Effect of Vitamin C, Hydrocortisone, and Thiamine vs Hydrocortisone Alone on Time Alive and Free of Vasopressor Support Among Patients With Septic Shock: The VITAMINS Randomized Clinical Trial.
ABSTRACT: Importance:It is unclear whether vitamin C, hydrocortisone, and thiamine are more effective than hydrocortisone alone in expediting resolution of septic shock. Objective:To determine whether the combination of vitamin C, hydrocortisone, and thiamine, compared with hydrocortisone alone, improves the duration of time alive and free of vasopressor administration in patients with septic shock. Design, Setting, and Participants:Multicenter, open-label, randomized clinical trial conducted in 10 intensive care units in Australia, New Zealand, and Brazil that recruited 216 patients fulfilling the Sepsis-3 definition of septic shock. The first patient was enrolled on May 8, 2018, and the last on July 9, 2019. The final date of follow-up was October 6, 2019. Interventions:Patients were randomized to the intervention group (n?=?109), consisting of intravenous vitamin C (1.5 g every 6 hours), hydrocortisone (50 mg every 6 hours), and thiamine (200 mg every 12 hours), or to the control group (n?=?107), consisting of intravenous hydrocortisone (50 mg every 6 hours) alone until shock resolution or up to 10 days. Main Outcomes and Measures:The primary trial outcome was duration of time alive and free of vasopressor administration up to day 7. Ten secondary outcomes were prespecified, including 90-day mortality. Results:Among 216 patients who were randomized, 211 provided consent and completed the primary outcome measurement (mean age, 61.7 years [SD, 15.0]; 133 men [63%]). Time alive and vasopressor free up to day 7 was 122.1 hours (interquartile range [IQR], 76.3-145.4 hours) in the intervention group and 124.6 hours (IQR, 82.1-147.0 hours) in the control group; the median of all paired differences was -0.6 hours (95% CI, -8.3 to 7.2 hours; P?=?.83). Of 10 prespecified secondary outcomes, 9 showed no statistically significant difference. Ninety-day mortality was 30/105 (28.6%) in the intervention group and 25/102 (24.5%) in the control group (hazard ratio, 1.18; 95% CI, 0.69-2.00). No serious adverse events were reported. Conclusions and Relevance:In patients with septic shock, treatment with intravenous vitamin C, hydrocortisone, and thiamine, compared with intravenous hydrocortisone alone, did not significantly improve the duration of time alive and free of vasopressor administration over 7 days. The finding suggests that treatment with intravenous vitamin C, hydrocortisone, and thiamine does not lead to a more rapid resolution of septic shock compared with intravenous hydrocortisone alone. Trial Registration:ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03333278.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Thiamine, an essential vitamin for aerobic metabolism and glutathione cycling, may decrease the effects of critical illnesses. The objective of this study was to determine whether intravenous thiamine administration can reduce vasopressor requirements in patients with septic shock. METHODS:This study was a prospective randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial. We included adult patients with septic shock who required a vasopressor within 1-24?h after admission between March 2018 and January 2019 at a tertiary hospital in Thailand. Patients were divided into two groups: those who received 200?mg thiamine or those receiving a placebo every 12?h for 7?days or until hospital discharge. The primary outcome was the number of vasopressor-free days over 7?days. The pre-defined sample size was 31 patients per group, and the study was terminated early due to difficult recruitment. RESULTS:Sixty-two patients were screened and 50 patients were finally enrolled in the study, 25 in each group. There was no difference in the primary outcome of vasopressor-free days within the 7-day period between the thiamine and placebo groups (mean: 4.9?days (1.9) vs. 4.0?days (2.7), p =?0.197, mean difference?-?0.9, 95% CI (-?2.9 to 0.5)). However, the reductions in lactate (p =?0.024) and in the vasopressor dependency index (p =?0.02) at 24?h were greater among subjects who received thiamine repletion vs. the placebo. No statistically significant difference was observed in SOFA scores within 7?days, vasopressor dependency index within 4?days and 7?days, or 28-day mortality. CONCLUSIONS:Thiamine was not associated to a significant reduction in vasopressor-free days over 7-days in comparison to placebo in patients with septic shock. Administration of thiamine could be associated with a reduction in vasopressor dependency index and lactate level within 24?h. The study is limited by early stopping and low sample size. TRIAL REGISTRATION:TCTR, TCTR20180310001. Registered 8 March 2018, http://www.clinicaltrials.in.th/index.php?tp=regtrials&menu=trialsearch&smenu=fulltext&task=search&task2=view1&id=3330 .
