Neuroimaging-Based Classification Algorithm for Predicting 1p/19q-Codeletion Status in IDH-Mutant Lower Grade Gliomas.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:Isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH)-mutant lower grade gliomas are classified as oligodendrogliomas or diffuse astrocytomas based on 1p/19q-codeletion status. We aimed to test and validate neuroradiologists' performances in predicting the codeletion status of IDH-mutant lower grade gliomas based on simple neuroimaging metrics. MATERIALS AND METHODS:One hundred two IDH-mutant lower grade gliomas with preoperative MR imaging and known 1p/19q status from The Cancer Genome Atlas composed a training dataset. Two neuroradiologists in consensus analyzed the training dataset for various imaging features: tumor texture, margins, cortical infiltration, T2-FLAIR mismatch, tumor cyst, T2* susceptibility, hydrocephalus, midline shift, maximum dimension, primary lobe, necrosis, enhancement, edema, and gliomatosis. Statistical analysis of the training data produced a multivariate classification model for codeletion prediction based on a subset of MR imaging features and patient age. To validate the classification model, 2 different independent neuroradiologists analyzed a separate cohort of 106 institutional IDH-mutant lower grade gliomas. RESULTS:Training dataset analysis produced a 2-step classification algorithm with 86.3% codeletion prediction accuracy, based on the following: 1) the presence of the T2-FLAIR mismatch sign, which was 100% predictive of noncodeleted lower grade gliomas, (n = 21); and 2) a logistic regression model based on texture, patient age, T2* susceptibility, primary lobe, and hydrocephalus. Independent validation of the classification algorithm rendered codeletion prediction accuracies of 81.1% and 79.2% in 2 independent readers. The metrics used in the algorithm were associated with moderate-substantial interreader agreement (? = 0.56-0.79). CONCLUSIONS:We have validated a classification algorithm based on simple, reproducible neuroimaging metrics and patient age that demonstrates a moderate prediction accuracy of 1p/19q-codeletion status among IDH-mutant lower grade gliomas.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Diffuse low-grade and intermediate-grade gliomas (which together make up the lower-grade gliomas, World Health Organization grades II and III) have highly variable clinical behavior that is not adequately predicted on the basis of histologic class. Some are indolent; others quickly progress to glioblastoma. The uncertainty is compounded by interobserver variability in histologic diagnosis. Mutations in IDH, TP53, and ATRX and codeletion of chromosome arms 1p and 19q (1p/19q codeletion) have been implicated as clinically relevant markers of lower-grade gliomas. METHODS:We performed genomewide analyses of 293 lower-grade gliomas from adults, incorporating exome sequence, DNA copy number, DNA methylation, messenger RNA expression, microRNA expression, and targeted protein expression. These data were integrated and tested for correlation with clinical outcomes. RESULTS:Unsupervised clustering of mutations and data from RNA, DNA-copy-number, and DNA-methylation platforms uncovered concordant classification of three robust, nonoverlapping, prognostically significant subtypes of lower-grade glioma that were captured more accurately by IDH, 1p/19q, and TP53 status than by histologic class. Patients who had lower-grade gliomas with an IDH mutation and 1p/19q codeletion had the most favorable clinical outcomes. Their gliomas harbored mutations in CIC, FUBP1, NOTCH1, and the TERT promoter. Nearly all lower-grade gliomas with IDH mutations and no 1p/19q codeletion had mutations in TP53 (94%) and ATRX inactivation (86%). The large majority of lower-grade gliomas without an IDH mutation had genomic aberrations and clinical behavior strikingly similar to those found in primary glioblastoma. CONCLUSIONS:The integration of genomewide data from multiple platforms delineated three molecular classes of lower-grade gliomas that were more concordant with IDH, 1p/19q, and TP53 status than with histologic class. Lower-grade gliomas with an IDH mutation either had 1p/19q codeletion or carried a TP53 mutation. Most lower-grade gliomas without an IDH mutation were molecularly and clinically similar to glioblastoma. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health.).
