Overexpression of ginseng patatin-related phospholipase pPLAIII? alters the polarity of cell growth and decreases lignin content in Arabidopsis.
ABSTRACT: Background:The patatin-related phospholipase AIII family (pPLAIIIs) genes alter cell elongation and cell wall composition in Arabidopsis and rice plant, suggesting diverse commercial purposes of the economically important medicinal ginseng plant. Herein, we show the functional characterization of a ginseng pPLAIII gene for the first time and discuss its potential applications. Methods:pPLAIIIs were identified from ginseng expressed sequence tag clones and further confirmed by search against ginseng database and polymerase chain reaction. A clone showing the highest homology with pPLAIII? was shown to be overexpressed in Arabidopsis using Agrobacterium. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction was performed to analyze ginseng pPLAIII? expression. Phenotypes were observed using a low-vacuum scanning electron microscope. Lignin was stained using phloroglucinol and quantified using acetyl bromide. Results:The PgpPLAIII? transcripts were observed in all organs of 2-year-old ginseng. Overexpression of ginseng pPLAIII? (PgpPLAIII?-OE) in Arabidopsis resulted in small and stunted plants. It shortened the trichomes and decreased trichome number, indicating defects in cell polarity. Furthermore, OE lines exhibited enlarged seeds with less number per silique. The YUCCA9 gene was downregulated in the OE lines, which is reported to be associated with lignification. Accordingly, lignin was stained less in the OE lines, and the expression of two transcription factors related to lignin biosynthesis was also decreased significantly. Conclusion:Overexpression of pPLAIII? retarded cell elongation in all the tested organs except seeds, which were longer and thicker than those of the controls. Shorter root length is related to auxin-responsive genes, and its stunted phenotype showed decreased lignin content.
Project description:Galactinol synthase is a pivotal enzyme involved in the synthesis of the raffinose family of oligosaccharides (RFOs) that function as transport carbohydrates in the phloem, as storage compounds in sink tissues and as soluble metabolites that combat both abiotic and biotic stress in several plant species. Hybrid poplar (Populus alba × grandidentata) overexpressing the Arabidopsis thaliana GolS3 (AtGolS3) gene showed clear effects on development; the extreme overexpressing lines were stunted and had cell wall traits characteristic of tension wood, whereas lines with only moderate up-regulation grew normally and had moderately altered secondary cell wall composition and ultrastructure. Stem cross-sections of the developing xylem revealed a significant increase in the number of vessels, as well as the clear presence of a G-layer in the fibres. Furthermore, AtGolS3-OE lines possessed higher cellulose and lower lignin contents, an increase in cellulose crystallinity, and significantly altered hemicellulose-derived carbohydrates, notably manifested by their mannose and xylose contents. In addition, the transgenic plants displayed elevated xylem starch content. Transcriptome interrogation of the transgenic plants showed a significant up-regulation of genes involved in the synthesis of myo-inositol, along with genes involved in sucrose degradation. The results suggest that the overexpression of GolS and its product galactinol may serve as a molecular signal that initiates metabolic changes, culminating in a change in cell wall development and potentially the formation of tension wood.
Project description:The cuticle is composed of cutin and cuticular wax. It covers the surfaces of land plants and protects them against environmental damage. At5g02890 encodes a novel protein in Arabidopsis thaliana. In the current study, protein sequence analysis showed that At5g02890 is highly conserved in the Brassicaceae. Arabidopsis lines overexpressing At5g02890 (OE-At5g02890 lines) and an At5g02890 orthologous gene from Brassica napus (OE-Bn1 lines) exhibited glossy stems. Chemical analysis revealed that overexpression of At5g02890 caused significant reductions in the levels of wax components longer than 28 carbons (C28) in inflorescence stems, whereas the levels of wax molecules of chain length C28 or shorter were significantly increased. Transcriptome analysis indicated that nine of 11 cuticular wax synthesis-related genes with different expression levels in OE-At5g02890 plants are involved in very-long-chain fatty acid (VLCFA) elongation. At5g02890 is localized to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), which is consistent with its function in cuticular wax biosynthesis. These results demonstrate that the overexpression of At5g02890 alters cuticular wax composition by partially blocking VLCFA elongation of C28 and higher. In addition, detailed analysis of differentially expressed genes associated with plant hormones and endogenous phytohormone levels in wild-type and OE-At5g02890 plants indicated that abscisic acid (ABA), jasmonic acid (JA), and jasmonoyl-isoleucine (JA-Ile) biosynthesis, as well as polar auxin transport, were also affected by overexpression of At5g02890. Taken together, these findings indicate that overexpression of At5g02890 affects both cuticular wax biosynthesis and phytohormone homeostasis in Arabidopsis.