Project description:BACKGROUND:Intravenous vitamin C and thiamine administration may be a potential adjuvant therapy for septic shock. We aimed to investigate the impact of early vitamin C and thiamine administration in septic shock patients. METHODS:This retrospective before-and-after cohort study used data extracted from the Korean Shock Society's prospective septic shock registry. We compared 28-day and in-hospital mortality rates between patients treated with intravenous vitamin C (3 g/12 h or 1.5 g/6 h) and thiamine (200 mg/12 h) <6 hours after shock recognition from July through December 2017 (n = 229) and control patients from October 2015 through June 2017 (n = 915) using propensity score matching. RESULTS:The 28-day (18.3% vs. 17.5%; P = 0.76) and in-hospital (16.6% vs. 18.3%; P = 0.55) mortality rates did not differ between treatment and control groups, nor did 28-day (18.5% vs. 17.5%; P = 0.84) and in-hospital (16.7% vs. 18.4%; P = 0.54) mortality rates after matching. In the subgroup analysis, treatment was associated with lower in-hospital mortality rates in patients with albumin <3.0 mg/dL or a Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score >10. CONCLUSION:Early vitamin C and thiamine administration in patients with septic shock did not improve survival; however, administration could benefit conditions that are more severe, such as hypoalbuminemia or severe organ failure.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Observational research suggests that combined therapy with Vitamin C, thiamine and hydrocortisone may reduce mortality in patients with septic shock. METHODS AND DESIGN:The Vitamin C, Thiamine and Steroids in Sepsis (VICTAS) trial is a multicenter, double-blind, adaptive sample size, randomized, placebo-controlled trial designed to test the efficacy of combination therapy with vitamin C (1.5?g), thiamine (100?mg), and hydrocortisone (50?mg) given every 6?h for up to 16 doses in patients with respiratory or circulatory dysfunction (or both) resulting from sepsis. The primary outcome is ventilator- and vasopressor-free days with mortality as the key secondary outcome. Recruitment began in August 2018 and is ongoing; 501 participants have been enrolled to date, with a planned maximum sample size of 2000. The Data and Safety Monitoring Board reviewed interim results at N =?200, 300, 400 and 500, and has recommended continuing recruitment. The next interim analysis will occur when N =?1000. This update presents the statistical analysis plan. Specifically, we provide definitions for key treatment and outcome variables, and for intent-to-treat, per-protocol, and safety analysis datasets. We describe the planned descriptive analyses, the main analysis of the primary end point, our approach to secondary and exploratory analyses, and handling of missing data. Our goal is to provide enough detail that our approach could be replicated by an independent study group, thereby enhancing the transparency of the study. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03509350. Registered on 26 April 2018.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Recent studies have reported a high prevalence of relative adrenal insufficiency in patients with liver cirrhosis. However, the effect of corticosteroid replacement on mortality in this high-risk group remains unclear. We examined the effect of low-dose hydrocortisone in patients with cirrhosis who presented with septic shock. METHODS: We enrolled patients with cirrhosis and septic shock aged 18 years or older in a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Relative adrenal insufficiency was defined as a serum cortisol increase of less than 250 nmol/L or 9 ?g/dL from baseline after stimulation with 250 ?g of intravenous corticotropin. Patients were assigned to receive 50 mg of intravenous hydrocortisone or placebo every six hours until hemodynamic stability was achieved, followed by steroid tapering over eight days. The primary outcome was 28-day all-cause mortality. RESULTS: The trial was stopped for futility at interim analysis after 75 patients were enrolled. Relative adrenal insufficiency was diagnosed in 76% of patients. Compared with the placebo group (n = 36), patients in the hydrocortisone group (n = 39) had a significant reduction in vasopressor doses and higher rates of shock reversal (relative risk [RR] 1.58, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.98-2.55, p = 0.05). Hydrocortisone use was not associated with a reduction in 28-day mortality (RR 1.17, 95% CI 0.92-1.49, p = 0.19) but was associated with an increase in shock relapse (RR 2.58, 95% CI 1.04-6.45, p = 0.03) and gastrointestinal bleeding (RR 3.00, 95% CI 1.08-8.36, p = 0.02). INTERPRETATION: Relative adrenal insufficiency was very common in patients with cirrhosis presenting with septic shock. Despite initial favourable effects on hemodynamic parameters, hydrocortisone therapy did not reduce mortality and was associated with an increase in adverse effects. (Current Controlled Trials registry no. ISRCTN99675218.).
