?5-nAChR contributes to epithelial-mesenchymal transition and metastasis by regulating Jab1/Csn5 signalling in lung cancer.
ABSTRACT: Recent studies have showed that ?5 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (?5-nAChR) is closely associated with nicotine-related lung cancer. Our previous studies also demonstrated that ?5-nAChR mediates nicotine-induced lung carcinogenesis. However, the mechanism by which ?5-nAChR functions in lung carcinogenesis remains to be elucidated. Jab1/Csn5 is a key regulatory factor in smoking-induced lung cancer. In this study, we explored the underlying mechanisms linking the ?5-nAChR-Jab1/Csn5 axis with lung cancer epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and metastasis, which may provide potential therapeutic targets for future lung cancer treatments. Our results demonstrated that the expression of ?5-nAChR was correlated with the expression of Jab1/Csn5 in lung cancer tissues and lung cancer cells. ?5-nAChR expression is associated with Jab1/Csn5 expression in lung tumour xenografts in mice. In vitro, the expression of ?5-nAChR mediated Stat3 and Jab1/Csn5 expression, significantly regulating the expression of the EMT markers, N-cadherin and Vimentin. In addition, the down-regulation of ?5-nAChR or/and Stat3 reduced Jab1/Csn5 expression, while the silencing of ?5-nAChR or Jab1/Csn5 inhibited the migration and invasion of NSCLC cells. Mechanistically, ?5-nAChR contributes to EMT and metastasis by regulating Stat3-Jab1/Csn5 signalling in NSCLC, suggesting that ?5-nAChR may be a potential target in NSCLC diagnosis and immunotherapy.
Project description:Our previous studies demonstrated that Jab1/Csn5 overexpression is correlated with low survival rates in cancer patients, including nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), breast cancer and hepatocellular carcinoma, and contributes to NPC's resistance to radiotherapy and cisplatin by regulating DNA damage and repair pathways. However, the molecular mechanism by which Jab1/Csn5 expression is upregulated in NPCs has yet to be determined. In the present study, we identified the upstream regulator of Jab1/Csn5 expression and demonstrated its role in intrinsic resistance of NPC cells to treatment with cisplatin. Signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (Stat3) expression correlates with and contributes to Jab1/Csn5 transcription. Consistently, silencing of Stat3 in tumors reduced Jab1/Csn5 expression, thereby sensitizing NPC cells to cisplatin-induced apoptosis both in vitro and in vivo. Mechanistically, Stat3 transcriptionally regulated Jab1/Csn5. Furthermore, high mRNA expression levels of Stat3 or Jab1 in colon cancer, breast cancer and glioblastoma are associated with significantly shorter survival times from the R2 online database. These findings identify a novel Stat3-Jab1/Csn5 signaling axis in cancer pathogenesis with therapeutic and prognostic relevance.
Project description:Nicotine via nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) stimulates non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell invasion and epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) which underpin the cancer metastasis. However, the receptor subtype-dependent effects of nAChRs on NSCLC cell invasion and EMT, and the signaling pathway underlying the effects remain not fully defined. We identified that nicotine induced NSCLC cell invasion, migration, and EMT; the effects were suppressed by pharmacological intervention using ?7-nAChR selective antagonists or by genetic intervention using ?7-nAChR knockdown via RNA inference. Meanwhile, nicotine induced activation of MEK/ERK signaling in NSCLC cells; ?7-nAChR antagonism or MEK/ERK signaling pathway inhibition suppressed NSCLC cell invasion and EMT marker expression. These results indicate that nicotine induces NSCLC cell invasion, migration, and EMT; the effects are mediated by ?7-nAChRs and involve MEK/ERK signaling pathway. Delineating the effect of nicotine on the NSCLC cell invasion and EMT at receptor subtype level would improve the understanding of cancer biology and offer potentials for the exploitation of selective ligands for the control of the cancer metastasis.
Project description:Nicotine and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are considered to be involved in lung cancer risk, onset and progression, but their precise physiological roles in these contexts remain unclear. Our previous studies suggested that ?5-nAChR mediates nicotine-induced lung cancer cell proliferation, migration, and invasion in vitro. In this study, we aimed to determine the role of ?5-nAChR in the development and progression of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Our microarray results reveal that knockdown of the CHRNA5 gene encoding ?5-nAChR significantly modulates key pathways including the cell cycle, DNA replication, pathway in cancer. ?5-nAChR knockdown in cultured A549 cells affected cell cycle distribution, apoptosis, and cyclin expression. In vivo, ?5-nAChR silencing inhibited the growth of lung tumors, especially in the context of nicotine exposure. Importantly, ?5-nAChR expression in patient tumors correlated with the primary T stage, N stage, and reduced survival time. These results reveal that ?5-nAChR silencing inhibits the progression of nicotine-related NSCLC, making this receptor a potential pharmacological target for the treatment of nicotine-related lung carcinogenesis.
