Promotion of compound K production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by glycerol.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Ginsenoside compound K (CK), one of the primary active metabolites of protopanaxadiol-type ginsenosides, is produced by the intestinal flora that degrade ginseng saponins and exhibits diverse biological properties such as anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and anti-allergic properties. However, it is less abundant in plants. Therefore, enabling its commercialization by construction of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell factory is of considerable significance. RESULTS:We induced overexpression of PGM2, UGP1, and UGT1 genes in WLT-MVA5, and obtained a strain that produces ginsenoside CK. The production of CK at 96 h was 263.94?±?2.36 mg/L, and the conversion rate from protopanaxadiol (PPD) to ginsenoside CK was 64.23?±?0.41%. Additionally, it was observed that the addition of glycerol was beneficial to the synthesis of CK. When 20% glucose (C mol) in the YPD medium was replaced by the same C mol glycerol, CK production increased to 384.52?±?15.23 mg/L, which was 45.68% higher than that in YPD medium, and the PPD conversion rate increased to 77.37?±?3.37% as well. As we previously observed that ethanol is beneficial to the production of PPD, ethanol and glycerol were fed simultaneously in the 5-L bioreactor fed fermentation, and the CK levels reached 1.70?±?0.16 g/L. CONCLUSIONS:In this study, we constructed an S. cerevisiae cell factory that efficiently produced ginsenoside CK. Glycerol effectively increased the glycosylation efficiency of PPD to ginsenoside CK, guiding higher carbon flow to the synthesis of ginsenosides and effectively improving CK production. CK production attained in a 5-L bioreactor was 1.7 g/L after simultaneous feeding of glycerol and ethanol.
Project description:Protopanaxadiol (PPD)-type ginsenosides are the main ginsenosides in ginseng (Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer) with potential therapeutic effects on diseases related to intestinal flora imbalance. This study aimed to investigate the in vitro metabolism of protopanaxadiol ginsenosides in human intestinal flora and their effect on the flora. Rapid resolution liquid chromatography coupled with quadruple-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (RRLC-Q-TOF MS) was utilised for the transformation of ginsenoside constituents for sample identification. Using 16S rDNA gene sequencing technique, the effect of PPD-type ginsenosides on gut microflora was analysed based on the indices of microflora diversity and gut microflora. The sample was transformed for 6 h, and the metabolites were ginsenoside Rb1, Rc, Rb2, Rb3, CO, Gyp-IX, Gyp-XVII, CMc-1, F2, Rg3, CK, Rh2, and PPD. The metabolites were CK, Rh2, and PPD when the samples were transformed for 60 h. The intestinal microflora were subjected to high-throughput sequencing using the Illumina MiSeq 2500 sequencing platform. In comparison with the faecal sample from the blank group, the protopanaxadiol saponin group significantly increased the relative abundance of Firmicutes and significantly decreased Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria at the phylum level, whereas it significantly increased the relative abundance of Prevotella_9, Faecalibacterium, and Dialister and significantly decreased Escherichia-Shigella, Dorea, and Lachnoclostridium at the genus level. This study provides a basis for the determination of the pharmacodynamic material basis and pharmacodynamic targets of PPD-type ginsenosides based on the intestinal flora.