Project description:BACKGROUND:The 2016 World Health Organization (WHO) classification of central nervous system tumors stratifies isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH)-mutant gliomas into 2 major groups depending on the presence or absence of 1p/19q codeletion. However, the grading system remains unchanged and it is now controversial whether it can be still applied to this updated molecular classification. METHODS:In a large cohort of 911 high-grade IDH-mutant gliomas from the French national POLA network (including 428 IDH-mutant gliomas without 1p/19q codeletion and 483 anaplastic oligodendrogliomas, IDH-mutant and 1p/19q codeleted), we investigated the prognostic value of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A (CDKN2A) gene homozygous deletion as well as WHO grading criteria (mitoses, microvascular proliferation, and necrosis). In addition, we searched for other retinoblastoma pathway gene alterations (CDK4 amplification and RB1 homozygous deletion) in a subset of patients. CDKN2A homozygous deletion was also searched in an independent series of 40 grade II IDH-mutant gliomas. RESULTS:CDKN2A homozygous deletion was associated with dismal outcome among IDH-mutant gliomas lacking 1p/19q codeletion (P < 0.0001 for progression-free survival and P = 0.004 for overall survival) as well as among anaplastic oligodendrogliomas, IDH-mutant + 1p/19q codeleted (P = 0.002 for progression-free survival and P < 0.0001 for overall survival) in univariate and multivariate analysis including age, extent of surgery, adjuvant treatment, microvascular proliferation, and necrosis. In both groups, the presence of microvascular proliferation and/or necrosis remained of prognostic value only in cases lacking CDKN2A homozygous deletion. CDKN2A homozygous deletion was not recorded in grade II gliomas. CONCLUSIONS:Our study pointed out the utmost relevance of CDKN2A homozygous deletion as an adverse prognostic factor in the 2 broad categories of IDH-mutant gliomas stratified on 1p/19q codeletion and suggests that the grading of these tumors should be refined.
Project description:Background:Oligodendroglioma is genetically defined by concomitant IDH (IDH1/IDH2) mutation and whole-arm 1p/19q codeletion. Codeletion of 1p/19q traditionally evaluated by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) cannot distinguish partial from whole-arm 1p/19q codeletion. Partial 1p/19q codeletion called positive by FISH is diagnostically a "false-positive" result. Chromosomal microarray (CMA) discriminates partial from whole-arm 1p/19q codeletion. Herein, we aimed to estimate the frequency of partial 1p/19q codeletion that would lead to a false-positive FISH result. Methods:FISH 1p/19q codeletion test probe coordinates were mapped onto Oncoscan CMA data to determine the rate of partial 1p/19q codeletion predicted to be positive by FISH. Diffuse astrocytic gliomas with available CMA data (2015-2018) were evaluated and classified based on IDH1-R132H/ATRX/p53 immunohistochemistry, IDH/TERT promoter targeted sequencing, and/or CMA according to classification updates. Predicted false-positive cases were verified by FISH whenever possible. Results:The overall estimated false-positive FISH 1p/19q codeletion rate was 3.6% (8/223). Predicted false positives were verified by FISH in 6 (of 8) cases. False-positive rates did not differ significantly (P = .49) between IDH-mutant (4.6%; 4/86) and IDH-wildtype (2.9%; 4/137) tumors. IDH-wildtype false positives were all WHO grade IV, whereas IDH-mutant false positives spanned WHO grades II-IV. Testing for 1p/19q codeletion would not have been indicated for most false positives based on current classification recommendations. Conclusion:Selective 1p/19q codeletion testing and cautious interpretation for conflicting FISH and histopathological findings are recommended to avoid potential misdiagnosis.