Mortality and Morbidity in Infants <34 Weeks' Gestation in 25 NICUs in China: A Prospective Cohort Study.
ABSTRACT: Objectives: To describe the rates and variability of mortality and morbidity of preterm infants born in China. Methods: This prospective cohort study included infants born at <34 weeks' gestation and admitted to 25 NICUs within 7 days of birth between May 1st, 2015 and April 30th, 2016. Infants were followed until death or NICU discharge. The primary outcome was a composite of mortality or any major morbidity (sepsis, necrotizing enterocolitis, intraventricular/periventricular leukomalacia, retinopathy of prematurity, and bronchopulmonary dysplasia) in infants who received complete care following medical advice. Secondary outcomes included rate of discharge against medical advice, mortality and individual morbidities. Results: Of the 8,065 infants, 6,852 (85%) received complete care and 1,213 (15%) were discharged against medical advice. Among infants who received complete care, the rate of the composite outcome was 27% (1,827/6,852), mortality 4% (248/6,852), sepsis 14% (990/6,852), necrotizing enterocolitis 3% (191/6,550), intraventricular hemorrhage/periventricular leukomalacia 7% (422/6,307), retinopathy of prematurity 2% (67/3,349), and bronchopulmonary dysplasia 9% (616/6,852). There were significant variations between NICUs for all outcomes. Conclusions: Discharged against medical advice, mortality, and morbidity rates for preterm infants <34 weeks' gestation are high in China with significant variations between NICUs.
Project description:BACKGROUND:In Reunion Island, a French overseas department, the burden of preterm birth and perinatal mortality exceed those observed in mainland France, despite similar access to standard perinatal care. The purpose of the study was to compare the outcome of two cohorts of NICU-admitted very preterm infants born between 24 and 31 weeks of gestation (WG): the registry-based OGP (Observatoire de la Grande Prématurité, Reunion Island, 2008-2013) cohort, and the nationwide EPIPAGE-2 (mainland France, 2011) observational cohort. METHODS:The primary outcome was adverse neonatal outcomes defined as a composite indicator of in-hospital mortality or any of three following severe morbidities: bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), necrotising enterocolitis, or severe neurological injury (periventricular leukomalacia or grade III-IV intraventricular haemorrhages). Logistic regression modelling adjusting for confounders was performed. RESULTS:A total of 1272 very preterm infants from the Reunionese OGP cohort and 3669 peers from the mainland EPIPAGE-2 cohort were compared. Adverse neonatal outcomes were more likely observed in the OGP cohort (32.6% versus 26.6%, p < 0.001), as result of both increased in-hospital mortality across all gestational age strata and increased BPD among the survivors of the 29-31 WG stratum. After adjusting for gestational age, gender and multiple perinatal factors, the risk of adverse neonatal outcomes was higher in the OGP cohort than in the EPIPAGE-2 cohort across all gestational age strata. CONCLUSIONS:Despite similar guidelines for standard perinatal care, very preterm infants born in Reunion Island have a higher risk for death or severe morbidity compared with those born in mainland France.