Project description:Ginseng (Panax ginseng) and its bioactive components, ginsenosides, are popular medicinal herbal products, exhibiting various pharmacological effects. Despite their advocated use for medication, the long cultivation periods of ginseng roots and their low ginsenoside content prevent mass production of this compound. Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae was engineered for production of protopanaxadiol (PPD), a type of aglycone characterizing ginsenoside. PPD-producing yeast cell factory was further engineered by obtaining a balance between enzyme expressions and altering cofactor availability. Different combinations of promoters (PGPD, PCCW12, and PADH2) were utilized to construct the PPD biosynthetic pathway. Rerouting the redox metabolism to improve NADPH availability in the engineered S. cerevisiae also increased PPD production. Combining these approaches resulted in more than an 11-fold increase in PPD titer over the initially constructed strain. The series of metabolic engineering strategies of this study provides a feasible approach for the microbial production of PPD and development of microbial platforms producing other industrially-relevant terpenoids.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4> The roots of Panax ginseng contain two types of tetracyclic triterpenoid saponins, namely, protopanaxadiol (PPD)-type saponins and protopanaxatiol (PPT)-type saponins. In P. ginseng, the protopanaxadiol 6-hydroxylase (PPT synthase) enzyme catalyses protopanaxatriol (PPT) production from protopanaxadiol (PPD). In this study, we constructed homozygous mutant lines of ginseng by CRISPR/Cas9-mediated mutagenesis of the PPT synthase gene and obtained the mutant ginseng root lines having complete depletion of the PPT-type ginsenosides. <h4>Methods</h4> Two sgRNAs (single guide RNAs) were designed for target mutations in the exon sequences of the two PPT synthase genes (both PPTa and PPTg sequences) with the CRISPR/Cas9 system. Transgenic ginseng roots were generated through Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The mutant lines were screened by ginsenoside analysis and DNA sequencing. <h4>Result</h4> Ginsenoside analysis revealed the complete depletion of PPT-type ginsenosides in three putative mutant lines (Cr4, Cr7, and Cr14). The reduction of PPT-type ginsenosides in mutant lines led to increased accumulation of PPD-type ginsenosides. The gene editing in the selected mutant lines was confirmed by targeted deep sequencing. <h4>Conclusion</h4> We have established the genome editing protocol by CRISPR/Cas9 system in P. ginseng and demonstrated the mutated roots producing only PPD-type ginsenosides by depleting PPT-type ginsenosides. Because the pharmacological activity of PPD-group ginsenosides is significantly different from that of PPT-group ginsenosides, the new type of ginseng mutant producing only PPD-group ginsenosides may have new pharmacological characteristics compared to wild-type ginseng. This is the first report to generate target-induced mutations for the modification of saponin biosynthesis in Panax species using CRISPR–Cas9 system. Graphical abstract We generated new mutant ginseng root lines by changing the ginsenoside saponin production using the CRISPR/Cas9 knock-out system. Ginsenoside analysis revealed the complete or partial depletion of PPT-type ginsenosides in mutant lines. Furthermore, the reduction of PPT-type ginsenosides in mutant lines led to increased accumulation of PPD-type saponins. The new type of ginseng mutants producing only PPD-group ginsenosides may have different pharmacological characteristics compared to wild-type ginseng and new sources for ginseng breeding.Image 1
Project description:Microbial transformation of ginsenosides to increase its pharmaceutical effect is gaining increasing attention in recent years. In this study, Cellulosimicrobium sp. TH-20, which was isolated from soil samples on which ginseng grown, exhibited effective ginsenoside-transforming activity. After protopanaxadiol (PPD)-type ginsenoside (Rb1) and protopanaxatriol (PPT)-type ginsenosides (Re and Rg1) were fed to C. sp. TH20, a total of 12 metabolites, including 6 new intermediate metabolites, were identified. Stepwise deglycosylation and dehydrogenation on the feeding precursors have been observed. The final products were confirmed to be rare ginsenosides Rd, GypXVII, Rg2 and PPT after 96?h transformation with 38-96% yields. The four products showed improved anti-inflammatory activities by using lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced murine RAW 264.7 macrophages and the xylene-induced acute inflammatory model of mouse ear edema. The results indicated that they could dramatically attenuate the production of TNF-? more effectively than the precursors. Our study would provide an example of a unique and powerful microbial cell factory for efficiently converting both PPD-type and PPT-type ginsenosides to rare natural products, which extends the drug candidates as novel anti-inflammatory remedies.
