Val143 of human ribonuclease H2 is not critical for, but plays a role in determining catalytic activity and substrate specificity.
ABSTRACT: Ribonuclease H2 (RNase H2) exhibits both single ribonucleotide excision activity (activity A) and RNA strand degrading activity (activity B). Val143 of human RNase H2 is located at the active site and is conserved in eukaryotic RNase H2. In this study, we explored the role of Val143 in catalytic activity and substrate specificity. Nineteen single variants at amino acid position 143 were expressed in E. coli, and all variants except for V143C and V143M were purified from the cells. When the activity of the wild-type human RNase H2 (WT) was set as 100%, the relative activities A and B of the 17 variants were in the range of 0.05-130 and 0.02-42%, respectively. When the ratio of the relative activity A to the relative activity B of WT was set as 1, the ratios of the 17 variants were in the range of 0.2-5.7. This indicates that valine is optimal for balancing the two activities. The ratios for V143Y and V143W were relatively high (5.6 and 5.5, respectively), suggesting that the bulky residues like tyrosine and tryptophan at position 143 caused steric hindrance with the 2'-OH of the sugar moiety of the ribonucleotide at the 5' side of the scissile phosphodiester bond. The ratio for V143Q was relatively low (0.2). These results suggested that Val143 is not critical for, but plays a role in determining catalytic activity and substrate specificity.
Project description:The composition of RNase H2 has been a long-standing problem. Whereas bacterial and archaeal RNases H2 are active as single polypeptides, the Saccharomyces cerevisiae homolog, Rnh2Ap, when expressed in Escherichia coli, fails to produce an active RNase H2. By affinity chromatography purification and identification of polypeptides associated with a tagged S.cerevisiae Rnh2Ap, we obtained a complex of three proteins [Rnh2Ap (Rnh201p), Ydr279p (Rnh202p) and Ylr154p (Rnh203p)] that together are necessary and sufficient for RNase H2 activity [correction]. Deletion of the gene encoding any one of the proteins or mutations in the catalytic site in Rnh2A led to loss of RNase H2 activity. Even when S.cerevisiae RNase H2 is catalytically compromised, it still exhibits a preference for cleavage of the phosphodiester bond on the 5' side of a ribonucleotide-deoxyribonucleotide sequence in substrates mimicking RNA-primed Okazaki fragments or a single ribonucleotide embedded in a duplex DNA. Interestingly, Ydr279p and Ylr154p have homologous proteins only in closely related species. The multisubunit nature of S.cerevisiae RNase H2 may be important both for structural purposes and to provide a means of interacting with other proteins involved in DNA replication/repair and transcription.
Project description:Several RNases H1 cleave the RNA-DNA junction of Okazaki fragment-like RNA-DNA/DNA substrate. This activity, termed 3'-junction ribonuclease (3'-JRNase) activity, is different from the 5'-JRNase activity of RNase H2 that cleaves the 5'-side of the ribonucleotide of the RNA-DNA junction and is required to initiate the ribonucleotide excision repair pathway. To examine whether RNase H1 exhibits 3'-JRNase activity for dsDNA containing a single ribonucleotide and can remove this ribonucleotide in collaboration with RNase H2, cleavage of a DNA8-RNA1-DNA9/DNA18 substrate with E. coli RNase H1 and H2 was analyzed. This substrate was cleaved by E. coli RNase H1 at the (5')RNA-DNA(3') junction, regardless of whether it was cleaved by E. coli RNase H2 at the (5')DNA-RNA(3') junction in advance or not. Likewise, this substrate was cleaved by E. coli RNase H2 at the (5')DNA-RNA(3') junction, regardless of whether it was cleaved by E. coli RNase H1 at the (5')RNA-DNA(3') junction in advance or not. When this substrate was cleaved by a mixture of E. coli RNases H1 and H2, the ribonucleotide was removed from the substrate. We propose that RNase H1 is involved in the excision of single ribonucleotides misincorporated into DNA in collaboration with RNase H2.
Project description:Eukaryotic RNases H2 have dual functions in initiating the removal of ribonucleoside monophosphates (rNMPs) incorporated by DNA polymerases during DNA synthesis and in cleaving the RNA moiety of RNA/DNA hybrids formed during transcription and retrotransposition. The other major cellular RNase H, RNase H1, shares the hybrid processing activity, but not all substrates. After RNase H2 incision at the rNMPs in DNA the Ribonucleotide Excision Repair (RER) pathway completes the removal, restoring dsDNA. The development of the RNase H2-RED (Ribonucleotide Excision Defective) mutant enzyme, which can process RNA/DNA hybrids but is unable to cleave rNMPs embedded in DNA has unlinked the two activities and illuminated the roles of RNase H2 in cellular metabolism. Studies mostly in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, have shown both activities of RNase H2 are necessary to maintain genome integrity and that RNase H1 and H2 have overlapping as well as distinct RNA/DNA hybrid substrates. In mouse RNase H2-RED confirmed that rNMPs in DNA during embryogenesis induce lethality in a p53-dependent DNA damage response. In mammalian cell cultures, RNase H2-RED helped identifying DNA lesions produced by Top1 cleavage at rNMPs and led to determine that RNase H2 participates in the retrotransposition of LINE-1 elements. In this review, we summarize the studies and conclusions reached by utilization of RNase H2-RED enzyme in different model systems.
