C9C5 positive mature oligodendrocytes are a source of Sonic Hedgehog in the mouse brain.
ABSTRACT: In the mature rodent brain, Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) signaling regulates stem and progenitor cell maintenance, neuronal and glial circuitry and brain repair. However, the sources and distribution of Shh mediating these effects are still poorly characterized. Here, we report in the adult mouse brain, a broad expression pattern of Shh recognized by the specific monoclonal C9C5 antibody in a subset (11-12%) of CC1+ mature oligodendrocytes that do not express carbonic anhydrase II. These cells express also Olig2 and Sox10, two oligodendrocyte lineage-specific markers, but not PDGFR?, a marker of oligodendrocyte progenitors. In agreement with oligodendroglial cells being a source of Shh in the adult mouse brain, we identify Shh transcripts by single molecule fluorescent in situ hybridization in a subset of cells expressing Olig2 and Sox10 mRNAs. These findings also reveal that Shh expression is more extensive than originally reported. The Shh-C9C5-associated signal labels the oligodendroglial cell body and decorates by intense puncta the processes. C9C5+ cells are distributed in a grid-like manner. They constitute small units that could deliver locally Shh to its receptor Patched expressed in GFAP+ and S100?+ astrocytes, and in HuC/D+ neurons as shown in PtcLacZ/+ reporter mice. Postnatally, C9C5 immunoreactivity overlaps the myelination peak that occurs between P10 and P20 and is down regulated during ageing. Thus, our data suggest that C9C5+CC1+ oligodendroglial cells are a source of Shh in the mouse postnatal brain.
Project description:The HMG-domain transcription factor Sox10 is expressed throughout oligodendrocyte development and is an important component of the transcriptional regulatory network in these myelin-forming CNS glia. Of the known Sox10 regulatory regions, only the evolutionary conserved U2 enhancer in the distal 5'-flank of the Sox10 gene exhibits oligodendroglial activity. We found that U2 was active in oligodendrocyte precursors, but not in mature oligodendrocytes. U2 activity also did not mediate the initial Sox10 induction after specification arguing that Sox10 expression during oligodendroglial development depends on the activity of multiple regulatory regions. The oligodendroglial bHLH transcription factor Olig2, but not the closely related Olig1 efficiently activated the U2 enhancer. Olig2 bound U2 directly at several sites including a highly conserved one in the U2 core. Inactivation of this site abolished the oligodendroglial activity of U2 in vivo. In contrast to Olig2, the homeodomain transcription factor Nkx6.2 repressed U2 activity. Repression may involve recruitment of Nkx6.2 to U2 and inactivation of Olig2 and other activators by protein-protein interactions. Considering the selective expression of Nkx6.2 at the time of specification and in differentiated oligodendrocytes, Nkx6.2 may be involved in limiting U2 activity to the precursor stage during oligodendrocyte development.
Project description:Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) offer a platform to bridge what we have learned from animal studies to human biology. Using oligodendrocyte differentiation as a model system, we show that sonic hedgehog (SHH)-dependent sequential activation of the transcription factors OLIG2, NKX2.2 and SOX10 is required for sequential specification of ventral spinal OLIG2-expressing progenitors, pre-oligodendrocyte precursor cells (pre-OPCs) and OPCs from hESC-derived neuroepithelia, indicating that a conserved transcriptional network underlies OPC specification in human as in other vertebrates. However, the transition from pre-OPCs to OPCs is protracted. FGF2, which promotes mouse OPC generation, inhibits the transition of pre-OPCs to OPCs by repressing SHH-dependent co-expression of OLIG2 and NKX2.2. Thus, despite the conservation of a similar transcriptional network across vertebrates, human stem/progenitor cells may respond differently to those of other vertebrates to certain extrinsic factors.
Project description:Oligodendrocytes produce myelin for rapid transmission and saltatory conduction of action potentials in the vertebrate central nervous system. Activation of the myelination program requires several transcription factors including Sox10, Olig2, and Nkx2.2. Functional interactions among them are poorly understood and important components of the regulatory network are still unknown. Here, we identify Nfat proteins as Sox10 targets and regulators of oligodendroglial differentiation in rodents and humans. Overall levels and nuclear fraction increase during differentiation. Inhibition of Nfat activity impedes oligodendrocyte differentiation in vitro and in vivo. On a molecular level, Nfat proteins cooperate with Sox10 to relieve reciprocal repression of Olig2 and Nkx2.2 as precondition for oligodendroglial differentiation and myelination. As Nfat activity depends on calcium-dependent activation of calcineurin signaling, regulatory network and oligodendroglial differentiation become sensitive to calcium signals. NFAT proteins are also detected in human oligodendrocytes, downregulated in active multiple sclerosis lesions and thus likely relevant in demyelinating disease.