Project description:The c-Jun coactivator, Jun activation-domain binding protein 1 (Jab1) also known as the fifth component of the COP9 signalosome complex (CSN5), is a novel candidate oncogene whose aberrant expression contributes to the progression of breast carcinoma and other human cancers. The mechanism of Jab1 gene expression and its deregulation in cancer cells remains to be identified. We therefore investigated the transcriptional regulatory mechanisms of Jab1 expression in human breast carcinoma cells.To identify potential regulators of Jab1 transcription, we cloned the 5' upstream region of the human Jab1 gene and mapped its transcriptional start site. We identified binding sequences for the CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP) and GATA, as well as a signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (Stat3) consensus sequence overlapping the C/EBP site, using 5'- deletion analysis and a gene reporter assay. Mutational analysis of these binding sites was performed to confirm their roles in promoting Jab1 transcription in breast cancer cells. We further confirmed these binding sites using electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSAs) and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays. We also analyzed whether the siRNA-mediated inactivation of Stat3 and Src could reduce Jab1-promoter activity and whether interleukine-6 (IL-6) could mediate increased Jab1 expression through Stat3 signaling.We identified binding sequences for C/EBP, GATA, as well as a Stat3 consensus sequence overlapping the C/EBP site in the promoter region of Jab1. C/EBP-beta2 is a potential transcriptional activator of Jab1 and mutation of the C/EBP/Stat3 binding site significantly reduced Jab1-promoter activity. In addition, inhibiting Stat3 significantly reduced Jab1-promoter activation. EMSA and ChIP assays confirmed that C/EBP, GATA1 and Stat3 bind to Jab1 promoter in breast carcinoma cells. We also found that Src, an activator of Stat3, is involved in Jab1-promoter activation. siRNA knockdown of Src reduced the Jab1-promoter activity, similar to the results seen when Stat3 was inhibited in breast carcinoma cells. Interestingly, reactivation of Stat3 in normal mammary epithelial cells (MCF-10A, MCF-10F) is sufficient to reactivate Jab1 expression. Treatment with the cytokine IL-6 resulted in increased Jab1 expression that was blocked by inhibition of Stat3.These findings reveal a novel mechanism of Jab1 gene regulation and provide functional and mechanistic links between the Src/Stat3 and IL-6/Stat3 signaling axes that are involved in the activation of Jab1 transcription and regulation of this novel oncogenic protein.
Project description:The E2F transcription factors are critical regulators of cell cycle and cell fate control. Several classes of E2F target genes have been categorized based on their roles in DNA replication, mitosis, apoptosis, DNA repair, etc. How E2Fs coordinate the appropriate and timely expression of these functionally disparate gene products is poorly understood at a molecular level. We previously showed that the E2F1 binding partner Jab1/CSN5 promotes E2F1-dependent induction of apoptosis but not proliferation. To better understand how Jab1 regulates E2F1 dependent transcription, we performed gene expression analysis to identify E2F target genes most and least affected by shRNA depletion of Jab1. We find that a significant number of apoptotic and mitotic E2F target genes are poorly expressed in cells lacking Jab1/CSN5, whereas DNA replication genes are generally still highly expressed. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis indicates that both Jab1 and E2F1 co-occupy apoptotic and mitotic, but not DNA replication target genes. We explored a potential connection between PI3K activity and Jab1/E2F1 target gene induction, and found that E2F1/Jab1 co-induction of apoptotic target genes can be inhibited by activated PI3K. Furthermore, PI3K activity interferes with formation of the E2F1/Jab1 complex by co-immunoprecipitation. Jab1/CSN5 is upregulated in a variety of human tumors, but it's unclear how its pro-proliferatory and apoptotic functions are regulated in this context. We explored the link between increased Jab1 levels and PI3K function in tumors and detected a highly significant correlation between elevated Jab1/CSN5 levels and PI3K activity in breast, ovarian, lung and prostate cancers.
Project description:Smad7 inhibits responses mediated by transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) and acts in a negative-feedback loop to regulate the intensity or duration of the TGF-beta signal. However, the aberrant expression and continued presence of Smad7 may cause TGF-beta resistance. Here we report that Jab1/CSN5, which is a component of the COP9 signalosome complex, associates constitutively with Smad7 and that overexpression of Jab1/CSN5 causes the translocation of Smad7 from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, promoting its degradation. Overexpression of Jab1/CSN5 increases Smad2 phosphorylation and enhances TGF-beta-induced transcriptional activity. The inhibition of endogenous Jab1/CSN5 expression by small interfering RNA (siRNA) induces Smad7 expression. This study thus defines Jab1/CSN5 as an adapter that targets Smad7 for degradation, thus releasing Smad7-mediated suppression of TGF-beta signaling.