Project description:In patients with septic shock, hydrocortisone 200-400?mg/d has been shown to reverse shock compared with placebo. Lower doses of hydrocortisone have not previously been studied, and there are no previous studies comparing two different doses of hydrocortisone. At our institution, some clinicians routinely prescribe doses less than 200?mg/d. This study aims to compare the effect of lower doses of hydrocortisone to standard doses on shock reversal and adverse events in septic shock. Design:Retrospective cohort study. Setting:Single-center medical ICU. Subjects:Patients who received hydrocortisone for septic shock. Interventions:Electronic chart review. Measurements and Main Results:Patients were divided into low-dose hydrocortisone (75-150?mg/d) and standard-dose hydrocortisone (200-400?mg/d) cohorts based on initial prescribed hydrocortisone dose. Rates of shock reversal and adverse events in the two cohorts were compared. Two-hundred thirteen patients were included-41 in low-dose and 172 in standard-dose cohorts. Baseline characteristics including initial vasopressor requirement and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment scores were similar. Average rates of change in vasopressor needs, conditional hazard rate for vasopressor withdrawal, and cumulative probability for vasopressor withdrawal were all quantitatively similar for low-dose and standard-dose hydrocortisone. Insulin requirement (particularly in those with diabetes mellitus), blood glucose in those with diabetes mellitus, and frequency of secondary infections seemed to be lower in the low-dose hydrocortisone cohort. Mortality and other secondary outcomes were similar. Conclusions:In septic shock, hydrocortisone dosed 75-150 mg/d appears to reverse shock as effectively 200-400 mg/d and may cause a lower frequency of adverse events.
Project description:PURPOSE:To evaluate the effects of early combination therapy with intravenous vitamin C and thiamine on recovery from organ failure in patients with septic shock. METHODS:The ascorbic acid and thiamine effect in septic shock (ATESS) trial was a multi-centre, double-blind, randomized, controlled trial conducted in four academic emergency departments, enrolling adult patients with septic shock from December 2018 through January 2020. Patients were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to either the treatment group [intravenous vitamin C (50 mg/kg, maximum single dose 3 g) and thiamine (200 mg) administration every 12 h for a total of 48 h] or the placebo group (identical volume of 0.9% saline with the same protocol). The primary outcome was ? Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score (SOFA score at enrolment-SOFA score after 72 h). Eighteen secondary outcomes were predefined, including shock reversal and 28-day mortality. RESULTS:A total of 111 patients were enrolled, of which 53 were assigned to the treatment group and 58 were assigned to the placebo group. There was no significant difference in ?SOFA scores between the treatment group and the placebo group [3, interquartile range (IQR) - 1 to 5 vs. 3, IQR 0-4, respectively, p?=?0.96]. Predefined secondary outcomes were also not significantly different between the groups. CONCLUSION:In this study, vitamin C and thiamine administration in the early phase of septic shock did not improve organ function compared with placebo, despite improvements in vitamin C and thiamine levels.