Project description:<h4>Importance</h4>Administration-to-birth intervals of antenatal corticosteroids (ANS) vary. The significance of this variation is unclear. Specifically, to our knowledge, the shortest effective administration-to-birth interval is unknown.<h4>Objective</h4>To explore the associations between ANS administration-to-birth interval and survival and morbidity among very preterm infants.<h4>Design, setting, and participants</h4>The Effective Perinatal Intensive Care in Europe (EPICE) study, a population-based prospective cohort study, gathered data from 19 regions in 11 European countries in 2011 and 2012 on 4594 singleton infants with gestational ages between 24 and 31 weeks, without severe anomalies and unexposed to repeated courses of ANS. Data were analyzed November 2016.<h4>Exposure</h4>Time from first injection of ANS to delivery in hours and days.<h4>Main outcomes and measures</h4>Three outcomes were studied: in-hospital mortality; a composite of mortality or severe neonatal morbidity, defined as an intraventricular hemorrhage grade of 3 or greater, cystic periventricular leukomalacia, surgical necrotizing enterocolitis, or stage 3 or greater retinopathy of prematurity; and severe neonatal brain injury, defined as an intraventricular hemorrhage grade of 3 or greater or cystic periventricular leukomalacia.<h4>Results</h4>Of the 4594 infants included in the cohort, 2496 infants (54.3%) were boys, and the mean (SD) gestational age was 28.5 (2.2) weeks and mean (SD) birth weight was 1213 (400) g. Mortality for the 662 infants (14.4%) unexposed to ANS was 20.6% (136 of 661). Administration of ANS was associated with an immediate and rapid decline in mortality, reaching a plateau with more than 50% risk reduction after an administration-to-birth interval of 18 to 36 hours. A similar pattern for timing was seen for the composite mortality or morbidity outcome, whereas a significant risk reduction of severe neonatal brain injury was associated with longer administration-to-birth intervals (greater than 48 hours). For all outcomes, the risk reduction associated with ANS was transient, with increasing mortality and risk for severe neonatal brain injury associated with administration-to-birth intervals exceeding 1 week. Under the assumption of a causal relationship between timing of ANS and mortality, a simulation of ANS administered 3 hours before delivery to infants who did not receive ANS showed that their estimated decline in mortality would be 26%.<h4>Conclusions and relevance</h4>Antenatal corticosteroids may be effective even if given only hours before delivery. Therefore, the infants of pregnant women at risk of imminent preterm delivery may benefit from its use.
Project description:Importance:Since 2004-2007, national guidelines and recommendations have been developed for the management of extremely preterm births in Sweden. If and how more uniform management has affected infant survival is unknown. Objective:To compare survival of extremely preterm infants born during 2004-2007 with survival of infants born during 2014-2016. Design, Setting and Participants:All births at 22-26 weeks' gestational age (n = 2205) between April 1, 2004, and March 31, 2007, and between January 1, 2014, and December 31, 2016, in Sweden were studied. Prospective data collection was used during 2004-2007. Data were obtained from the Swedish pregnancy, medical birth, and neonatal quality registries during 2014-2016. Exposures:Delivery at 22-26 weeks' gestational age. Main Outcomes and Measures:The primary outcome was infant survival to the age of 1 year. The secondary outcome was 1-year survival among live-born infants who did not have any major neonatal morbidity (specifically, without intraventricular hemorrhage grade 3-4, cystic periventricular leukomalacia, necrotizing enterocolitis, retinopathy of prematurity stage 3-5, or severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia). Results:During 2004-2007, 1009 births (3.3/1000 of all births) occurred at 22-26 weeks' gestational age compared with 1196 births (3.4/1000 of all births) during 2014-2016 (P = .61). One-year survival among live-born infants at 22-26 weeks' gestational age was significantly lower during 2004-2007 (497 of 705 infants [70%]) than during 2014-2016 (711 of 923 infants [77%]) (difference, -7% [95% CI, -11% to -2.2%], P = .003). One-year survival among live-born infants at 22-26 weeks' gestational age and without any major neonatal morbidity was significantly lower during 2004-2007 (226 of 705 infants [32%]) than during 2014-2016 (355 of 923 infants [38%]) (difference, -6% [95% CI, -11% to -1.7%], P = .008). Conclusions and Relevance:Among live births at 22-26 weeks' gestational age in Sweden, 1-year survival improved between 2004-2007 and 2014-2016.