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Accurate classification of diffuse gliomas, the most common tumors of the central nervous system in adults, is important for appropriate treatment. However, detection of isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutation and chromosome1p/19q codeletion, biomarkers to classify gliomas, is time- and cost-intensive and diagnostic discordance remains an issue. Adenosine to inosine (A-to-I) RNA editing has emerged as a novel cancer prognostic marker, but its value for glioma classification remains largely unexplored. We aim to (1) unravel the relationship between RNA editing and IDH mutation and 1p/19q codeletion and (2) predict IDH mutation and 1p/19q codeletion status using machine learning algorithms. RESULTS:By characterizing genome-wide A-to-I RNA editing signatures of 638 gliomas, we found that tumors without IDH mutation exhibited higher total editing level compared with those carrying it (Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, p?<?0.0001). When tumor grade was considered, however, only grade IV tumors without IDH mutation exhibited higher total editing level. According to 10-fold cross-validation, support vector machines (SVM) outperformed random forest and AdaBoost (DeLong test, p?<?0.05). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of SVM in predicting IDH mutation and 1p/19q codeletion were 0.989 and 0.990, respectively. After performing feature selection, AUCs of SVM and AdaBoost in predicting IDH mutation were higher than that of random forest (0.985 and 0.983 vs. 0.977; DeLong test, p?<?0.05), but AUCs of the three algorithms in predicting 1p/19q codeletion were similar (0.976-0.982). Furthermore, 67% of the six continuously misclassified samples by our 1p/19q codeletion prediction models were misclassifications in the original labelling after inspection of 1p/19q status and/or pathology report, highlighting the accuracy and clinical utility of our models. CONCLUSIONS:The study represents the first genome-wide analysis of glioma editome and identifies RNA editing as a novel prognostic biomarker for glioma. Our prediction models provide standardized, accurate, reproducible and objective classification of gliomas. Our models are not only useful in clinical decision-making, but also able to identify editing events that have the potential to serve as biomarkers and therapeutic targets in glioma management and treatment.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The nuclear transport system has been proposed to be indispensable for cell proliferation and invasion in cancers. Prognostic biomarkers and molecular targets in nuclear transport systems have been developed. However, no systematic analysis of genes related to nuclear transport in gliomas has been performed. An integrated prognostic classification involving mutation and nuclear transport gene signatures has not yet been explored. METHODS:In the present study, we analyzed gliomas from a training cohort (TCGA dataset, n?=?660) and validation cohort (CGGA dataset, n?=?668) to develop a prognostic nuclear transport gene signature and generate an integrated classification system. Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) showed that glioblastoma (GBM) was mainly enriched in nuclear transport progress compared to lower-grade glioma (LGG). Then, we developed a nuclear transport risk score (NTRS) for gliomas with a training cohort. NTRS was significantly correlated with clinical and genetic characteristics, including grade, age, histology, IDH status and 1p/19q codeletion, in the training and validation cohorts. RESULTS:Survival analysis revealed that patients with a higher NTRS exhibited shorter overall survival. NTRS showed better prognostic value compared to classical molecular markers, including IDH status and 1p/19q codeletion. Furthermore, univariate and multivariate analyses indicated that NTRS was an independent prognostic factor for gliomas. Enrichment map and Gene Ontology analysis demonstrated that signaling pathways related to the cell cycle were enriched in the NTRSHigh group. Subgroup survival analysis revealed that NTRS could differentiate the outcomes of low- and high-risk patients with wild-type IDH or mutant IDH and 1p/19q non-codeletion. CONCLUSIONS:NTRS is associated with poor outcomes and could be an independent prognostic marker in diffuse gliomas. Prognostic classification combined with IDH mutation, 1p/19q codeletion and NTRS could better predict the survival of glioma patients.