Project description:This study aimed to identify septic phenotypes in patients receiving vitamin C, hydrocortisone, and thiamine using temperature and white blood cell count. Data were obtained from septic shock patients who were also treated using a vitamin C protocol in a medical intensive care unit. Patients were divided into groups according to the temperature measurements as well as white blood cell counts within 24 h before starting the vitamin C protocol. In the study, 127 patients included who met the inclusion criteria. In the cohort, four groups were identified: "Temperature ?37.1 °C, white blood cell count ?15.0 1000/mm3" (group A; n = 27), "?37.1 °C, <15.0 1000/mm3" (group B; n = 30), "<37.1 °C, ?15.0 1000/mm3" (group C; n = 35) and "<37.1 °C, <15.0 1000/mm3" (group D; n = 35). The intensive care unit mortality rates were 15% for group A, 33% for group B, 34% for group C, and 49% for group D (p = 0.051). The temporal improvement in organ dysfunction and vasopressor dose seemed more apparent in group A patients. Our results suggest that different subphenotypes exist among sepsis patients treated using a vitamin C protocol, and clinical outcomes might be better for patients with the hyperinflammatory subphenotype.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Septic shock is a life-threatening condition with underlying circulatory and cellular/metabolic abnormalities. Vitamin C and thiamine are potential candidates for adjunctive therapy; they are expected to improve outcomes based on recent experimental and clinical research. The aim of the Ascorbic Acid and Thiamine Effect in Septic Shock (ATESS) trial is to evaluate the effects of early combination therapy with intravenous vitamin C and thiamine on recovery from organ failure in patients with septic shock. METHODS:This study is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicentre trial in adult patients with septic shock recruited from six emergency departments in South Korea. Patients will be randomly allocated into the treatment or control group (1:1 ratio), and we will recruit 116 septic shock patients (58 per group). For the treatment group, vitamin C (50?mg/kg) and thiamine (200?mg) will be mixed in 50?ml of 0.9% saline and administered intravenously every 12?h for a total of 48?h. For the placebo group, an identical volume of 0.9% saline will be administered in the same manner. The primary outcome is the delta Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score (?SOFA?=?initial SOFA at enrolment - follow-up SOFA after 72?h). DISCUSSION:This trial will provide valuable evidence about the effectiveness of vitamin C and thiamine therapy for septic shock. If effective, this therapy might improve survival and become one of the main therapeutic adjuncts for patients with septic shock. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03756220 . Registered on 5 December 2018.
Project description:PURPOSE:Alcohol-use disorders (AUDs) have been associated with increased sepsis-related mortality. As patients with AUDs are often thiamine deficient, we investigated practice patterns relating to thiamine administration in patients with AUDs presenting with septic shock and explored the association between receipt of thiamine and mortality. MATERIALS:We performed a retrospective cohort study of patients presenting with septic shock between 2008 and 2014 at a single tertiary care center. We identified patients with an AUD diagnosis, orders for microbial cultures and use of antibiotics, vasopressor dependency, and lactate levels?4mmol/L. We excluded those who received thiamine later than 48h of sepsis onset. RESULTS:We included 53 patients. Thirty-four (64%) patients received thiamine. Five patients (15%) received their first thiamine dose in the emergency department. The median time to thiamine administration was 9 (quartiles: 4, 18) hours. The first thiamine dose was most often given parenterally (68%) and for 100mg (88%). In those receiving thiamine, 15/34 (44%) died, compared to 15/19 (79%) of those not receiving thiamine, p=0.02. CONCLUSIONS:A considerable proportion of patients with AUDs admitted for septic shock do not receive thiamine. Thiamine administration in this patient population was associated with decreased mortality.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Septic shock is a common and highly morbid condition. To date, there is no specific therapy proven to attenuate organ injury in septic shock. Recent studies have suggested a role for the combination of ascorbic acid, corticosteroids and thiamine, although randomised data are lacking. METHODS AND ANALYSIS:The Ascorbic Acid, Corticosteroids, and Thiamine in Sepsis trial is a multi-centre, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled clinical trial that aims to determine the impact of ascorbic acid, corticosteroids and thiamine versus placebo on organ injury and mortality in patients with septic shock. Patients are randomised to receive 1500 mg of ascorbic acid, 100 mg of thiamine and 50 mg of hydrocortisone parenterally versus matching placebo every 6 hours for 4 days. Clinical and laboratory data are collected at the time of study enrolment, at 24, 72 and 120 hours. The primary end-point for the trial is change in the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score between enrolment and 72 hours. Additional key secondary outcomes include the incidence of renal failure and 30-day mortality. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION:The study was approved by the international review board of each participating study site. Study findings will be disseminated through peer-reviewed publications and conference presentations. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER:The trial is registered on clinicaltrials.gov (NCT03389555). It was posted on 3 January 2018.