Project description:Lignin is a key secondary cell wall chemical constituent, and is both a barrier to biomass utilization and a potential source of bioproducts. The Arabidopsis transcription factors MYB58 and MYB63 have been shown to upregulate gene expression of the general phenylpropanoid and monolignol biosynthetic pathways. The overexpression of these genes also results in dwarfism. The vascular integrity, soluble phenolic profiles, cell wall lignin, and transcriptomes associated with these MYB-overexpressing lines were characterized. Plants with high expression of MYB58 and MYB63 had increased ectopic lignin and the xylem vessels were regular and open, suggesting that the stunted growth is not associated with loss of vascular conductivity. MYB58 and MYB63 overexpression lines had characteristic soluble phenolic profiles with large amounts of monolignol glucosides and sinapoyl esters, but decreased flavonoids. Because loss of function lac4 lac17 mutants also accumulate monolignol glucosides, we hypothesized that LACCASE overexpression might decrease monolignol glucoside levels in the MYB-overexpressing plant lines. When laccases related to lignification (LAC4 or LAC17) were co-overexpressed with MYB63 or MYB58, the dwarf phenotype was rescued. Moreover, the overexpression of either LAC4 or LAC17 led to wild-type monolignol glucoside levels, as well as wild-type lignin levels in the rescued plants. Transcriptomes of the rescued double MYB63-OX/LAC17-OX overexpression lines showed elevated, but attenuated, expression of the MYB63 gene itself and the direct transcriptional targets of MYB63. Contrasting the dwarfism from overabundant monolignol production with dwarfism from lignin mutants provides insight into some of the proposed mechanisms of lignin modification-induced dwarfism.
Project description:Light is one of the most important environmental factors regulating seed germination. It is known that light inhibits seed germination of some monocotyledonous species and that it is mostly related to the blue wavelength of the spectrum received by cryptochromes (cry). Research has also found that the red light (R) stimulates germination of dicotyledonous seeds and that this reaction involves mainly phytochromes (phy). Surprisingly, up to date, the role and the mechanism of action of blue light (BL) in seed biology of dicot plants is still very poorly understood and some questions are unexplained, e.g., whether BL plays a role in regulation of dicot seeds dormancy and/or germination? If, so what particular elements of light signaling pathway are involved in modulation of this(ese) process(es)? Also, is the BL action in regulation of dicot seeds dormancy and/or germination maybe due to changes of expression of genes related to metabolism and/or signaling of two phytohormones controlling seed-related events, such as gibberellins (GA) and abscisic acid (ABA)? To answer these intriguing questions, the combination of biological, transcriptomic, and genetic approaches was performed in this particular study. The germination tests show that freshly harvested wild type (WT) Arabidopsis thaliana Col-0 seeds are dormant and do not germinate in darkness (at 25 °C), while nondormant (after-ripened) seeds germinate well in these conditions. It is also proven that dormancy of seeds of this species is released in the presence of white and/or BL (? = 447 nm) when placed at 25 °C. Presented here, novel results emphasize the role of BL in dormancy alleviation of dicot seeds, indicating that this wavelength of light spectrum received by phyB induces this process and that the sensitivity to this stimulus depends on the depth of seed dormancy. In addition, it is demonstrated that various elements of phy-mediated pathway can be used in response to the signal induced by BL in germinating dormant seeds of Arabidopsis. The quantitative real time PCR analysis supported by results of germination tests of WT, T-DNA insertion mutants (i.e., hy5, hfr1, and laf1) and overexpression transformants of Arabidopsis seeds (i.e., 35S:OE:HY5, 35S:OE:HYH, 35S:OE:HFR1, and 35S:OE:LAF1) revealed that the HY5 gene coding transcription factor is most probably responsible for the control of expression of genes involved in GA/ABA metabolism and/or signaling pathways during BL-dependent dormancy alleviation of Arabidopsis seeds, while biological functions of HYH and HFR1 are associated with regulation of germination. The model of BL action in regulation of dormancy alleviation and germination potential of Arabidopsis seeds is proposed.