Project description:Background:Ginseng effectively reduces fatigue in both animal models and clinical trials. However, the mechanism of action is not completely understood, and its molecular targets remain largely unknown. Methods:By screening for proteins that interact with the primary components of ginseng (ginsenosides) in an affinity chromatography assay, we have identified muscle-type creatine kinase (CK-MM) as a potential target in skeletal muscle tissues. Results:Biolayer interferometry analysis showed that ginsenoside metabolites, instead of parent ginsenosides, had direct interaction with recombinant human CK-MM. Subsequently, 20(S)-protopanaxadiol (PPD), which is a ginsenoside metabolite and displayed the strongest interaction with CK-MM in the study, was selected as a representative to confirm direct binding and its biological importance. Biolayer interferometry kinetics analysis and isothermal titration calorimetry assay demonstrated that PPD specifically bound to human CK-MM. Moreover, the mutation of key amino acids predicted by molecular docking decreased the affinity between PPD and CK-MM. The direct binding activated CK-MM activity in vitro and in vivo, which increased the levels of tissue phosphocreatine and strengthened the function of the creatine kinase/phosphocreatine system in skeletal muscle, thus buffering cellular ATP, delaying exercise-induced lactate accumulation, and improving exercise performance in mice. Conclusion:Our results suggest a cellular target and an initiating molecular event by which ginseng reduces fatigue. All these findings indicate PPD as a small molecular activator of CK-MM, which can help in further developing better CK-MM activators based on the dammarane-type triterpenoid structure.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Ginsenosides are used widely for medicinal purposes, but the mechanisms of their action are still unclear, although there is some evidence that these effects are mediated by nuclear receptors. Here we examined whether two metabolites of ginsenoside, protopanaxadiol (g-PPD) and protopanaxatriol (g-PPT), could modulate endothelial cell functions through the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and oestrogen receptor (ER). EXPERIMENT APPROACHES: The effects of g-PPD and g-PPT on intracellular calcium ion concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) and nitric oxide (NO) production in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were measured using Fura-2-acetoxymethyl ester, 4-amino-5-methylamino-2',7'-difluorofluorescein and Griess reagent. Effects on expression of GR and ER isoforms in HUVECs were determined using reverse transcriptase-/real-time PCR and immunocytochemistry. Phosphorylation of endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) was assessed by Western blotting. RESULTS: Ginsenoside protopanaxadiol and g-PPT increased [Ca(2+)](i), eNOS phosphorylation and NO production in HUVECs, which were inhibited by the GR antagonist, RU486, the ER antagonist, ICI 182,780 and siRNA targeting GR or ERbeta. The NO production was Ca(2+)-dependent and the [Ca(2+)](i) elevation in HUVECs resulted from both intracellular Ca(2+) release and extracellular Ca(2+) influx. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: Ginsenoside protopanaxadiol and g-PPT were functional ligands for both GR and ERbeta, through which these ginsenoside metabolites exerted rapid, non-genomic effects on endothelial cells.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) has a high incidence rate in Southern China. Although there are conventional therapies, the side effects and toxicities are not always tolerable for patients. Recently, the tumoricidal effect of ginsenosides on different cancer cells has been studied. This study aims to investigate the anti-cancer effect of ginsenosides on NPC cells and their underlying mechanism. METHODS:The cytotoxicity of ginsenosides on NPC cell line HK-1 was measured by MTT assay. Apoptosis was detected by propidium iodide staining followed by flow cytometry. A xenograft tumor model was established by injecting nude mice with HK-1 cells. The activation of caspases and apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) were evaluated by Western blot analysis. Nuclear translocation of AIF was also studied by immunofluorescence staining. Mitochondrial membrane potential was measured by JC-1 dye using flow cytometry. RESULTS:Four ginsenosides, 20 (S)-Rh2, compound K (CK), panaxadiol (PD) and protopanaxadiol (PPD), induced apoptotic cell death in HK-1 cells in a concentration-dependent manner. CK inhibited HK-1 xenograft tumor growth most extensively and depleted mitochondrial membrane potential depolarization and induced translocation of AIF from cytoplasm to nucleus in HK-1 cells. In addition, depletion of AIF by siRNA abolished CK-induced HK-1 cell death. CONCLUSION:Ginsenoside CK-induced apoptosis of HK-1 cells was mediated by the mitochondrial pathway and could significantly inhibit tumor growth in vivo.