Population and size-specific distribution of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar in the Baltic Sea over five decades.
ABSTRACT: Population-specific assessment and management of anadromous fish at sea requires detailed information about the distribution at sea over ontogeny for each population. However, despite a long history of mixed-stock sea fisheries on Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, migration studies showing that some salmon populations feed in different regions of the Baltic Sea and variation in dynamics occurs among populations feeding in the Baltic Sea, such information is often lacking. Also, current assessment of Baltic salmon assumes equal distribution at sea and therefore equal responses to changes in off-shore sea fisheries. Here, we test for differences in distribution at sea among and within ten Atlantic salmon Salmo salar populations originating from ten river-specific hatcheries along the Swedish Baltic Sea coast, using individual data from >125,000 tagged salmon, recaptured over five decades. We show strong population and size-specific differences in distribution at sea, varying between year classes and between individuals within year classes. This suggests that Atlantic salmon in the Baltic Sea experience great variation in environmental conditions and exploitation rates over ontogeny depending on origin and that current assessment assumptions about equal exploitation rates in the offshore fisheries and a shared environment at sea are not valid. Thus, our results provide additional arguments and necessary information for implementing population-specific management of salmon, also when targeting life stages at sea.
Project description:In this study, transcriptomics was used to investigate Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) sampled from three different field locations within Baltic Sea (Baltic Main Basin (CBS), Gulf of Finland (GoF) and Bothnian Sea (BS)) during marine migration. RNA labeling, hybridizations, and scanning were performed by the Finnish Microarray and Sequencing Centre in Turku Centre for Biotechnology.
Project description:Salmon have been widely publicized as a good dietary source of vitamin D, but recent data points to large variation in vitamin D content and differences between wild and farmed salmon. We aimed to: (1) investigate the content of vitamin D in Atlantic salmon (<i>Salmo salar</i>) in wild species caught in two different waters, (2) perform a 12-week feeding trial in farmed <i>Salmo salar</i> with 270-1440 µg vitamin D<sub>3</sub>/kg feed (4-20 times maximum level in the EU) and (3) conduct a review for the published data on the content of vitamin D in salmonids. Content of vitamin D<sub>3</sub> in the fillet from wild salmon caught in the Baltic Sea and the North Sea was significantly different (<i>p</i> < 0.05), being 18.5 ± 4.6 µg/100 g and 9.4 ± 1.9 µg/100 g, respectively. In the farmed salmon the content ranged from 2.9 ± 0.7 µg vitamin D<sub>3</sub>/100 g to 9.5 ± 0.7 µg vitamin D<sub>3</sub>/100 g. Data from 2018 shows that farmed salmon contained 2.3-7.3 µg vitamin D<sub>3</sub>/100 g. Information on the content of vitamin D in wild and farmed salmonids is very limited, which calls for further research to ensure a sustainable production of salmon with adequate vitamin D.
Project description:The understanding of migration patterns can significantly contribute to conservation and management. The spawning migrations of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) cover thousands of kilometers from the feeding areas at sea to their natal rivers to reproduce. Migrating salmon are exposed to intensive harvest, but little is known of the population-specific differences in migration behavior. In this study, timing of return migration was investigated among one-sea-winter Atlantic salmon within a river system. By utilizing knowledge of the genetic population structure, population of origin was reliably identified for c. 1500 fish caught in mixed stock fisheries after adopting an approach to minimize the complications arising from potential nonsampled populations. Results demonstrated significant and temporally stable differences among populations as well as between sexes. Generally, female salmon from tributary populations entered fresh water first. Run timing was not however related to in-river migration distance. Rather, one-sea-winter salmon from larger populations and with a higher proportion of multi-sea-winter females arrived later in the season. These findings are a significant step toward a more thorough understanding of the salmon migration behavior and behavioral ecology, providing concrete tools for the management and conservation of the remaining indigenous Atlantic salmon stocks.