Project description:Background:Cytochrome P450 enzymes catalyze a wide range of reactions in plant metabolism. Besides their physiological functions on primary and secondary metabolites, P450s are also involved in herbicide detoxification via hydroxylation or dealkylation. Ginseng as a perennial plant offers more sustainable solutions to herbicide resistance. Methods:Tissue-specific gene expression and differentially modulated transcripts were monitored by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. As a tool to evaluate the function of PgCYP736A12, the 35S promoter was used to overexpress the gene in Arabidopsis. Protein localization was visualized using confocal microscopy by tagging the fluorescent protein. Tolerance to herbicides was analyzed by growing seeds and seedlings on Murashige and Skoog medium containing chlorotoluron. Results:The expression of PgCYP736A12 was three-fold more in leaves compared with other tissues from two-year-old ginseng plants. Transcript levels were similarly upregulated by treatment with abscisic acid, hydrogen peroxide, and NaCl, the highest being with salicylic acid. Jasmonic acid treatment did not alter the mRNA levels of PgCYP736A12. Transgenic lines displayed slightly reduced plant height and were able to tolerate the herbicide chlorotoluron. Reduced stem elongation might be correlated with increased expression of genes involved in bioconversion of gibberellin to inactive forms. PgCYP736A12 protein localized to the cytoplasm and nucleus. Conclusion:PgCYP736A12 does not respond to the well-known secondary metabolite elicitor jasmonic acid, which suggests that it may not function in ginsenoside biosynthesis. Heterologous overexpression of PgCYP736A12 reveals that this gene is actually involved in herbicide metabolism.
Project description:Seeds employ sensory systems that assess various environmental cues over time to maximize the successful transition from embryo to seedling. Here we show that the Arabidopsis F-BOX protein COLD TEMPERATURE-GERMINATING (CTG)-10, identified by activation tagging, is a positive regulator of this process. When overexpressed (OE), CTG10 hastens aspects of seed germination. CTG10 is expressed predominantly in the hypocotyl, and the protein is localized to the nucleus. CTG10 interacts with PHYTOCHROME-INTERACTING FACTOR 1 (PIF1) and helps regulate its abundance in plantaCTG10-OE accelerates the loss of PIF1 in light, increasing germination efficiency, while PIF1-OE lines fail to complete germination in darkness, which is reversed by concurrent CTG10-OE Double-mutant (pif1 ctg10) lines demonstrated that PIF1 is epistatic to CTG10. Both CTG10 and PIF1 amounts decline during seed germination in the light but reaccumulate in the dark. PIF1 in turn down-regulates CTG10 transcription, suggesting a feedback loop of CTG10/PIF1 control. The genetic, physiological, and biochemical evidence, when taken together, leads us to propose that PIF1 and CTG10 coexist, and even accumulate, in the nucleus in darkness, but that, following illumination, CTG10 assists in reducing PIF1 amounts, thus promoting the completion of seed germination and subsequent seedling development.
Project description:Lipid acyl hydrolase are a diverse group of enzymes that hydrolyze the ester or amide bonds of fatty acid in plant lipids. Patatin-related phospholipase AIIIs (pPLAIIIs) are one of major lipid acyl hydrolases that are less closely related to potato tuber patatins and are plant-specific. Recently, overexpression of ginseng-derived PgpPLAIII? was reported to be involved in the reduced level of lignin content in Arabidopsis and the mature xylem layer of poplar. The presence of lignin-polysaccharides renders cell walls recalcitrant for pulping and biofuel production. The tissue-specific regulation of lignin biosynthesis, without altering all xylem in plants, can be utilized usefully by keeping mechanical strength and resistance to various environmental stimuli. To identify another pPLAIII homolog from Arabidopsis, constitutively overexpressed AtpPLAIII? was characterized for xylem lignification in two well-studied model plants, Arabidopsis and poplar. The characterization of gene function in annual and perennial plants with respect to lignin biosynthesis revealed the functional redundancy of less lignification via downregulation of lignin biosynthesis-related genes.