Project description:Importance:Studies of cranial ultrasonography and early childhood outcomes among cohorts of extremely preterm neonates have linked periventricular-intraventricular hemorrhage and cystic periventricular leukomalacia with adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes. However, the association between nonhemorrhagic ventriculomegaly and neurodevelopmental and behavioral outcomes is not fully understood. Objective:To characterize the outcomes of extremely preterm neonates younger than 27 weeks' gestational age who experienced nonhemorrhagic ventriculomegaly that was detected prior to 36 weeks' postmenstrual age. Design, Setting, and Participants:This longitudinal observational study was conducted at 16 centers of the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research Network. Infants born prior to 27 weeks' gestational age in any network facility between July 1, 2006, and June 30, 2011, were included if they had a cranial ultrasonogram performed prior to 36 weeks' postmenstrual age. Comparisons were made between those with ventriculomegaly and those with normal cranial sonograms. Data analysis was completed from August 2013 to August 2017. Main Outcomes and Measures:The main outcome was neurodevelopmental impairment, defined as a Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development III cognitive score less than 70, moderate/severe cerebral palsy, a Gross Motor Function Classification System score of level 2 or more, vision impairment, or hearing impairment. Secondary outcomes included Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development III subscores, components of neurodevelopmental impairment, behavioral outcomes, and death/neurodevelopmental impairment. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the association of ventriculomegaly with adverse outcomes while controlling for potentially confounding variables and center differences as a random effect. Linear regression was used similarly for continuous outcomes. Results:Of 4193 neonates with ultrasonography data, 300 had nonhemorrhagic ventriculomegaly (7%); 3045 had normal cranial ultrasonograms (73%), 775 had periventricular-intraventricular hemorrhage (18.5%), and 73 had cystic periventricular leukomalacia (1.7%). Outcomes were available for 3008 of 3345 neonates with ventriculomegaly or normal scans (90%). Compared with normal cranial ultrasonograms, ventriculomegaly was associated with lower gestational age, male sex, and bronchopulmonary dysplasia, late-onset sepsis, meningitis, necrotizing enterocolitis, and stage 3 retinopathy of prematurity. After adjustment, neonates with ventriculomegaly had higher odds of neurodevelopmental impairment (odds ratio [OR], 3.07; 95% CI, 2.13-4.43), cognitive impairment (OR, 3.23; 95% CI, 2.09-4.99), moderate/severe cerebral palsy (OR, 3.68; 95% CI, 2.08-6.51), death/neurodevelopmental impairment (OR, 2.17; 95% CI, 1.62-2.91), but not death alone (OR, 1.09; 95% CI, 0.76-1.57). Behavioral outcomes did not differ. Conclusions and Relevance:Nonhemorrhagic ventriculomegaly is associated with increased odds of neurodevelopmental impairment among extremely preterm neonates.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is the need for oxygen therapy at 36 weeks postmenstrual age (PMA). Sildenafil has been shown to enhance the lung alveolarization and vascularization in newborn animal models after lung injury and has possible therapeutic potential for the prevention of BPD. OBJECTIVE:To perform a proof-of-concept, Phase II, pilot randomized, double-blind, clinical trial to study the efficacy of sildenafil in preventing BPD, in postnatal (<?24 h), extremely and very preterm infants. METHODS:This Phase II, pilot randomized, double-blind, clinical trial was conducted in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of Women's Wellness and Research Center, Doha, Qatar during 2012-2014. Infants of 240/7-296/7 weeks' gestation were eligible if they needed respiratory or oxygen support???25% at randomization, and if they were at a postnatal age of?<?24 h at randomization. Forty preterm infants were randomly assigned to receive off-label oral sildenafil (0.5 mg/kg every 6 h) or a placebo solution, for one week. The primary endpoints were the incidence of BPD and death at 36 weeks PMA, and the side effects. Secondary outcomes included the incidence of BPD and the respiratory support at day 28 of life, duration of oxygen use, fraction of inspired oxygen use at 36 weeks and 28 days of life, duration of hospitalization, and the incidence of significant retinopathy of prematurity, severe intraventricular hemorrhage, periventricular leukomalacia, necrotizing enterocolitis, patent ductus arteriosus, and late sepsis. RESULTS:No significant differences were observed between the sildenafil and placebo study groups in mortality at 36 weeks PMA (10% vs 20%, p?=?1), respiratory support at 36 weeks (30% vs 25%, p?=?0.57), and side effects (0% vs 0%). For all other secondary outcomes, no significant differences were detected. CONCLUSIONS:While not associated with side effects, off-label oral sildenafil did not demonstrate benefits in the prevention of BPD or death in the extreme and very preterm infants. Future studies of dosing and efficacy that target different regimens of sildenafil are warranted before sildenafil is recommended for the prevention of BPD.