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Minor ginsenosides, those having low content in ginseng, have higher pharmacological activities. To obtain minor ginsenosides, the biotransformation of American ginseng protopanaxadiol (PPD)-ginsenoside was studied using special ginsenosidase type-I from Aspergillus niger g.848.<h4>Methods</h4>DEAE (diethylaminoethyl)-cellulose and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis were used in enzyme purification, thin-layer chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) were used in enzyme hydrolysis and kinetics; crude enzyme was used in minor ginsenoside preparation from PPD-ginsenoside; the products were separated with silica-gel-column, and recognized by HPLC and NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance).<h4>Results</h4>The enzyme molecular weight was 75 kDa; the enzyme firstly hydrolyzed the C-20 position 20-O-?-D-Glc of ginsenoside Rb1, then the C-3 position 3-O-?-D-Glc with the pathway Rb1?Rd?F2?C-K. However, the enzyme firstly hydrolyzed C-3 position 3-O-?-D-Glc of ginsenoside Rb2 and Rc, finally hydrolyzed 20-O-L-Ara with the pathway Rb2?C-O?C-Y?C-K, and Rc?C-Mc1?C-Mc?C-K. According to enzyme kinetics, K m and V max of Michaelis-Menten equation, the enzyme reaction velocities on ginsenosides were Rb1 > Rb2 > Rc > Rd. However, the pure enzyme yield was only 3.1%, so crude enzyme was used for minor ginsenoside preparation. When the crude enzyme was reacted in 3% American ginseng PPD-ginsenoside (containing Rb1, Rb2, Rc, and Rd) at 45°C and pH 5.0 for 18 h, the main products were minor ginsenosides C-Mc, C-Y, F2, and C-K; average molar yields were 43.7% for C-Mc from Rc, 42.4% for C-Y from Rb2, and 69.5% for F2 and C-K from Rb1 and Rd.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Four monomer minor ginsenosides were successfully produced (at low-cost) from the PPD-ginsenosides using crude enzyme.
Project description:Ginsenosides are used as existing markers of red ginseng (RG) quality, and ginsenoside ratios are also indicative of the different components of red ginseng. For the analysis and classification of ginsenoside content, red ginseng was separated into three parts, namely, main roots, lateral roots, and fine roots, and each extract was subjected to ultra-performance liquid chromatography quadruple time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-QToF-MS) with multivariate statistical analysis. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed a clear discrimination between the extracts of main roots and fine roots and suggested discrimination markers (four for the main roots and five for the fine roots). The fine root markers were identified as ginsenoside. We identified two markers for the main roots of red ginseng in this study. Moreover, the contents of 22 ginsenosides were analyzed in all three components of red ginseng. Fine roots have the highest protopanaxadiol (PPD)/protopanaxatriol (PPT) ratio. The PPD group of ginsenosides, which is quantitatively dominant in fine roots, clearly distinguishes the main roots from the other parts.
Project description:Ginsenoside compound K (C-K) is attracting a lot of interest because of its biological and pharmaceutical activities, including hepatoprotective, antitumor, anti-wrinkling, and anti-skin aging activities. C-K has been used as the principal ingredient in skin care products. For the effective application of ginseng extracts to the manufacture of cosmetics, the PPD-type ginsenosides in ginseng extracts should be converted to C-K by enzymatic conversion. For increased yield of C-K from the protopanaxadiol (PPD)-type ginsenosides in red-ginseng extract (RGE), the ?-L-arabinofuranoside-hydrolyzing ?-L-arabinofuranosidase from Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus (CS-abf) was used along with the ?-D-glucopyranoside/?-L-arabinopyranoside-hydrolyzing ?-glycosidase from Sulfolobus solfataricus (SS-bgly) because SS-bgly showed very low hydrolytic activity on the ?-L-arabinofuranoside linkage in ginsenosides. The optimal reaction conditions for C-K production were as follows: pH 6.0, 80°C, 2 U/mL SS-bgly, 3 U/mL CS-abf, and 7.5 g/L PPD-type ginsenosides in RGE. Under these optimized conditions, SS-bgly supplemented with CS-abf produced 4.2 g/L C-K from 7.5 g/L PPD-type ginsenosides in 12 h without other ginsenosides, with a molar yield of 100% and a productivity of 348 mg/L/h. To the best of our knowledge, this is the highest concentration and productivity of C-K from ginseng extract ever published in literature.