Project description:The cellular pool of ribonucleotide triphosphates (rNTPs) is higher than that of deoxyribonucleotide triphosphates. To ensure genome stability, DNA polymerases must discriminate against rNTPs and incorporated ribonucleotides must be removed by ribonucleotide excision repair (RER). We investigated DNA polymerase ? (POL ?) capacity to incorporate ribonucleotides into trinucleotide repeated DNA sequences and the efficiency of base excision repair (BER) and RER enzymes (OGG1, MUTYH, and RNase H2) when presented with an incorrect sugar and an oxidized base. POL ? incorporated rAMP and rCMP opposite 7,8-dihydro-8-oxoguanine (8-oxodG) and extended both mispairs. In addition, POL ? was able to insert and elongate an oxidized rGMP when paired with dA. We show that RNase H2 always preserves the capacity to remove a single ribonucleotide when paired to an oxidized base or to incise an oxidized ribonucleotide in a DNA duplex. In contrast, BER activity is affected by the presence of a ribonucleotide opposite an 8-oxodG. In particular, MUTYH activity on 8-oxodG:rA mispairs is fully inhibited, although its binding capacity is retained. This results in the reduction of RNase H2 incision capability of this substrate. Thus complex mispairs formed by an oxidized base and a ribonucleotide can compromise BER and RER in repeated sequences.
Project description:Ribonuclease activity of topoisomerase I (Top1) causes DNA nicks bearing 2',3'-cyclic phosphates at ribonucleotide sites. Here, we provide genetic and biochemical evidence that DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) can be directly generated by Top1 at sites of genomic ribonucleotides. We show that RNase H2-deficient yeast cells displayed elevated frequency of Rad52 foci, inactivation of RNase H2 and RAD52 led to synthetic lethality, and combined loss of RNase H2 and RAD51 induced slow growth and replication stress. Importantly, these phenotypes were rescued upon additional deletion of TOP1, implicating homologous recombination for the repair of Top1-induced damage at ribonuclelotide sites. We demonstrate biochemically that irreversible DSBs are generated by subsequent Top1 cleavage on the opposite strand from the Top1-induced DNA nicks at ribonucleotide sites. Analysis of Top1-linked DNA from pull-down experiments revealed that Top1 is covalently linked to the end of DNA in RNase H2-deficient yeast cells, supporting this model. Taken together, these results define Top1 as a source of DSBs and genome instability when ribonucleotides incorporated by the replicative polymerases are not removed by RNase H2.
Project description:Mutations in the three genes encoding the heterotrimeric RNase H2 complex cause Aicardi-Goutières Syndrome (AGS). Our mouse RNase H2 structure revealed that the catalytic RNase H2A subunit interfaces mostly with the RNase H2C subunit that is intricately interwoven with the RNase H2B subunit. We mapped the positions of AGS-causing RNase H2A mutations using the mouse RNase H2 structure and proposed that these mutations cause varied effects on catalytic potential. To determine the functional consequences of these mutations, heterotrimeric human RNase H2 complexes containing the RNase H2A subunit mutations were prepared, and catalytic efficiencies and nucleic acid binding properties were compared with the wild-type (WT) complex. These analyses reveal a dramatic range of effects with mutations at conserved positions G37S, R186W, and R235Q, reducing enzymatic activities and substrate binding affinities by as much as a 1000-fold, whereas mutations at non-conserved positions R108W, N212I, F230L, T240M, and R291H reduced activities and binding modestly or not at all. All mutants purify as three-subunit complexes, further supporting the required heterotrimeric structure in eukaryotic RNase H2. These kinetic properties reveal varied functional consequences of AGS-causing mutations in the catalytic RNase H2A subunit and reflect the complex mechanisms of nuclease dysfunction that include catalytic deficiencies and altered protein-nucleic acid interactions relevant in AGS.
Project description:RNase H2 has two distinct functions: initiation of the ribonucleotide excision repair (RER) pathway by cleaving ribonucleotides (rNMPs) incorporated during DNA replication and processing the RNA portion of an R-loop formed during transcription. An RNase H2 mutant lacking RER activity but supporting R-loop removal revealed that rNMPs in DNA initiate p53-dependent DNA damage response and early embryonic arrest in mouse. However, an RNase H2 AGS-related mutant with residual RER activity develops to birth. Estimations of the number of rNMPs in DNA in these two mutants define a ribonucleotide threshold above which p53 induces apoptosis. Below the threshold, rNMPs in DNA trigger an innate immune response. Compound heterozygous cells, containing both defective enzymes, retain rNMPs above the threshold, indicative of competition for RER substrates between active and inactive enzymes, suggesting that patients with compound heterozygous mutations in RNASEH2 genes may not reflect the properties of recombinantly expressed proteins.