Project description:To evaluate the impact of maternal hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP) on mortality and neurological outcomes in extremely and very preterm infants using a nationwide neonatal database in Japan. This population-based retrospective study was based on an analysis of data collected by the Neonatal Research Network of Japan from 2003 to 2015 of neonates weighing 1,500 g or less at birth, between 22 and 31 weeks' gestation. A total of 21,659 infants were randomly divided into two groups, HDP (n?=?4,584) and non-HDP (n?=?4,584), at a ratio of 1:1 after stratification by four factors including maternal age, parity, weeks of gestation, and year of delivery. Short-term (neonatal period) and medium-term (3 years of age) mortality and neurological outcomes were compared between the two groups by logistic regression analyses. In univariate analysis, HDP was associated with an increased risk for in-hospital death (crude odds ratio [OR], 1.31; 95% confidence interval, 1.04-1.63) and a decreased risk for severe intraventricular haemorrhage (0.68; 0.53-0.87) and periventricular leukomalacia (0.60; 0.48-0.77). In multivariate analysis, HDP was significantly associated with a lower risk for in-hospital death (adjusted OR, 0.61; 0.47-0.80), severe intraventricular haemorrhage (0.47; 0.35-0.63), periventricular leukomalacia (0.59; 0.45-0.78), neonatal seizures (0.40; 0.28-0.57) and cerebral palsy (0.70; 0.52-0.95) at 3 years after adjustment for covariates including birth weight. These results were consistent with those of additional analyses, which excluded cases with histological chorioamnionitis and which divided the infants into two subgroups (22-27 gestational weeks and 28-31 gestational weeks). Maternal HDP was associated with an increased risk for in-hospital death without adjusting for covariates, but it was also associated with a lower risk for mortality and adverse neurological outcomes in extremely and very preterm infants if all covariates except HDP were identical.
Project description:PURPOSE:To classify the risk factors that contribute to the development versus progression of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). METHODS:The medical records of premature infants born with a birth weight (BW) less than 1501 g or a gestational age (GA) of 32 weeks or less were retrospectively reviewed. Twenty potential risk factors that may influence the development or progression of ROP were analyzed by univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses. The progression of ROP was defined as type 1 ROP, threshold ROP, or aggressive posterior ROP for which treatment was recommended. RESULTS:A total of 324 eyes were included; 157 eyes (48.5%) showed ROP development, and 48 eyes exhibited ROP progression (14.8% of all eyes and 30.6% of the ROP-developed eyes). According to the univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses, prenatal steroid use, GA, the duration of mechanical ventilation, and respiratory distress syndrome were associated with the development of ROP. However, GA, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, the number of red blood cell units transfused, intraventricular hemorrhage, and periventricular leukomalacia were significantly correlated with ROP progression. CONCLUSION:The risk factors that influenced ROP development versus ROP progression were not identical. Evaluating these risk factors during screening of high-risk premature infants will help determine the appropriate timing of examinations and treatment.
Project description:Importance:Diabetes in pregnancy is associated with a 2-times to 3-times higher rate of very preterm birth than in women without diabetes. Very preterm infants are at high risk of death and severe morbidity. The association of maternal diabetes with these risks is unclear. Objective:To determine the associations between maternal diabetes and in-hospital mortality, as well as neonatal morbidity in very preterm infants with a birth weight of less than 1500 g. Design, Setting, Participants:This retrospective cohort study was conducted at 7 national networks in high-income countries that are part of the International Neonatal Network for Evaluating Outcomes in Neonates and used prospectively collected data on 76 360 very preterm, singleton infants without malformations born between January 1, 2007, and December 31, 2015, at 24 to 31 weeks' gestation with birth weights of less than 1500 g, 3280 (4.3%) of whom were born to diabetic mothers. Exposures:Any type of diabetes during pregnancy. Main Outcomes and Measures:The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality. The secondary outcomes were severe neonatal morbidities, including intraventricular hemorrhages of grade 3 to 4, cystic periventricular leukomalacia, retinopathy of prematurity needing treatment and bronchopulmonary dysplasia, and other morbidities, including respiratory distress, treated patent ductus arteriosus, and necrotizing enterocolitis. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals were estimated, adjusted for potential confounders, and stratified by gestational age (GA), sex, and network. Results:The mean (SD) birth weight of offspring born to mothers with diabetes was significantly higher at 1081 (262) g than in offspring born to mothers without diabetes (mean [SD] birth weight, 1027  g). Mothers with diabetes were older and had more hypertensive disorders, antenatal steroid treatments, and deliveries by cesarean delivery than mothers without diabetes. Infants of mothers with diabetes were born at a later GA than infants of mothers without diabetes. In-hospital mortality (6.6% vs 8.3%) and the composite of mortality and severe morbidity (31.6% vs 40.6%) were lower in infants of mothers with diabetes. However, in adjusted analyses, no significant differences in in-hospital mortality (adjusted OR, 1.16 (95% CI, 0.97-1.39) or the composite of mortality and severe morbidity (adjusted OR, 0.99 (95% CI, 0.88-1.10) were observed. With few exceptions, outcomes of infants born to mothers with and without diabetes were similar regardless of infant sex, GA, or country of birth. Conclusions and Relevance:In high-resource settings, maternal diabetes is not associated with an increased risk of in-hospital mortality or severe morbidity in very preterm infants with a birth weight of fewer than 1500 g.
