Pharmacological enhancement of TFEB-mediated autophagy alleviated neuronal death in oxidative stress-induced Parkinson's disease models.
ABSTRACT: Autophagy, a conserved cellular degradation and recycling process, can be enhanced by nutrient depletion, oxidative stress or other harmful conditions to maintain cell survival. 6-Hydroxydopamine/ascorbic acid (6-OHDA/AA) is commonly used to induce experimental Parkinson's disease (PD) lesions by causing oxidative damage to dopaminergic neurons. Activation of autophagy has been observed in the 6-OHDA-induced PD models. However, the mechanism and exact role of autophagy activation in 6-OHDA PD model remain inconclusive. In this study, we report that autophagy was triggered via mucolipin 1/calcium/calcineurin/TFEB (transcription factor EB) pathway upon oxidative stress induced by 6-OHDA/AA. Interestingly, overexpression of TFEB alleviated 6-OHDA/AA toxicity. Moreover, autophagy enhancers, Torin1 (an mTOR-dependent TFEB/autophagy enhancer) and curcumin analog C1 (a TFEB-dependent and mTOR-independent autophagy enhancer), significantly rescued 6-OHDA/AA-induced cell death in SH-SY5Y cells, iPSC-derived DA neurons and mice nigral DA neurons. The behavioral abnormality of 6-OHDA/AA-treated mice can also be rescued by Torin 1 or C1 administration. The protective effects of Torin 1 and C1 can be blocked by autophagy inhibitors like chloroquine (CQ) or by knocking down autophagy-related genes TFEB and ATG5. Taken together, this study supports that TFEB-mediated autophagy is a survival mechanism during oxidative stress and pharmacological enhancement of this process is a neuroprotective strategy against oxidative stress-associated PD lesions.
Project description:Therapeutic strategies are needed to protect dopaminergic neurons in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. Oxidative stress caused by dopamine may play an important role in PD pathogenesis. Selective autophagy of mitochondria (mitophagy), mainly regulated by PINK1 and PARKIN, plays an important role in the maintenance of cell homeostasis. Mutations in those genes cause accumulation of damaged mitochondria, leading to nigral degeneration and early-onset PD. AMBRA1ActA is a fusion protein specifically expressed at the mitochondria, and whose expression has been shown to induce a powerful mitophagy in mammalian cells. Most importantly, the pro-autophagy factor AMBRA1 is sufficient to restore mitophagy in fibroblasts of PD patients carrying PINK1 and PARKIN mutations. In this study, we investigated the potential neuroprotective effect of AMBRA1-induced mitophagy against 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)- and rotenone-induced cell death in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. We demonstrated that AMBRA1ActA overexpression was sufficient to induce mitochondrial clearance in SH-SY5Y cells. We found that apoptosis induced by 6-OHDA and rotenone was reversed by AMBRA1-induced mitophagy. Finally, transfection of SH-SY5Y cells with a vector encoding AMBRA1ActA significantly reduced 6-OHDA and rotenone-induced generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Altogether, our results indicate that AMBRA1ActA is able to induce mitophagy in SH-SY5Y cells in order to suppress oxidative stress and apoptosis induced by both 6-OHDA and rotenone. These results strongly suggest that AMBRA1 may have promising neuroprotective properties with an important role in limiting ROS-induced dopaminergic cell death, and the utmost potential to prevent PD or other neurodegenerative diseases associated with mitochondrial oxidative stress.
