprinting effect was confirmed by equilibrium rebinding studies. The photoresponsiveness of the polymer particles was visualized by fluorescence microscopy and further characterized by spectroscopy. The template binding behavior could be regulated by alternating UV and visible light illumination when analyte release and uptake was observed, respectively. Binding isotherms fitted by the Freundlich model revealed the photomodulation of the number of binding sites and their average affinity. This facile synthetic approach may give an attractive starting point to endow currently existing highly selective MIPs with photoswitchable properties, thereby extending the scope of spiropyran-based photoresponsive smart materials.
Project description:Molecularly imprinted materials are man-made mimics of biological receptors. Their polymer network has recognition sites complementary to a substrate in terms of size, shape and chemical functionality. They have diverse applications in various chemical, biomedical and engineering fields such as solid phase extraction, catalysis, drug delivery, pharmaceutical purification, (bio)sensors, water treatment, membrane separations and proteomics. The stability and reusability of molecularly imprinted polymers (IPs) have crucial roles in developing applications that are reliable, economic and sustainable. In the present article the effect of crosslinkers, functional monomers and conditions for template extraction on the long-term stability and reusability of IPs was systematically investigated. Adsorption capacity, selectivity, morphology and thermal decomposition of eleven different l-phenylalanine methyl ester imprinted polymers were studied to reveal performance loss over 100 adsorption-regeneration cycles. Furthermore, crosslinker and functional monomer specific reversible and irreversible decomposition of imprinted polymers as a result of adsorbent regeneration were investigated through adsorption studies, electron microscopy, N<sub>2</sub> adsorption and thermogravimetric analysis. A decomposition mechanism was proposed and revealed using NMR spectroscopy. Solutions to avoid or overcome the limitations of the most common crosslinkers, functional monomers and extraction techniques were proposed and experimentally validated.