Project description:The intellectual disability found in people with Down syndrome is associated with numerous changes in early brain development, including the proliferation and differentiation of neural progenitor cells (NPCs) and the formation and maintenance of myelin in the brain. To study how early neural precursors are affected by trisomy 21, we differentiated two isogenic lines of induced pluripotent stem cells derived from people with Down syndrome into brain-like and spinal cord-like NPCs and promoted a transition towards oligodendroglial fate by activating the Sonic hedgehog (SHH) pathway. In the spinal cord-like trisomic cells, we found no difference in expression of OLIG2 or NKX2.2, two transcription factors essential for commitment to the oligodendrocyte lineage. However, in the brain-like trisomic NPCs, OLIG2 is significantly upregulated and is associated with reduced expression of NKX2.2. We found that this gene dysregulation and block in NPC transition can be normalized by increasing the concentration of a SHH pathway agonist (SAG) during differentiation. These results underscore the importance of regional and cell type differences in gene expression in Down syndrome and demonstrate that modulation of SHH signaling in trisomic cells can rescue an early perturbed step in neural lineage specification.
Project description:Oligodendrocytes are the myelinating cells of the central nervous system. They provide trophic, metabolic, and structural support to neurons. In several pathologies such as multiple sclerosis (MS), these cells are severely affected and fail to remyelinate, thereby leading to neuronal death. The gold standard for studying remyelination is the g-ratio, which is measured by means of transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Therefore, studying the fine structure of the oligodendrocyte population in the human brain at different stages through TEM is a key feature in this field of study. Here we study the ultrastructure of oligodendrocytes, its progenitors, and myelin in 10 samples of human white matter using nine different markers of the oligodendrocyte lineage (NG2, PDGFRα, A2B5, Sox10, Olig2, BCAS1, APC-(CC1), MAG, and MBP). Our findings show that human oligodendrocytes constitute a very heterogeneous population within the human white matter and that its stages of differentiation present characteristic features that can be used to identify them by TEM. This study sheds light on how these cells interact with other cells within the human brain and clarify their fine characteristics from other glial cell types.
Project description:Limited access to human oligodendrocytes impairs better understanding of oligodendrocyte pathology in myelin diseases. Here, we describe a method to robustly convert human fibroblasts directly into oligodendrocyte-like cells (dc-hiOLs), which allows evaluation of remyelination-promoting compounds and disease modeling. Ectopic expression of SOX10, OLIG2, and NKX6.2 in human fibroblasts results in rapid generation of O4<sup>+</sup> cells, which further differentiate into MBP<sup>+</sup> mature oligodendrocyte-like cells within 16 days. dc-hiOLs undergo chromatin remodeling to express oligodendrocyte markers, ensheath axons, and nanofibers in vitro, respond to promyelination compound treatment, and recapitulate in vitro oligodendroglial pathologies associated with Pelizaeus-Merzbacher leukodystrophy related to PLP1 mutations. Furthermore, DNA methylome analysis provides evidence that the CpG methylation pattern significantly differs between dc-hiOLs derived from fibroblasts of young and old donors, indicating the maintenance of the source cells' "age." In summary, dc-hiOLs represent a reproducible technology that could contribute to personalized medicine in the field of myelin diseases.
Project description:The oligodendrocyte lineage genes (Olig1/2), encoding basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors, were first identified in screens for master regulators of oligodendrocyte development. OLIG1 is important for differentiation of oligodendrocyte precursors into myelin-forming oligodendrocytes during development and is thought to play a crucial role in remyelination during multiple sclerosis. However, it is still unclear how OLIG1 interacts with its transcriptional cofactors and DNA targets. OLIG1 was reportedly restricted to mammals, but we demonstrate here that zebrafish and other teleosts also possess an OLIG1 homolog. In zebrafish, as in mammals, Olig1 is expressed in the oligodendrocyte lineage. Olig1 associates physically with another myelin-associated transcription factor, Sox10, and the Olig1/Sox10 complex activates mbp (myelin basic protein) transcription via conserved DNA sequence motifs in the mbp promoter region. In contrast, Olig2 does not bind to Sox10 in zebrafish, although both OLIG1 and OLIG2 bind SOX10 in mouse.