Project description:The fitness and reproductive output of fishes can be affected by environmental disturbances. In this study, transcriptomics and label-free proteomics were combined to investigate Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) sampled from three different field locations within the Baltic Sea (Baltic Main Basin (BMB), Gulf of Finland (GoF) and Bothnian Sea (BS)) during marine migration. The expression of several stress related mRNAs and proteins of xenobiotic metabolism, oxidative stress, DNA damage and cell death were increased in salmon from GoF compared to salmon from BMB or BS. Respiratory electron chain and ATP synthesis related gene ontology-categories were upregulated in GoF salmon whereas those associated with RNA processing and synthesis, translation and protein folding decreased. Differences were seen also in metabolism and immune function related gene expression. Comparisons of the transcriptomic and proteomic profiles between salmon from GoF and salmon from BMB or BS suggest environmental stressors, especially exposure to environmental contaminants, as a main explanation for differences. Salmon feeding in GoF are thus “disturbed by hazardous substances”. The results may also be applied in evaluating the conditions of pelagic ecosystems in the different parts of Baltic Sea.
Project description:Kelts - individuals of anadromous fish species which have successfully spawned and may return to sea to repeat the cycle - are perhaps the least studied life stage of iteroparous fish species. To date, our understanding of what makes them successful in their return migration to sea is limited. We investigated the relationship between three physiological parameters (baseline cortisol, baseline glucose and low molecular weight antioxidants) and the timing and success of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and sea trout (Salmo trutta) kelt migration. To do so, we combined blood samples obtained within 3 minutes of capture and acoustic telemetry to track 66 salmon and 72 sea trout as they migrated out of rivers, into fjords and out at sea. We show that baseline cortisol may be a good predictor of migration success. Individuals with high baseline cortisol levels exited the river earlier but were less likely to successfully reach the sea. Similar relationships were not observed with glucose or antioxidants. We provide the first evidence to support the role of physiological status in migration success in Atlantic salmon and sea trout kelts. Our findings contribute to our understanding of the relationship between physiology and fitness in wild animals. Further, we suggest that migration timing is a trade-off between stress and readiness to migrate.
Project description:Knowing the distribution of marine animals is central to understanding climatic and other environmental influences on population ecology. This information has proven difficult to gain through capture-based methods biased by capture location. Here we show that marine location can be inferred from animal tissues. As the carbon isotope composition of animal tissues varies with sea surface temperature, marine location can be identified by matching time series of carbon isotopes measured in tissues to sea surface temperature records. Applying this technique to populations of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) produces isotopically-derived maps of oceanic feeding grounds, consistent with the current understanding of salmon migrations, that additionally reveal geographic segregation in feeding grounds between individual philopatric populations and age-classes. Carbon isotope ratios can be used to identify the location of open ocean feeding grounds for any pelagic animals for which tissue archives and matching records of sea surface temperature are available.
Project description:Thiamine (vitamin B1) deficiency in salmonids related to a lipid-rich fish diet causes offspring mortality in the yolk-sac fry phase. A low free thiamine (THIAM) concentration in eggs is an indication of this syndrome. Thiamine deficiency of salmon (Salmo salar) feeding in the Baltic Sea, called M74, was connected to the principal prey fish and feeding area using fatty acid (FA) signature analysis. The FAs of feeding salmon from two areas of the Baltic Sea, the Baltic Proper (57°10' 19°30') and the Bothnian Sea (61°30' 20°00') in 2004, reflected the principal prey species in these areas, sprat (Sprattus sprattus) and herring (Clupea harengus), respectively. Arachidonic acid (ARA, 20:4n-6) and 18:1n-7 indicated dietary herring, 18:1n-9 dietary sprat and 14:0 feeding in the Baltic Proper. The muscle FA profile of non-M74 female spawners of the River Simojoki in a year (1998) with a moderate M74 incidence and salmon of a non-M74 year (2004) reflected herring FAs, whereas the FAs in the M74 year and specifically in M74 females displayed characteristics of sprat. In the M74 year, the THIAM concentration had the strongest positive correlation with the proportion of muscle ARA, and the strongest negative correlations with 14:0 and the ratios 18:1n-9/ARA and 14:0/ARA. Thus, ARA along with 14:0 and these ratios were the most sensitive FA indicators of the dietary species and origin of the M74 syndrome. Despite the pre-spawning fasting, tissue FA signatures were consequently able to connect dietary sprat in the Baltic Proper with thiamine deficiency in Baltic salmon.