Project description:TERT promoter mutations are commonly associated with 1p/19q codeletion in IDH-mutated gliomas. However, whether these mutations have an impact on patient survival independent of 1p/19q codeletion is unknown. In this study, we investigated the impact of TERT promoter mutations on survival in IDH-mutated glioma cases. Detailed clinical information and molecular status data were collected for a cohort of 560 adult patients with IDH-mutated gliomas. Among these patients, 279 had both TERT promoter mutation and 1p/19q codeletion, while 30 had either TERT promoter mutation (n?=?24) or 1p/19q codeletion (n?=?6) alone. A univariable Cox proportional hazard analysis for survival using clinical and genetic factors indicated that a Karnofsky performance status score (KPS) of 90 or 100, WHO grade II or III, TERT promoter mutation, 1p/19q codeletion, radiation therapy, and extent of resection (90-100%) were associated with favorable prognosis (p?<?0.05). A multivariable Cox regression model revealed that TERT promoter mutation had a significantly favorable prognostic impact (hazard ratio?=?0.421, p?=?0.049), while 1p/19q codeletion did not have a significant impact (hazard ratio?=?0.648, p?=?0.349). Analyses incorporating patient clinical and genetic information were further conducted to identify subgroups showing the favorable prognostic impact of TERT promoter mutation. Among the grade II-III glioma patients with a KPS score of 90 or 100, those with IDH-TERT co-mutation and intact 1p/19q (n?=?17) showed significantly longer survival than those with IDH mutation, wild-type TERT, and intact 1p/19q (n?=?185) (5-year overall survival, 94% and 77%, respectively; p?=?0.032). Our results demonstrate that TERT promoter mutation predicts favorable prognosis independent of 1p/19q codeletion in IDH-mutated gliomas. Combined with its adverse effect on survival among IDH-wild glioma cases, the bivalent prognostic impact of TERT promoter mutation may help further refine the molecular diagnosis and prognostication of diffuse gliomas.
Project description:IDH-mutant gliomas are classified into astrocytic or oligodendroglial tumors by 1p/19q status in the WHO 2016 classification, with the latter presenting with characteristic morphology and better prognosis in general. However, the morphological and genetic features within each category are varied, and there might be distinguishable subtypes. We analyzed 170 WHO grade II-IV gliomas resected in our institution. 1p/19q status was analyzed by microsatellite analysis, and genetic mutations were analyzed by next-generation sequencing and Sanger sequencing. For validation, the Brain Lower Grade Glioma dataset of The Cancer Genome Atlas was analyzed. Of the 42 grade III IDH-mutated gliomas, 12 were 1p-intact/19q-intact (anaplastic astrocytomas [AA]), 7 were 1p-intact/19q-loss (AA), and 23 showed 1p/19q-codeletion (anaplastic oligodendrogliomas). Of the 88 IDH-wild type glioblastomas (GBMs), 14 showed 1p-intact/19q-loss status. All of the seven 1p-intact/19q-loss AAs harbored TP53 mutation, but no TERT promotor mutation. All 19q-loss AAs had regions presenting oligodendroglioma-like morphology, and were associated with significantly longer overall survival compared to 19q-intact AAs (P = .001). This tendency was observed in The Cancer Genome Atlas Lower Grade Glioma dataset. In contrast, there was no difference in overall survival between the 19q-loss GBM and 19q-intact GBM (P = .4). In a case of 19q-loss AA, both oligodendroglial morphology and 19q-loss disappeared after recurrence, possibly indicating correlation between 19q-loss and oligodendroglial morphology. We showed that there was a subgroup, although small, of IDH-mutated astrocytomas harboring 19q-loss that present oligodendroglial morphology, and also were associated with significantly better prognosis compared to other 19q-intact astrocytomas.
Project description:Central nervous system tumors are classified based on an integrated diagnosis combining histology and molecular characteristics, including IDH1/2 and H3-K27M mutations, as well as 1p/19q codeletion. Here, we aimed to develop and assess the feasibility of a glioma-tailored 48-gene next-generation sequencing (NGS) panel for integrated glioma diagnosis. We designed a glioma-tailored 48-gene NGS panel for detecting 1p/19q codeletion and mutations in IDH1/2, TP53, PTEN, PDGFRA, NF1, RB1, CDKN2A/B, CDK4, and the TERT promoter (TERTp). We analyzed 106 glioma patients (grade II: 19 cases, grade III: 23 cases, grade IV: 64 cases) using this system. The 1p/19q codeletion was detected precisely in oligodendroglial tumors using our NGS panel. In a cohort of 64 grade ? gliomas, we identified 56 IDH-wildtype glioblastomas. Within these IDH-wildtype glioblastomas, 33 samples (58.9%) showed a mutation in TERTp. Notably, PDGFRA mutations and their amplification were more commonly seen in TERTp-wildtype glioblastomas (43%) than in TERTp-mutant glioblastomas (6%) (P = .001). Hierarchical molecular classification of IDH-wildtype glioblastomas revealed 3 distinct groups of IDH-wildtype glioblastomas. One major cluster was characterized by mutations in PDGFRA, amplification of CDK4 and PDGFRA, homozygous deletion of CDKN2A/B, and absence of TERTp mutations. This cluster was significantly associated with older age (P = .021), higher Ki-67 score (P = .007), poor prognosis (P = .012), and a periventricular tumor location. We report the development of a glioma-tailored NGS panel for detecting 1p/19q codeletion and driver gene mutations on a single platform. Our panel identified distinct subtypes of IDH- and TERTp-wildtype glioblastomas with frequent PDGFRA alterations.