Project description:Dysfunction of myocyte enhancer factor 2D (MEF2D), a key survival protein and transcription factor, underlies the pathogenic loss of dopaminergic (DA) neurons in Parkinson's disease (PD). Both genetic factors and neurotoxins associated with PD impair MEF2D function in vitro and in animal models of PD. We investigated whether distinct stress conditions target MEF2D via converging mechanisms.We showed that exposure of a DA neuronal cell line to 6-hyroxydopamine (6-OHDA), which causes PD in animals models, led to direct oxidative modifications of MEF2D. Oxidized MEF2D bound to heat-shock cognate protein 70 kDa, the key regulator for chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA), at a higher affinity. Oxidative stress also increased the level of lysosomal-associated membrane protein 2A (LAMP2A), the rate-limiting receptor for CMA substrate flux, and stimulated CMA activity. These changes resulted in accelerated degradation of MEF2D. Importantly, 6-OHDA induced MEF2D oxidation and increased LAMP2A in the substantia nigra pars compacta region of the mouse brain. Consistently, the levels of oxidized MEF2D were much higher in postmortem PD brains compared with the controls. Functionally, reducing the levels of either MEF2D or LAMP2A exacerbated 6-OHDA-induced death of the DA neuronal cell line. Expression of an MEF2D mutant that is resistant to oxidative modification protected cells from 6-OHDA-induced death.This study showed that oxidization of survival protein MEF2D is one of the pathogenic mechanisms involved in oxidative stress-induced DA neuronal death.Oxidation of survival factor MEF2D inhibits its function, underlies oxidative stress-induced neurotoxicity, and may be a part of the PD pathogenic process.
Project description:Oxidative stress is an important cause of dopaminergic (DA) neuron apoptosis in Parkinson's disease (PD). Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) possess antioxidative features. In this study, we investigated whether MSCs could reduce oxidative stress and protect DA neurons from apoptosis by intravenous (I.V.) injection in the early stage of a 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced PD model. MSCs were injected into the tail vein of mice, and behavioral tests, immunofluorescence staining, western blot, and oxidative stress levels were assessed at different time points. After 6-OHDA exposure, DA neuron apoptosis was detected, together with severe oxidative stress in brain and periphery. Compared with the non-transplanted sham controls, motor function in the 6-OHDA-lesioned group after I.V. injection of MSCs was significantly improved, and the levels of DA neuron apoptosis and oxidative stress decreased. The results demonstrate that MSCs can rescue DA neurons from ongoing apoptosis by reducing oxidative stress, and provide insights on developing new therapeutic strategies to offset the degenerative process of PD.
Project description:Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1) is a master regulator of diverse biological processes such as DNA repair, oxidative stress, and apoptosis. PARP1 can be activated by aggregated ?-synuclein, and this process in turn exacerbates toxicity of ?-synuclein. This circle is closely linked to the evolution of Parkinson's disease (PD) that characterized by progressive neurodegeneration and motor deficits. Here, we reported the PARP1, as a novel upstream molecular of transcription factor EB (TFEB), participates in regulation of autophagy in ?-synuclein aggregated cells and mice. PARP1 inhibition not only enhances the nuclear transcription of TFEB via SIRT1 mediated down-regulation of mTOR signaling but also reduces nuclear export of TFEB by attenuating the TFEB-CRM1 interaction. Our results revealed that PARP1 inhibition lessened the accumulation of ?-synuclein in PD models. Also, oral administration of PARP1 inhibitor Veliparib prevented neurodegeneration and improved motor ability in ?-synucleinA53T transgenic mice. These findings identify that PARP1 signaling pathway regulates TFEB-mediated autophagy, pointing to potential therapeutic strategy of PD via enhancing protein degradation systems.
Project description:Parkinson's disease (PD), characterized by loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra, is a neurodegenerative disorder of central nervous system. The present study was designed to investigate the therapeutic effect of ACS84, a hydrogen sulfide-releasing-L-Dopa derivative compound, in a 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced PD model. ACS84 protected the SH-SY5Y cells against 6-OHDA-induced cell injury and oxidative stress. The protective effect resulted from stimulation of Nrf-2 nuclear translocation and promotion of anti-oxidant enzymes expression. In the 6-OHDA-induced PD rat model, intragastric administration of ACS84 relieved the movement dysfunction of the model animals. Immunofluorescence staining and High-performance liquid chromatography analysis showed that ACS84 alleviated the loss of tyrosine-hydroxylase positive neurons in the substantia nigra and the declined dopamine concentration in the injured striatums of the 6-OHDA-induced PD model. Moreover, ACS84 reversed the elevated malondialdehyde level and the decreased glutathione level in vivo. In conclusion, ACS84 may prevent neurodegeneration via the anti-oxidative mechanism and has potential therapeutic values for Parkinson's disease.