Project description:Preterm infants are at high risk for brain injury during the perinatal period. Intraventricular hemorrhage and periventricular leukomalacia, the two most common patterns of brain injury in prematurely-born children, are associated with poor neurodevelopmental outcomes. The hippocampus is known to be critical for learning and memory; however, it remains unknown how these forms of brain injury affect hippocampal growth and how the resulting alterations in hippocampal development relate to childhood outcomes. To investigate these relationships, hippocampal segmentations were performed on term equivalent MRI scans from 55 full-term infants, 85 very preterm infants (born ?32?weeks gestation) with no to mild brain injury and 73 very preterm infants with brain injury (e.g., grade III/IV intraventricular hemorrhage, post-hemorrhagic hydrocephalus, cystic periventricular leukomalacia). Infants then underwent standardized neurodevelopmental testing using the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, 3rd edition at age 2?years, corrected for prematurity. To delineate the effects of brain injury on early hippocampal development, hippocampal volumes were compared across groups and associations between neonatal volumes and neurodevelopmental outcomes at age 2?years were explored. Very preterm infants with brain injury had smaller hippocampal volumes at term equivalent age compared to term and very preterm infants with no to mild injury, with the smallest hippocampi among those with grade III/IV intraventricular hemorrhage and post-hemorrhagic hydrocephalus. Further, larger ventricle size was associated with smaller hippocampal size. Smaller hippocampal volumes were related to worse motor performance at age 2?years across all groups. In addition, smaller hippocampal volumes in infants with brain injury were correlated with impaired cognitive scores at age 2?years, a relationship specific to this group. Consistent with our preclinical findings, these findings demonstrate that perinatal brain injury is associated with hippocampal size in preterm infants, with smaller volumes related to domain-specific neurodevelopmental impairments in this high-risk clinical population.
Project description:To compare clinical outcomes of premature infants on synchronized nasal intermittent positive pressure ventilation (SNIPPV) vs nasal intermittent positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV) in the neonatal intensive care unit. Use of NIPPV in the neonatal intensive care unit has shown promise with better clinical outcomes in premature neonates. It is not known if synchronization makes a significant clinical impact when using this technique.Retrospective data were obtained (1/04 to 12/09) of infants who received NIPPV anytime during their stay in the neonatal intensive care unit. SNIPPV (Infant Star with StarSync) was utilized from 2004 to 2006, whereas NIPPV (Bear Cub) was used from 2007 to 2009. Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) was defined using the NIH consensus definition. Unadjusted associations between potential risk factors and BPD/death were assessed using the ? (2) or Wilcoxon rank-sum test. Adjusted analyses were performed using generalized linear mixed models, taking into account correlation among infants of multiple gestation.There was no significant difference in the mean gestational age and birth weight in the two groups: SNIPPV (n=172; 27.0w; 1016 g) and NIPPV (n=238; 27.7w; 1117 g). There were no significant differences in maternal demographics, use of antenatal steroids, gender, multiple births, small for gestational age or Apgar scores in the two groups. More infants in the NIPPV group were given resuscitation in the delivery room (SNIPPV vs NIPPV: 44.2 vs 63%, P<0.001). Use of surfactant (84.4 vs 70.2%; P<0.001) was significantly higher in the SNIPPV group. There were no differences in the rate of patent ductus arteriosus, intraventricular hemorrhage, periventricular leukomalacia, retinopathy of prematurity and necrotizing enterocolitis in the two groups. After adjusting for the significant variables, use of NIPPV vs SNIPPV (odds ratio 0.74; 95% confidence interval: 0.42, 1.30) was not associated with BPD/death.These data suggest that use of SNIPPV vs NIPPV is not significantly associated with a differential impact on clinical outcomes.