Project description:In multiple sclerosis (MS), oligodendrocyte and myelin destruction lead to demyelination with subsequent axonal loss. Experimental demyelination in rodents has highlighted the activation of the subventricular zone (SVZ) and the involvement of progenitor cells expressing the polysialylated form of neural cell adhesion molecule (PSA-NCAM) in the repair process. In this article, we studied the distribution of early PSA-NCAM(+) progenitors in the SVZ and MS lesions in human postmortem brains. Compared with controls, MS SVZ showed a 2- to 3-fold increase in cell density and proliferation, which correlated with enhanced numbers of PSA-NCAM(+) and glial fibrillary acidic protein-positive (GFAP(+)) cells. PSA-NCAM(+) progenitors mainly were Sox9(+), and a few expressed Sox10 and Olig2, markers of oligodendroglial specification. PSA-NCAM(+) progenitors expressing Sox10 and Olig2 also were detected in demyelinated MS lesions. In active and chronic active lesions, the number of PSA-NCAM(+) progenitors was 8-fold higher compared with chronic silent lesions, shadow plaques, and normal-appearing white matter. In active and chronic active lesions, PSA-NCAM(+) progenitors were more frequent in periventricular lesions (30-50%) than in lesions remote from the ventricular wall. These data indicate that, as in rodents, activation of gliogenesis in the SVZ occurs in MS and suggest the mobilization of SVZ-derived early glial progenitors to periventricular lesions, where they could give rise to oligodendrocyte precursors. These early glial progenitors could be a potential target for therapeutic strategies designed to promote myelin repair in MS.
Project description:NG2(+) cells in the adult CNS are a heterogeneous population. The extent to which the subpopulation of NG2(+) cells that function as oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) respond to spinal cord injury (SCI) and recapitulate their normal developmental progression remains unclear. We used the CNP-EGFP mouse, in which oligodendrocyte lineage cells express EGFP, to study NG2(+) cells in the normal and injured spinal cord. In white matter of uninjured mice, bipolar EGFP(+)NG2(+) cells and multipolar EGFP(neg)NG2(+) cells were identified. After SCI, EGFP(+)NG2(+) cell proliferation in residual white matter peaked at 3 days post injury (DPI) rostral to the epicenter, while EGFP(neg)NG2(+) cell proliferation peaked at 7 DPI at the epicenter. The expression of transcription factors, Olig2, Sox10, and Sox17, and the basic electrophysiological membrane parameters and potassium current phenotype of the EGFP(+)NG2(+) population after injury were consistent with those of proliferative OPCs during development. EGFP(neg)NG2(+) cells did not express transcription factors involved in oligodendrogenesis. EGFP(+)CC1(+) oligodendrocytes at 6 weeks included cells that incorporated BrdU during the peak of EGFP(+)NG2(+) cell proliferation. EGFP(neg)CC1(+) oligodendrocytes were never observed. Treatment with glial growth factor 2 and fibroblast growth factor 2 enhanced oligodendrogenesis and increased the number of EGFP(neg)NG2(+) cells. Therefore, based on EGFP and transcription factor expression, spatiotemporal proliferation patterns, and response to growth factors, two populations of NG2(+) cells can be identified that react to SCI. The EGFP(+)NG2(+) cells undergo cellular and physiological changes in response to SCI that are similar to those that occur in early postnatal NG2(+) cells during developmental oligodendrogenesis.
Project description:We have previously demonstrated that Sox17 regulates cell cycle exit and differentiation in oligodendrocyte progenitor cells. Here we investigated its function in white matter (WM) development and adult injury with a newly generated transgenic mouse overexpressing Sox17 in the oligodendrocyte lineage under the CNPase promoter. Sox17 overexpression in CNP-Sox17 mice sequentially promoted postnatal oligodendrogenesis, increasing NG2 progenitor cells from postnatal day (P) 15, then O4+ and CC1+ cells at P30 and P120, respectively. Total Olig2+ oligodendrocyte lineage cells first decreased between P8 and P22 through Sox17-mediated increase in apoptotic cell death, and thereafter significantly exceeded WT levels from P30 when cell death had ceased. CNP-Sox17 mice showed increased Gli2 protein levels and Gli2+ cells in WM, indicating that Sox17 promotes the generation of oligodendrocyte lineage cells through Hedgehog signaling. Sox17 overexpression prevented cell loss after lysolecithin-induced demyelination by increasing Olig2+ and CC1+ cells in response to injury. Furthermore, Sox17 overexpression abolished the injury-induced increase in TCF7L2/TCF4+ cells, and protected oligodendrocytes from apoptosis by preventing decreases in Gli2 and Bcl-2 expression that were observed in WT lesions. Our study thus reveals a biphasic effect of Sox17 overexpression on cell survival and oligodendrocyte formation in the developing WM, and that its potentiation of oligodendrocyte survival in the adult confers resistance to injury and myelin loss. This study demonstrates that overexpression of this transcription factor might be a viable protective strategy to mitigate the consequences of demyelination in the adult WM.