Project description:The aggregation of ?-synuclein plays a major role in Parkinson disease (PD) pathogenesis. Recent evidence suggests that defects in the autophagy-mediated clearance of ?-synuclein contribute to the progressive loss of nigral dopamine neurons. Using an in vivo model of ?-synuclein toxicity, we show that the PD-like neurodegenerative changes induced by excess cellular levels of ?-synuclein in nigral dopamine neurons are closely linked to a progressive decline in markers of lysosome function, accompanied by cytoplasmic retention of transcription factor EB (TFEB), a major transcriptional regulator of the autophagy-lysosome pathway. The changes in lysosomal function, observed in the rat model as well as in human PD midbrain, were reversed by overexpression of TFEB, which afforded robust neuroprotection via the clearance of ?-synuclein oligomers, and were aggravated by microRNA-128-mediated repression of TFEB in both A9 and A10 dopamine neurons. Delayed activation of TFEB function through inhibition of mammalian target of rapamycin blocked ?-synuclein induced neurodegeneration and further disease progression. The results provide a mechanistic link between ?-synuclein toxicity and impaired TFEB function, and highlight TFEB as a key player in the induction of ?-synuclein-induced toxicity and PD pathogenesis, thus identifying TFEB as a promising target for therapies aimed at neuroprotection and disease modification in PD.
Project description:PARK7/DJ-1 is a Parkinson disease- and cancer-associated protein that functions as a multifunctional protein involved in gene transcription regulation and anti-oxidative defense. Although PARK7 lacks the secretory signal sequence, it is secreted and plays important physiological and pathophysiological roles. Whereas secretory proteins that lack the endoplasmic reticulum-targeting signal sequence are secreted from cells by way of what is called the unconventional secretion mechanism, the specific processes responsible for causing PARK7 to be secreted across the plasma membrane have remained unclear. In the present study, we found that PARK7 secretion was increased by treatment with 6-OHDA via the unconventional secretory pathway in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells and MEF cells. We also found that 6-OHDA-induced PARK7 secretion was suppressed in Atg5-, Atg9-, or Atg16l1-deficient MEF cells or ATG16L1 knockdown SH-SY5Y cells, indicating that the autophagy-based unconventional secretory pathway is involved in PARK7 secretion. We moreover observed that 6-OHDA-derived electrophilic quinone induced oxidative stress as indicated by a decrease in glutathione levels, and that this was suppressed by pretreatment with antioxidant NAC. We further found that NAC treatment suppressed autophagy and PARK7 secretion. We also observed that 6-OHDA-induced autophagy was associated with activation of AMPK and ULK1 via a pathway which was independent of MTOR. Collectively these results suggest that electrophilic 6-OHDA quinone enhances oxidative stress, and that this is followed by AMPK-ULK1 pathway activation and induction of secretory autophagy to produce unconventional secretion of PARK7. ABBREVIATIONS:6-OHDA: 6-hydroxydopamine; AMPK: AMP-activated protein kinase; ATG: autophagy related; CAV1: caveolin 1; ER: endoplasmic reticulum; FN1: fibronectin 1; GSH: glutathione; IDE: insulin degrading enzyme; IL: interleukin; LDH: lactate dehydrogenase; MAP1LC3B/LC3B: microtubule associated protein 1 light chain 3 beta; MEF: mouse embryonic fibroblast; MTOR: mechanistic target of rapamycin kinase; NAC: N-acetyl-L-cysteine; PARK7/DJ-1: Parkinsonism associated deglycase; PD: Parkinson disease; RPS6KB1/p70S6K: ribosomal protein S6 kinase B1; RPN1: ribophorin I; ROS: reactive oxygen species; ULK1: unc-51 like autophagy activating kinase 1; WT: wild-type.