Project description:Understanding the habitat use patterns of migratory fish, such as Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.), and the natural and anthropogenic impacts on them, is aided by the ability to identify individuals to their stock of origin. Presented here are the results of an analysis of informative single nucleotide polymorphic (SNP) markers for detecting genetic structuring in Atlantic salmon in Scotland and NE England and their ability to allow accurate genetic stock identification. 3,787 fish from 147 sites covering 27 rivers were screened at 5,568 SNP markers. In order to identify a cost-effective subset of SNPs, they were ranked according to their ability to differentiate between fish from different rivers. A panel of 288 SNPs was used to examine both individual assignments and mixed stock fisheries and eighteen assignment units were defined. The results improved greatly on previously available methods and, for the first time, fish caught in the marine environment can be confidently assigned to geographically coherent units within Scotland and NE England, including individual rivers. As such, this SNP panel has the potential to aid understanding of the various influences acting upon Atlantic salmon on their marine migrations, be they natural environmental variations and/or anthropogenic impacts, such as mixed stock fisheries and interactions with marine power generation installations.
Project description:The role of parasitic sea lice (Siphonostomatoida; Caligidae), especially Lepeophtheirus salmonis, in the epidemiology of Infectious Salmon Anemia Virus (ISAv) has long been suspected. The epidemiological studies conducted during the 1998 major Infectious Salmon Anaemia (ISA) outbreak in Scotland demonstrated a strong correlation between sea lice presence and ISAv positive sites or subsequent clinical outbreaks of ISA. The question posed from this observation was "do sea lice infestations on Atlantic salmon make them more susceptible to viral infections?" This study investigated the role that sea lice infestations have on the severity of ISAv infections and disease mortality in experimental populations of farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). A series of experiments was carried out that investigated the potential of sea lice to modify the outcome of an ISAv infection. Experimental populations of Atlantic salmon were established that had: no lice and no ISAv, a single infection with either ISAv or lice and a co-infection with lice then ISAV. The results were quite clear, the process of infestation by the parasite prior to ISAv exposure significantly increased the mortality and death rates of Atlantic salmon, when compared to uninfected controls and ISAv infected groups only. This was consistent over two source strains of Atlantic salmon (Pennobscot and Saint John River), but the severity and timing was altered. Immunological responses were also consistent in that pro-inflammatory genes were induced in lice only and co-infected fish, whereas the anti-viral response, Mx, MH class I ?, Galectin 9 and TRIM 16, 25 genes were down-regulated by lice infection prior to and shortly after co-infection with ISAv. It is concluded that the sea lice settlement on Atlantic salmon and the parasite's subsequent manipulation of the host's immune system, which increases parasite settlement success, also increased susceptibility to ISAv.
Project description:We investigate the effect of a functional feed for immunostimulation (peptidoglycan extract from bacterial cell wall with nucleotide formulation) on L. salmonis infection levels on Atlantic salmon Salmo salar, and on host and parasite gene expression profiles. Atlantic salmon smolts (~95 g) were fed a control diet, or a low or high dose immunostimulant diet, and then exposed to L. salmonis copepodids in three subsequent exposures. The transcriptome of salmon lice late in the infection attached to either the low dose diet or control diet hosts were compared using a 38K oligonucleotide microarray. Overall design: Atlantic L. salmonis copepods were used to infect Atlantic salmon on an immunostimulant diet, and upon development to the adult stage the lice were collected and profiled. Lice are either feeding on immunostimulant-fed or control-fed salmon. Lice samples are equal numbers of males and females.