Project description:Cigarette smoking is associated with an increased risk of melanoma metastasis. Smokers show higher PD-L1 expression and better responses to PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors than nonsmokers. Here, we investigate whether nicotine, a primary constituent of tobacco, induces PD-L1 expression and promotes melanoma cell proliferation and migration, which is mediated by the ?9 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (?9-nAChR). ?9-nAChR overexpression in melanoma using melanoma cell lines, human melanoma tissues, and assessment of publicly available databases. ?9-nAChR expression was significantly correlated with PD-L1 expression, clinical stage, lymph node status, and overall survival (OS). Overexpressing or knocking down ?9-nAChR in melanoma cells up- or downregulated PD-L1 expression, respectively, and affected melanoma cell proliferation and migration. Nicotine-induced ?9-nAChR activity promoted melanoma cell proliferation through stimulation of the ?9-nAChR-mediated AKT and ERK signaling pathways. In addition, nicotine-induced ?9-nAchR activity promoted melanoma cell migration via activation of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Moreover, PD-L1 expression was upregulated in melanoma cells after nicotine treatment via the transcription factor STAT3 binding to the PD-L1 promoter. These results highlight that nicotine-induced ?9-nAChR activity promotes melanoma cell proliferation, migration, and PD-L1 upregulation. This study may reveal important insights into the mechanisms underlying nicotine-induced melanoma growth and metastasis through ?9-nAChR-mediated carcinogenic signals and PD-L1 expression.
Project description:We previously showed that nicotine stimulates non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) cell proliferation through nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR)-mediated signals. Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor beta/delta (PPARbeta/delta) has also been shown to induce NSCLC cell growth. Here, we explore the potential link between nicotine and PPARbeta/delta and report that nicotine increases the expression of PPARbeta/delta protein; this effect was blocked by an alpha7 nAChR antagonist (alpha-bungarotoxin), by alpha7 nAChR short interfering RNA, and by inhibitors of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K; wortmannin and LY294002) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR; rapamycin). In contrast, this effect was enhanced by PUN282987, an alpha7 nAChR agonist. Silencing of PPARbeta/delta attenuated the stimulatory effect of nicotine on cell growth, which was overcome by transfection of an exogenous PPARbeta/delta expression vector. Of note, nicotine induced complex formation between alpha7 nAChR and PPARbeta/delta protein and increased PPARbeta/delta gene promoter activity through inhibition of AP-2alpha as shown by reduced AP-2alpha binding using electrophoretic gel mobility shift and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays. In addition, silencing of Sp1 attenuated the effect of nicotine on PPARbeta/delta. Collectively, our results show that nicotine increases PPARbeta/delta gene expression through alpha7 nAChR-mediated activation of PI3K/mTOR signals that inhibit AP-2alpha protein expression and DNA binding activity to the PPARbeta/delta gene promoter. Sp1 seems to modulate this process. This study unveils a novel mechanism by which nicotine promotes human lung carcinoma cell growth.
Project description:Serine/threonine kinase IKBKE is a newly identified oncogene; however, its regulation remains elusive. Here, we provide evidence that IKBKE is a downstream target of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and that tobacco components induce IKBKE expression through STAT3. Ectopic expression of constitutively active STAT3 increased IKBKE mRNA and protein levels, whereas inhibition of STAT3 reduced IKBKE expression. Furthermore, expression levels of IKBKE are significantly associated with STAT3 activation and tobacco use history in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients examined. In addition, we show induction of IKBKE by two components of cigarette smoke, nicotine and nicotine-derived nitrosamine ketone (NNK). Upon exposure to nicotine or NNK, cells express high levels of IKBKE protein and mRNA, which are largely abrogated by inhibition of STAT3. Characterization of the IKBKE promoter revealed two STAT3-response elements. The IKBKE promoter directly bound to STAT3 and responded to nicotine and NNK stimulation. Notably, enforcing expression of IKBKE induces chemoresistance, whereas knockdown of IKBKE not only sensitizes NSCLC cells to chemotherapy but also abrogates STAT3- and nicotine-induced cell survival. These data indicate for the first time that IKBKE is a direct target of STAT3 and is induced by tobacco carcinogens through STAT3 pathway. In addition, our study also suggests that IKBKE is an important therapeutic target and could have a pivotal role in tobacco-associated lung carcinogenesis.
Project description:The root bark of Morus alba L. (MA) has been traditionally used for the treatment of various lung diseases in Korea. Although recent research has demonstrated its anticancer effects in several cancer cells, it is still unclear whether MA inhibits the migratory ability of lung cancer cells. The present study investigated the effects of MA on the migration of lung cancer cells and explored the underlying mechanism. Results from a transwell assay and wound-healing assay demonstrated that methylene chloride extracts of MA (MEMA) suppressed the migration and invasion of H1299, H460, and A549 human non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Results from Western blot analyses showed that MEMA reduced the phosphorylation of STAT3 and Src. In addition, MEMA downregulated the expression of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) marker proteins including Slug, Snail, Vimentin, and N-cadherin, while upregulating the expression of Occludin-a tight-junction protein. The regulation of EMT markers and the decrease of migration by MEMA treatment were reversed once phospho-mimetic STAT3 (Y705D) or Src (Y527F) was transfected into H1299 cells. In conclusions, MEMA inhibited the migratory activity of human NSCLC cells through blocking Src/STAT3-mediated EMT.