Project description:BACKGROUND & AIMS:Defects in lysosome function and autophagy contribute to the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease. We investigated the mechanisms by which alcohol consumption affects these processes by evaluating the functions of transcription factor EB (TFEB), which regulates lysosomal biogenesis. METHODS:We performed studies with GFP-LC3 mice, mice with liver-specific deletion of TFEB, mice with disruption of the transcription factor E3 gene (TFE3-knockout mice), mice with disruption of the Tefb and Tfe3 genes (TFEB and TFE3 double-knockout mice), and Tfebflox/flox albumin cre-negative mice (controls). TFEB was overexpressed from adenoviral vectors or knocked down with small interfering RNAs in mouse livers. Mice were placed on diets of regular ethanol feeding plus an acute binge to induce liver damage (ethanol diet); some mice also were given injections of torin-1, an inhibitor of the kinase activity of the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR). Liver tissues were collected and analyzed by immunohistochemistry, immunoblots, and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction to monitor lysosome biogenesis. We analyzed levels of TFEB in liver tissues from patients with alcoholic hepatitis and from healthy donors (controls) by immunohistochemistry. RESULTS:Liver tissues from mice on the ethanol diet had lower levels of total and nuclear TFEB compared with control mice, and hepatocytes had decreased lysosome biogenesis and autophagy. Hepatocytes from mice on the ethanol diet had increased translocation of mTOR into lysosomes, resulting in increased mTOR activation. Administration of torin-1 increased liver levels of TFEB and decreased steatosis and liver injury induced by ethanol. Mice that overexpressed TFEB in the liver developed less severe ethanol-induced liver injury and had increased lysosomal biogenesis and mitochondrial bioenergetics compared with mice carrying a control vector. Mice with knockdown of TFEB and TFEB-TFE3 double-knockout mice developed more severe liver injury in response to the ethanol diet than control mice. Liver tissues from patients with alcohol-induced hepatitis had lower nuclear levels of TFEB than control tissues. CONCLUSIONS:We found that ethanol feeding plus an acute binge decreased hepatic expression of TFEB, which is required for lysosomal biogenesis and autophagy. Strategies to block mTOR activity or increase levels of TFEB might be developed to protect the liver from ethanol-induced damage.
Project description:Autophagy dysfunction is a common feature in neurodegenerative disorders characterized by accumulation of toxic protein aggregates. Increasing evidence has demonstrated that activation of TFEB (transcription factor EB), a master regulator of autophagy and lysosomal biogenesis, can ameliorate neurotoxicity and rescue neurodegeneration in animal models. Currently known TFEB activators are mainly inhibitors of MTOR (mechanistic target of rapamycin [serine/threonine kinase]), which, as a master regulator of cell growth and metabolism, is involved in a wide range of biological functions. Thus, the identification of TFEB modulators acting without inhibiting the MTOR pathway would be preferred and probably less deleterious to cells. In this study, a synthesized curcumin derivative termed C1 is identified as a novel MTOR-independent activator of TFEB. Compound C1 specifically binds to TFEB at the N terminus and promotes TFEB nuclear translocation without inhibiting MTOR activity. By activating TFEB, C1 enhances autophagy and lysosome biogenesis in vitro and in vivo. Collectively, compound C1 is an orally effective activator of TFEB and is a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases.
Project description:The synucleinopathies Parkinson's disease (PD) and Multiple system atrophy (MSA) - characterized by ?-synuclein intracytoplasmic inclusions into, respectively, neurons and oligodendrocytes - are associated with impairment of the autophagy-lysosomal pathways (ALP). Increased expression of the master regulator of ALP, transcription factor EB (TFEB), is hypothesized to promote the clearance of WT ?-synuclein and survival of dopaminergic neurons. Here, we explore the efficacy of targeted TFEB overexpression either in neurons or oligodendrocytes to reduce the pathological burden of ?-synuclein in a PD rat model and a MSA mouse model. While TFEB neuronal expression was sufficient to prevent neurodegeneration in the PD model, we show that only TFEB oligodendroglial overexpression leads to neuroprotective effects in the MSA model. These beneficial effects were associated with a decreased accumulation of ?-synuclein into oligodendrocytes through recovery of the ALP machinery. Our study demonstrates that the cell type where ?-synuclein aggregates dictates the target of TFEB overexpression in order to be protective, paving the way for adapted therapies.