Catalytic Synthesis of Trifluoromethyl Cyclopropenes and Oligo-Cyclopropenes.
ABSTRACT: The synthesis of trifluoromethylated cyclopropenes is often associated with important applications in drug discovery and functional materials. In this report, we describe the use of readily available chiral rhodium(II) catalysts for a highly efficient asymmetric cyclopropenation reaction of fluorinated donor-acceptor diazoalkanes with a broad variety of aliphatic and aromatic alkynes. Further studies highlight the unique reactivity of fluorinated donor-acceptor diazoalkanes in the synthesis of oligo-cyclopropenes. Subsequent C-H functionalization of trifluoromethyl cyclopropenes furnishes densely substituted cyclopropene frameworks and also allows the alternative synthesis of bis-cyclopropenes.
Project description:A one-pot synthesis of various GABA amides has been demostrated, employing the nucleophilic addition of primary and secondary amines across the double bond of cyclopropene-3-carboxamides, followed by ring-opening of the resulting donor-acceptor cyclopropanes and subsequent in situ reduction of enamine (imine) intermediates.
Project description:Lipidated cyclopropenes serve as useful bioorthogonal reagents for imaging cell membranes due to the cyclopropene's small size and ability to ligate with pro-fluorescent tetrazines. Previously, the lipidation of cyclopropenes required modification at the C3 position because methods to append lipids at C1/C2 were not available. Herein, we describe C1/C2 lipidation with the biologically active lipid ceramide and a common phospholipid using a cyclopropene scaffold whose reactivity with 1,2,4,5-tetrazines has been caged.
Project description:Stereodivergent metallacycle-mediated cross-coupling reactions are described for the synthesis of densely functionalized vinylcyclopropanes from the union of alkynes with cyclopropenes. Strategies explored include hydroxyl-directed and nondirected processes, with the latter of these delivering vinylcyclopropanes with exquisite levels of regio- and stereoselectivity. Challenges inherent to these coupling reactions include diastereoselectivity (with respect to the cyclopropene) and regioselectivity (with respect to both coupling partners).
Project description:We report the convergent synthesis of bicyclo[3.1.0]hexanes possessing an all-carbon quaternary center via a (3 + 2) annulation of cyclopropenes with cyclopropylanilines. Using an organic or an iridium photoredox catalyst and blue LED irradiation, good yields were obtained for a broad range of cyclopropene and cyclopropylaniline derivatives. The reaction was highly diastereoselective when using difluorocyclopropenes together with a removable substituent on the cyclopropylaniline, giving access to important building blocks for medicinal chemistry. With efficient methods existing for the synthesis of both reaction partners, our method grants a fast access to highly valuable bicyclic scaffolds with three contiguous stereocenters.
Project description:?-Lactam derivatives are produced through intermediate donor-acceptor cyclopropene intermediates in high yield, exclusive cis-diastereoselectivity, and high enantiocontrol in a chiral dirhodium carboxylate catalyzed intramolecular C-H functionalization reaction of enoldiazoacetamides.
Project description:Substituted cyclopropenes have recently attracted attention as stable "mini-tags" that are highly reactive dienophiles with the bioorthogonal tetrazine functional group. Despite this interest, the synthesis of stable cyclopropenes is not trivial and their reactivity patterns are poorly understood. Here, the synthesis and comparison of the reactivity of a series of 1-methyl-3-substituted cyclopropenes with different functional handles is described. The rates at which the various substituted cyclopropenes undergo Diels-Alder cycloadditions with 1,2,4,5-tetrazines were measured. Depending on the substituents, the rates of cycloadditions vary by over two orders of magnitude. The substituents also have a dramatic effect on aqueous stability. An outcome of these studies is the discovery of a novel 3-amidomethyl substituted methylcyclopropene tag that reacts twice as fast as the fastest previously disclosed 1-methyl-3-substituted cyclopropene while retaining excellent aqueous stability. Furthermore, this new cyclopropene is better suited for bioconjugation applications and this is demonstrated through using DNA templated tetrazine ligations. The effect of tetrazine structure on cyclopropene reaction rate was also studied. Surprisingly, 3-amidomethyl substituted methylcyclopropene reacts faster than trans-cyclooctenol with a sterically hindered and extremely stable tert-butyl substituted tetrazine. Density functional theory calculations and the distortion/interaction analysis of activation energies provide insights into the origins of these reactivity differences and a guide to the development of future tetrazine coupling partners. The newly disclosed cyclopropenes have kinetic and stability advantages compared to previously reported dienophiles and will be highly useful for applications in organic synthesis, bioorthogonal reactions, and materials science.
Project description:Substituted cyclopropenes serve as compact biorthogonal appendages that enable analysis of biomolecules in complex systems. Neurotransmitters, a chemically diverse group of biomolecules that control neuron excitation and inhibition, are not among the systems that have been studied using biorthogonal chemistry. Here we describe the synthesis of cyclopropene-containing analogs of the excitatory amino acid neurotransmitter glutamate starting from a Garner's aldehyde-derived alkyne. The deprotected cyclopropene glutamate was stable in solution but decomposed upon concentration. Appending a light-cleavable group improved the stability of the cyclopropene while simultaneously caging the neurotransmitter. This strategy has the potential to permit deployment of cyclopropene-modified glutamate as a bioorthogonal probe of the neurotransmitter glutamate in vivo with spatiotemporal precision.
Project description:A palladium catalyzed C-H functionalization and consecutive ?-fluoride elimination reaction between indole heterocycles and fluorinated diazoalkanes is reported. This approach provides for the first time a facile method for the rapid synthesis of gem-difluoro olefins using fluorinated diazoalkanes under mild reaction conditions. Cyclopropanation products were obtained when N-arylated rather than N-alkylated indoles were applied in this reaction. Mechanistic studies reveal the importance of the ?-fluoride elimination step in this transformation. This method presents a new concept for the simple and direct transfer of a 1-aryl-(2,2-difluorovinyl) group to access gem-difluoro olefins.
Project description:Silver and copper foil were found to be effective, versatile and selective heterogeneous catalysts for the cyclopropenation of terminal and internal alkynes under mechanochemical reaction conditions. This methodology enables the functionalization of a wide range of terminal or internal alkynes under ambient, aerobic, and solvent-free conditions. Finally, we have demonstrated a unique and versatile one-pot domino Sonogashira-cyclopropenation mechanochemical reaction for the formation of complex cyclopropenes.
Project description:A concise synthesis of a branched trisaccharide, ?-l-Dig-(1 ? 3)-[?-l-Eva-(1 ? 4)]-?-d-Fuc, corresponding to saccharomicin B, has been developed via reagent-controlled ?-selective glycosylations. Starting from the d-fucose acceptor, l- epi-vancosamine was selectively installed using 2,3-bis(2,3,4-trimethoxyphenyl)cyclopropene-1-thione/oxalyl bromide mediated dehydrative glycosylation. Following deprotection, l-digitoxose was installed using the AgPF6/TTBP thioether-activation method to produce the trisaccharide as a single ?-anomer. This highly functionalized trisaccharide can potentially serve as both a donor and an acceptor for the total synthesis of the antibiotic saccharomicin B.