The importance of caveolins and caveolae to dermatology: Lessons from the caves and beyond.
ABSTRACT: Caveolae are flask-shaped invaginations of the cell membrane rich in cholesterol and sphingomyelin, with caveolin proteins acting as their primary structural components that allow compartmentalization and orchestration of various signalling molecules. In this review, we discuss how pleiotropic functions of caveolin-1 (Cav1) and its intricate roles in numerous cellular functions including lipid trafficking, signalling, cell migration and proliferation, as well as cellular senescence, infection and inflammation, are integral for normal development and functioning of skin and its appendages. We then examine how disruption of the homeostatic levels of Cav1 can lead to development of various cutaneous pathophysiologies including skin cancers, cutaneous fibroses, psoriasis, alopecia, age-related changes in skin and aberrant wound healing and propose how levels of Cav1 may have theragnostic value in skin physiology/pathophysiology.
Project description:Mice and humans lacking functional caveolae are dyslipidemic and have reduced fat stores and smaller fat cells. To test the role of caveolins/caveolae in maintaining lipid stores and adipocyte integrity, we compared lipolysis in caveolin-1 (Cav1)-null fat cells to that in cells reconstituted for caveolae by caveolin-1 re-expression. We find that the Cav1-null cells have a modestly enhanced rate of lipolysis and reduced cellular integrity compared with reconstituted cells as determined by the release of lipid metabolites and lactic dehydrogenase, respectively, into the media. There are no apparent differences in the levels of lipolytic enzymes or hormonally stimulated phosphorylation events in the two cell lines. In addition, acute fasting, which dramatically raises circulating fatty acid levels in vivo, causes a significant upregulation of caveolar protein constituents. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that caveolae protect fat cells from the lipotoxic effects of elevated levels fatty acids, which are weak detergents at physiological pH, by virtue of the property of caveolae to form detergent-resistant membrane domains.
Project description:Caveolae are membrane invaginations present at high densities in muscle and fat. Recent work has demonstrated that myocardin family coactivators (MYOCD, MKL1), which are important for contractile differentiation and cell motility, increase caveolin (CAV1, CAV2, CAV3) and cavin (CAVIN1, CAVIN2, CAVIN3) transcription, but several aspects of this control mechanism remain to be investigated. Here, using promoter reporter assays we found that both MKL1/MRTF-A and MKL2/MRTF-B control caveolins and cavins via their proximal promoter sequences. Silencing of MKL1 and MKL2 in smooth muscle cells moreover reduced CAV1 and CAVIN1 mRNA levels by well over 50%, as did treatment with second generation inhibitors of MKL activity. GATA6, which modulates expression of smooth muscle-specific genes, reduced CAV1 and CAV2, whereas the cavins were unaffected or increased. Viral overexpression of MKL1 and myocardin induced caveolin and cavin expression in bladder smooth muscle cells from rats and humans and MYOCD correlated tightly with CAV1 and CAVIN1 in human bladder specimens. A recently described activator of MKL-driven transcription (ISX) failed to induce CAV1/CAVIN1 which may be due to an unusual transactivation mechanism. In all, these findings further support the view that myocardin family coactivators are important transcriptional drivers of caveolins and cavins in smooth muscle.
Project description:Caveolin-1 (Cav1) is a scaffolding protein that serves to regulate the activity of several signaling molecules. Its loss has been implicated in the pathogenesis of several types of cancer, but its role in the development and progression of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC) remains largely unexplored. Herein, we use the keratinocyte cell line PAM212, a murine model of cSCC, to determine the function of Cav1 in skin tumor biology. We first show that Cav1 overexpression decreases cell and tumor growth, whereas Cav1 knockdown increases these attributes in PAM212 cells. In addition, Cav1 knockdown increases the invasive ability and incidence of spontaneous lymph node metastasis. Finally, we demonstrate that Cav1 knockdown increases extracellular signaling-related kinase 1/2 mitogen-activated protein kinase/activator protein-1 pathway activation. We attribute the growth and invasive advantage conferred by Cav1 knockdown to increased expression of activator protein-1 transcriptional targets, including cyclin D1 and keratin 18, which show inverse expression in PAM212 based on the expression level of Cav1. In summary, we demonstrate that loss of Cav1 affects several characteristics associated with aggressive human skin tumors and that this protein may be an important modulator of tumor growth and invasion in cSCC.