Project description:We show by whole genome sequence analysis that loss of RNase H2 activity increases loss of heterozygosity (LOH) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae diploid strains harboring the pol2-M644G allele encoding a mutant version of DNA polymerase ? that increases ribonucleotide incorporation. This led us to analyze the effects of loss of RNase H2 on LOH and on nonallelic homologous recombination (NAHR) in mutant diploid strains with deletions of genes encoding RNase H2 subunits (rnh201?, rnh202?, and rnh203?), topoisomerase 1 (TOP1?), and/or carrying mutant alleles of DNA polymerases ?, ?, and ?. We observed an ?7-fold elevation of the LOH rate in RNase H2 mutants encoding wild-type DNA polymerases. Strains carrying the pol2-M644G allele displayed a 7-fold elevation in the LOH rate, and synergistic 23-fold elevation in combination with rnh201?. In comparison, strains carrying the pol2-M644L mutation that decreases ribonucleotide incorporation displayed lower LOH rates. The LOH rate was not elevated in strains carrying the pol1-L868M or pol3-L612M alleles that result in increased incorporation of ribonucleotides during DNA synthesis by polymerases ? and ?, respectively. A similar trend was observed in an NAHR assay, albeit with smaller phenotypic differentials. The ribonucleotide-mediated increases in the LOH and NAHR rates were strongly dependent on TOP1. These data add to recent reports on the asymmetric mutagenicity of ribonucleotides caused by topoisomerase 1 processing of ribonucleotides incorporated during DNA replication.
Project description:Saccharomyces cerevisiae RNase H2 resolves RNA-DNA hybrids formed during transcription and it incises DNA at single ribonucleotides incorporated during nuclear DNA replication. To distinguish between the roles of these two activities in maintenance of genome stability, here we investigate the phenotypes of a mutant of yeast RNase H2 (rnh201-RED; ribonucleotide excision defective) that retains activity on RNA-DNA hybrids but is unable to cleave single ribonucleotides that are stably incorporated into the genome. The rnh201-RED mutant was expressed in wild type yeast or in a strain that also encodes a mutant allele of DNA polymerase ? (pol2-M644G) that enhances ribonucleotide incorporation during DNA replication. Similar to a strain that completely lacks RNase H2 (rnh201?), the pol2-M644G rnh201-RED strain exhibits replication stress and checkpoint activation. Moreover, like its null mutant counterpart, the double mutant pol2-M644G rnh201-RED strain and the single mutant rnh201-RED strain delete 2-5 base pairs in repetitive sequences at a high rate that is topoisomerase 1-dependent. The results highlight an important role for RNase H2 in maintaining genome integrity by removing single ribonucleotides incorporated during DNA replication.
Project description:BACKGROUND & AIMS:RNase H2 is a holoenzyme, composed of 3 subunits (ribonuclease H2 subunits A, B, and C), that cleaves RNA:DNA hybrids and removes mis-incorporated ribonucleotides from genomic DNA through ribonucleotide excision repair. Ribonucleotide incorporation by eukaryotic DNA polymerases occurs during every round of genome duplication and produces the most frequent type of naturally occurring DNA lesion. We investigated whether intestinal epithelial proliferation requires RNase H2 function and whether RNase H2 activity is disrupted during intestinal carcinogenesis. METHODS:We generated mice with epithelial-specific deletion of ribonuclease H2 subunit B (H2b?IEC) and mice that also had deletion of tumor-suppressor protein p53 (H2b/p53?IEC); we compared phenotypes with those of littermate H2bfl/fl or H2b/p53fl/fl (control) mice at young and old ages. Intestinal tissues were collected and analyzed by histology. We isolated epithelial cells, generated intestinal organoids, and performed RNA sequence analyses. Mutation signatures of spontaneous tumors from H2b/p53?IEC mice were characterized by exome sequencing. We collected colorectal tumor specimens from 467 patients, measured levels of ribonuclease H2 subunit B, and associated these with patient survival times and transcriptome data. RESULTS:The H2b?IEC mice had DNA damage to intestinal epithelial cells and proliferative exhaustion of the intestinal stem cell compartment compared with controls and H2b/p53?IEC mice. However, H2b/p53?IEC mice spontaneously developed small intestine and colon carcinomas. DNA from these tumors contained T>G base substitutions at GTG trinucleotides. Analyses of transcriptomes of human colorectal tumors associated lower levels of RNase H2 with shorter survival times. CONCLUSIONS:In analyses of mice with disruption of the ribonuclease H2 subunit B gene and colorectal tumors from patients, we provide evidence that RNase H2 functions as a colorectal tumor suppressor. H2b/p53?IEC mice can be used to study the roles of RNase H2 in tissue-specific carcinogenesis.