Transcriptome data of control and Ascosphaera apis infected Apis mellifera ligustica larval guts.
ABSTRACT: Ascosphaera apis is an obligate fungal pathogen of honeybee larvae that leads to chalkbrood, which causes heavy losses for the apiculture in China and many other countries. In this article, guts of 4-, 5-, 6-day-old Apis mellifera ligustica larvae challenged by A. apis (AmT1, AmT2, AmT3) and normal 4-day-old larval guts (AmCK) were sequenced using next-generation sequencing technology. On average, 29,196,197, 28,690,943, 29,779,715 and 30,496,725 raw reads were yielded from these four groups; an average of 29,540,895 clean reads were obtained after quality control. In addition, the mapping ratio of clean reads in treatment and control groups to the Apis mellifera genome were over 97.16%. For more insight please see "Uncovering the immune responses of Apis mellifera ligustica larval gut to Ascosphaera apis infection utilizing transcriptome sequencing" . The raw data were submitted to the National Centre for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) Sequence Read Archive (SRA) database under accession numbers: SRR4084091, SRR4084092, SRR4084095, SRR4084096, SRR4084097, SRR4084098, SRR4084099, SRR4084100, SRR4084101, SRR4084102, SRR4084093, SRR4084094.
Project description:Varroa destructor is an ectoparasitic mite of Asian or Eastern honeybees Apis cerana (A. cerana) which has become a serious threat to European subspecies of Western honeybees Apis mellifera (A. mellifera) within the last century. V. destructor and its vectored honeybee viruses became serious threats for colony survival. This is a short period for pathogen- and host-populations to adapt. To look for possible variation in the composition of viral populations we performed RNA metagenomic analysis of the Western honeybee subspecies A. m. ligustica, A. m. syriaca, A. m. intermissa, and A. cerana and their respective V. destructor mites. The analysis revealed two novel viruses: Varroa orthomyxovirus-1 (VOV-1) in A. mellifera and V. destructor and a Hubei like-virga virus-14 homolog in V. destructor. VOV-1 was more prevalent in V. destructor than in A. mellifera and we found evidence for viral replication in both hosts. Interestingly, we found differences in viral loads of A. cerana and their V. destructor, A. m. intermissa, and its V. destructor showed partial similarity, while A. m. ligustica and A. m. syriaca and their varroa where very similar. Deformed wing virus exhibited 82.20%, 99.20%, 97.90%, and 0.76% of total viral reads in A. m. ligustica, A. m. syriaca, A. m. intermissa, and A. cerana, respectively. This is the first report of a complete segmented-single-stranded negative-sense RNA virus genome in honeybees and V. destructor mites.
Project description:The stinger is a very small and efficient device that allows honeybees to perform two main physiological activities: repelling enemies and laying eggs for reproduction. In this study, we explored the specific characteristics of stinger penetration, where we focused on its movements and the effects of it microstructure. The stingers of Italian honeybees (Apis mellifera ligustica) were grouped and fixed onto four types of cubic substrates, before pressing into different substrates. The morphological characteristics of the stinger cross-sections were analyzed before and after penetration by microscopy. Our findings suggest that the honeybee stinger undergoes helical and clockwise rotation during penetration. We also found that the helical penetration of the stinger is associated directly with the spiral distribution of the barbs, thereby confirming that stinger penetration involves an advanced microstructure rather than a simple needle-like apparatus. These results provide new insights into the mechanism of honeybee stinger penetration.