Project description:Several studies have suggested crosstalk between different clathrin-independent endocytic pathways. However, the molecular mechanisms and functional relevance of these interactions are unclear. Caveolins and cavins are crucial components of caveolae, specialized microdomains that also constitute an endocytic route. Here we show that specific caveolar proteins are independently acting negative regulators of clathrin-independent endocytosis. Cavin-1 and Cavin-3, but not Cavin-2 or Cavin-4, are potent inhibitors of the clathrin-independent carriers/GPI-AP enriched early endosomal compartment (CLIC/GEEC) endocytic pathway, in a process independent of caveola formation. Caveolin-1 (CAV1) and CAV3 also inhibit the CLIC/GEEC pathway upon over-expression. Expression of caveolar protein leads to reduction in formation of early CLIC/GEEC carriers, as detected by quantitative electron microscopy analysis. Furthermore, the CLIC/GEEC pathway is upregulated in cells lacking CAV1/Cavin-1 or with reduced expression of Cavin-1 and Cavin-3. Inhibition by caveolins can be mimicked by the isolated caveolin scaffolding domain and is associated with perturbed diffusion of lipid microdomain components, as revealed by fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) studies. In the absence of cavins (and caveolae) CAV1 is itself endocytosed preferentially through the CLIC/GEEC pathway, but the pathway loses polarization and sorting attributes with consequences for membrane dynamics and endocytic polarization in migrating cells and adult muscle tissue. We also found that noncaveolar Cavin-1 can act as a modulator for the activity of the key regulator of the CLIC/GEEC pathway, Cdc42. This work provides new insights into the regulation of noncaveolar clathrin-independent endocytosis by specific caveolar proteins, illustrating multiple levels of crosstalk between these pathways. We show for the first time a role for specific cavins in regulating the CLIC/GEEC pathway, provide a new tool to study this pathway, identify caveola-independent functions of the cavins and propose a novel mechanism for inhibition of the CLIC/GEEC pathway by caveolin.
Project description:To determine the role of the recently discovered primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) risk factor mapped to chromosome 7q31 in glaucoma patients from Iowa and to determine the expression pattern of genes in the locus in human eyes.A cohort of 545 POAG patients and 297 control subjects from Iowa were genotyped with a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP; rs4236601) in the chromosome 7q31 locus using a quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. The expression of genes within the 7q31 locus, caveolin-1 (CAV1) and caveolin-2 (CAV2) in human eyes was investigated with immunohistochemistry.The minor allele frequency (MAF) of rs4236601 was 27% in control subjects and 29% in POAG patients. We detected no statistical difference when we compared the allele frequencies of rs4236601 between POAG patients and control subjects (p=0.5). Similarly, we detected no statistical difference in the frequency of the three possible rs4236601 genotypes between patients and controls (p=0.22). Immunohistochemistry showed caveolin expression in human retina, ciliary muscle, trabecular meshwork, and Schlemm's canal. In our small cohort of donor eyes, the genotype of rs4236601 did not obviously influence labeling intensity or distribution of CAV1 and CAV2 in the retina.A genome-wide association study of subjects from Iceland mapped the first common genetic risk factor for POAG to a small region of the genome on chromosome 7q31 that contains the caveolin genes CAV1 and CAV2. We were unable to detect this association in our patients from Iowa, suggesting that this risk factor may not have a strong effect in all populations.
Project description:Caveolin-1 (CAV1) is over-expressed in prostate cancer (PCa) and is associated with adverse prognosis, but the molecular mechanisms linking CAV1 expression to disease progression are poorly understood. Extensive gene expression correlation analysis, quantitative multiplex imaging of clinical samples, and analysis of the CAV1-dependent transcriptome, supported that CAV1 re-programmes TGF? signalling from tumour suppressive to oncogenic (i.e. induction of SLUG, PAI-1 and suppression of CDH1, DSP, CDKN1A). Supporting such a role, CAV1 knockdown led to growth arrest and inhibition of cell invasion in prostate cancer cell lines. Rationalized RNAi screening and high-content microscopy in search for CAV1 upstream regulators revealed integrin beta1 (ITGB1) and integrin associated proteins as CAV1 regulators. Our work suggests TGF? signalling and beta1 integrins as potential therapeutic targets in PCa over-expressing CAV1, and contributes to better understand the paradoxical dual role of TGF? in tumour biology.