Project description:The 2016 World Health Organization Classification of Tumors of the Central Nervous System incorporates the use of molecular information into the classification of brain tumors, including grade II and III gliomas, providing new prognostic information that cannot be delineated based on histopathology alone. We hypothesized that these genomic subgroups may also have distinct imaging features. A retrospective single institution study was performed on 40 patients with pathologically proven infiltrating WHO grade II/III gliomas with a pre-treatment MRI and molecular data on IDH, chromosomes 1p/19q and ATRX status. Two blinded Neuroradiologists qualitatively assessed MR features. The relationship between each parameter and molecular subgroup (IDH-wildtype; IDH-mutant-1p/19q codeleted-ATRX intact; IDH-mutant-1p/19q intact-ATRX loss) was evaluated with Fisher's exact test. Progression free survival (PFS) was also analyzed. A border that could not be defined on FLAIR was most characteristic of IDH-wildtype tumors, whereas IDH-mutant tumors demonstrated either well-defined or slightly ill-defined borders (p?=?0.019). Degree of contrast enhancement and presence of restricted diffusion did not distinguish molecular subgroups. Frontal lobe predominance was associated with IDH-mutant tumors (p?=?0.006). The IDH-wildtype subgroup had significantly shorter PFS than the IDH-mutant groups (p?<?0.001). No differences in PFS were present when separating by tumor grade. FLAIR border patterns and tumor location were associated with distinct molecular subgroups of grade II/III gliomas. These imaging features may provide fundamental prognostic and predictive information at time of initial diagnostic imaging.
Project description:AbstractBackgroundIsocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutation and 1p/19q-codeletion are oncogenetic alterations with a positive prognostic value for diffuse gliomas, especially grade II and III. Some studies have suggested differences in biological behavior as reflected by radiological characteristics. In this paper, the literature regarding radiological characteristics in grade II and III glioma subtypes was systematically evaluated and a meta-analysis was performed.MethodsStudies that addressed the relationship between conventional radiological characteristics and IDH mutations and/or 1p/19q-codeletions in newly diagnosed, grade II and III gliomas of adult patients were included. The “3-group analysis” compared radiological characteristics between the WHO 2016 glioma subtypes (IDH-mutant astrocytoma, IDH-wildtype astrocytoma, and oligodendroglioma), and the “2-group analysis” compared radiological characteristics between 1p/19q-codeleted gliomas and 1p/19q-intact gliomas.ResultsFourteen studies (3-group analysis: 670 cases, 2-group analysis: 1042 cases) were included. IDH-mutated astrocytomas showed more often sharp borders and less frequently contrast enhancement compared to IDH-wildtype astrocytomas. 1p/19q-codeleted gliomas had less frequently sharp borders, but showed a heterogeneous aspect, calcification, cysts, and edema more frequently. For the 1p/19q-codeleted gliomas, a sensitivity of 96% was found for heterogeneity and a specificity of 88.1% for calcification.ConclusionsSignificant differences in conventional radiological characteristics exist between the WHO 2016 glioma subtypes, which may reflect differences in biological behavior. However, the diagnostic value of the independent radiological characteristics is insufficient to reliably predict the molecular genetic subtype.