Project description:Acireductone dioxygenase (ARD) is a metal-binding metalloenzyme and involved in the methionine salvage pathway. In rice, OsARD1 binds Fe2+ and catalyzes the formation of 2-keto-4-methylthiobutyrate (KMTB) to produce methionine, which is an initial substrate in ethylene synthesis pathway. Here, we report that overexpression of OsARD1 elevates the endogenous ethylene release rate, enhances the tolerance to submergence stress, and reduces the sensitivity to drought, salt, and osmotic stresses in rice. OsARD1 is strongly induced by submergence, drought, salinity, PEG6000, and mechanical damage stresses and exhibits high expression level in senescent leaves. Transgenic plants overexpressing OsARD1 (OsARD1-OE) display fast elongation growth to escape submergence stress. The ethylene content is significantly maximized in OsARD1-OE plants compared with the wide type. OsARD1-OE plants display increased shoot elongation and inhibition of root elongation under the submergence stress and grow in dark due to increase of ethylene. The elongation of coleoptile under anaerobic germination is also significantly promoted in OsARD1-OE lines due to the increase of ethylene content. The sensitivity to drought and salt stresses is reduced in OsARD1-OE transgenic lines. Water holding capacity is enhanced, and the stomata and trichomes on leaves increase in OsARD1-OE lines. Drought and salt tolerance and ethylene synthesis-related genes are upregulated in OsARD1-OE plants. Subcellular localization shows that OsARD1 displays strong localization signal in cell nucleus, suggesting OsARD1 may interact with the transcription factors. Taken together, the results provide the understanding of the function of OsARD1 in ethylene synthesis and abiotic stress response in rice.
Project description:The KNOTTED-like (KNOX) genes encode homeodomain transcription factors and regulate several processes of plant organ development. The peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) genome was found to contain 10 KNOX members (KNOPE genes); six of them were experimentally located on the Prunus reference map and the class 1 KNOPE1 was found to link to a quantitative trait locus (QTL) for the internode length in the peach×Ferganensis population. All the KNOPE genes were differentially transcribed in the internodes of growing shoots; the KNOPE1 mRNA abundance decreased progressively from primary (elongation) to secondary growth (radial expansion). During primary growth, the KNOPE1 mRNA was localized in the cortex and in the procambium/metaphloem zones, whereas it was undetected in incipient phloem and xylem fibres. KNOPE1 overexpression in the Arabidopsis bp4 loss-of-function background (35S:KNOPE1/bp genotype) restored the rachis length, suggesting, together with the QTL association, a role for KNOPE1 in peach shoot elongation. Several lignin biosynthesis genes were up-regulated in the bp4 internodes but repressed in the 35S:KNOPE1/bp lines similarly to the wild type. Moreover, the lignin deposition pattern of the 35S:KNOPE1/bp and the wild-type internodes were the same. The KNOPE1 protein was found to recognize in vitro one of the typical KNOX DNA-binding sites that recurred in peach and Arabidopsis lignin genes. KNOPE1 expression was inversely correlated with that of lignin genes and lignin deposition along the peach shoot stems and was down-regulated in lignifying vascular tissues. These data strongly support that KNOPE1 prevents cell lignification by repressing lignin genes during peach stem primary growth.
Project description:Rice black-streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV), a member of the genus Fijivirus in the family Reoviridae, is propagatively transmitted by the small brown planthopper (Laodelphax striatellus Fallén). RBSDV causes rice black-streaked dwarf and maize rough dwarf diseases, which lead to severe yield losses in crops in China. Although several RBSDV proteins have been studied in detail, the functions of the nonstructural protein P7-1 are still largely unknown. To investigate the role of the P7-1 protein in virus pathogenicity, transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants were generated in which the P7-1 gene was expressed under the control of the 35S promoter. The RBSDV P7-1-transgenic Arabidopsis plants (named P7-1-OE) were male sterility. Flowers and pollen from P7-1-transgenic plants were of normal size and shape, and anthers developed to the normal size but failed to dehisce. The non-dehiscent anthers observed in P7-1-OE were attributed to decreased lignin content in the anthers. Furthermore, the reactive oxygen species levels were quite low in the transgenic plants compared with the wild type. These results indicate that ectopic expression of the RBSDV P7-1 protein in A. thaliana causes male sterility, possibly through the disruption of the lignin biosynthesis and H2O2-dependent polymerization pathways.