Project description:Emerging evidence suggests that caveolin-1 (Cav1) is associated with pulmonary arterial hypertension. MURC (also called Cavin-4) is a member of the cavin family, which regulates caveolar formation and functions together with caveolins. Here, we show that hypoxia increased Murc mRNA expression in the mouse lung, and that Murc-null mice exhibited attenuation of hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension (PH) accompanied by reduced ROCK activity in the lung. Conditional knockout mice lacking Murc in smooth muscle also resist hypoxia-induced PH. MURC regulates the proliferation and migration of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) through Rho/ROCK signalling. Cav1 suppresses RhoA activity in PASMCs, which is reversed by MURC. MURC binds to Cav1 and inhibits the association of Cav1 with the active form of G?13, resulting in the facilitated association of the active form of G?13 with p115RhoGEF. These results reveal that MURC has a function in the development of PH through modulating Rho/ROCK signalling.
Project description:The receptor tyrosine kinase-like orphan receptor 1 (ROR1) sustains prosurvival signalling directly downstream of the lineage-survival oncogene NKX2-1/TTF-1 in lung adenocarcinoma. Here we report an unanticipated function of this receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) as a scaffold of cavin-1 and caveolin-1 (CAV1), two essential structural components of caveolae. This kinase-independent function of ROR1 facilitates the interactions of cavin-1 and CAV1 at the plasma membrane, thereby preventing the lysosomal degradation of CAV1. Caveolae structures and prosurvival signalling towards AKT through multiple RTKs are consequently sustained. These findings provide mechanistic insight into how ROR1 inhibition can overcome EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) resistance due to bypass signalling via diverse RTKs such as MET and IGF-IR, which is currently a major clinical obstacle. Considering its onco-embryonic expression, inhibition of the scaffold function of ROR1 in patients with lung adenocarcinoma is an attractive approach for improved treatment of this devastating cancer.
Project description:Caveolin-1 (CAV1), the major constituent of caveolae, plays a pivotal role in various cellular biological functions, including cancer and inflammation. The ubiquitin/proteasomal pathway is known to contribute to the regulation of CAV1 expression, but the ubiquitin ligase responsible for CAV1 protein stability remains unidentified. Here we reveal that E3 ubiquitin ligase ZNRF1 modulates CAV1 protein stability to regulate Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4-triggered immune responses. We demonstrate that ZNRF1 physically interacts with CAV1 in response to lipopolysaccharide and mediates ubiquitination and degradation of CAV1. The ZNRF1-CAV1 axis regulates Akt-GSK3? activity upon TLR4 activation, resulting in enhanced production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and inhibition of anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. Mice with deletion of ZNRF1 in their hematopoietic cells display increased resistance to endotoxic and polymicrobial septic shock due to attenuated inflammation. Our study defines ZNRF1 as a regulator of TLR4-induced inflammatory responses and reveals another mechanism for the regulation of TLR4 signalling through CAV1.
Project description:Chronic wounds-including diabetic foot ulcers, venous leg ulcers, and pressure ulcers-represent a major health problem that demands an urgent solution and new therapies. Despite major burden to patients, health care professionals, and health care systems worldwide, there are no efficacious therapies approved for treatment of chronic wounds. One of the major obstacles in achieving wound closure in patients is the lack of epithelial migration. Here, we used multiple pre-clinical wound models to show that Caveolin-1 (Cav1) impedes healing and that targeting Cav1 accelerates wound closure. We found that Cav1 expression is significantly upregulated in wound edge biopsies of patients with non-healing wounds, confirming its healing-inhibitory role. Conversely, Cav1 was absent from the migrating epithelium and is downregulated in acutely healing wounds. Specifically, Cav1 interacted with membranous glucocorticoid receptor (mbGR) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in a glucocorticoid-dependent manner to inhibit cutaneous healing. However, pharmacological disruption of caveolae by M?CD or CRISPR/Cas9-mediated Cav1 knockdown resulted in disruption of Cav1-mbGR and Cav1-EGFR complexes and promoted epithelialization and wound healing. Our data reveal a novel mechanism of inhibition of epithelialization and wound closure, providing a rationale for pharmacological targeting of Cav1 as potential therapy for patients with non-healing chronic wounds.