Pan-cancer analysis reveals cooperativity of both strands of microRNA that regulate tumorigenesis and patient survival.
ABSTRACT: Recently, both 5p and 3p miRNA strands are being recognized as functional instead of only one, leaving many miRNA strands uninvestigated. To determine whether both miRNA strands, which have different mRNA-targeting sequences, cooperate to regulate pathways/functions across cancer types, we evaluate genomic, epigenetic, and molecular profiles of >5200 patient samples from 14 different cancers, and RNA interference and CRISPR screens in 290 cancer cell lines. We identify concordantly dysregulated miRNA 5p/3p pairs that coordinately modulate oncogenic pathways and/or cell survival/growth across cancers. Down-regulation of both strands of miR-30a and miR-145 recurrently increased cell cycle pathway genes and significantly reduced patient survival in multiple cancers. Forced expression of all four strands show cooperativity, reducing cell cycle pathways and inhibiting lung cancer cell proliferation and migration. Therefore, we identify miRNA whose 5p/3p strands function together to regulate core tumorigenic processes/pathways and reveal a previously unknown pan-cancer miRNA signature with patient prognostic power.
Project description:Our recent studies revealed that dual strands of certain pre-microRNAs, e.g., pre-miR-144, pre-miR-145, and pre-miR-150, act as antitumor microRNAs (miRNAs) in several cancers. The involvement of passenger strands of miRNAs in cancer pathogenesis is a novel concept in miRNA research. The analysis of a miRNA expression signature in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) has revealed that the guide strand of pre-miR-149 is significantly downregulated in cancer tissues. The aims of this study were to investigate the functional significance of miR-149's guide strand (miR-149-5p) and passenger strand (miR-149-3p), and to identify the oncogenic genes regulated by these miRNAs in ccRCC cells. The ectopic expression of these miRNAs significantly inhibited cancer cell migration and invasion in ccRCC cells. Forkhead box protein M1 (FOXM1) was directly regulated by miR-149-5p and miR-149-3p in ccRCC cells. Knockdown studies using si-FOXM1 showed that the expression of FOXM1 enhanced RCC cell aggressiveness. Interestingly, the analysis of a large number of patients in the The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database (n = 260) demonstrated that patients with high FOXM1 expression had significantly shorter survival than did those with low FOXM1 expression (p = 1.5 × 10??). Taken together, dual strands of pre-miR-149 (miR-149-5p and miR-149-3p) acted as antitumor miRNAs through the targeting of FOXM1 in ccRCC cells.
Project description:Analysis of the microRNA (miRNA) expression signature of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) based on RNA sequencing showed that dual strands of pre?miR?145 (miR?145?5p, guide strand; and miR?145?3p, passenger strand) were significantly reduced in cancer tissues. In miRNA biogenesis, passenger strands of miRNAs are degraded and have no biological activities in cells. The aims of this study were to investigate the functional significance of the passenger strand of miR?145 and to identify miR?145?3p?regulated oncogenic genes in HNSCC cells. Expression levels of miR?145?5p and miR?145?3p were significantly downregulated in HNSCC tissues and cell lines (SAS and HSC3 cells). Ectopic expression of miR?145?3p inhibited cancer cell proliferation, migration and invasion, similar to miR?145?5p, in HNSCC cells. Myosin 1B (MYO1B) was directly regulated by miR?145?3p, and knockdown of MYO1B by siRNA inhibited cancer cell aggressiveness. Overexpression of MYO1B was confirmed in HNSCC clinical specimens by analysis of protein and mRNA levels. Interestingly, high expression of MYO1B was associated with poor prognosis in patients with HNSCC by analysis of The Cancer Genome Atlas database (p=0.00452). Our data demonstrated that the passenger strand of miR?145 acted as an antitumor miRNA through targeting MYO1B in HNSCC cells. The involvement of dual strands of pre?miR?145 (miR?145?5p and miR?145?3p) in the regulation of HNSCC pathogenesis is a novel concept in present RNA research.
Project description:For patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), survival rates have not improved due to local recurrence and distant metastasis. Current targeted molecular therapies do not substantially benefit HNSCC patients. Therefore, it is necessary to use advanced genomic approaches to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying the aggressiveness of HNSCC cells. Analysis of our microRNA (miRNA) expression signature by RNA sequencing showed that the miR-199 family (miR-199a-5p, miR-199a-3p, miR-199b-5p and miR-199b-3p) was significantly reduced in cancer tissues. Ectopic expression of mature miRNA demonstrated that all members of the miR-199 family inhibited cancer cell migration and invasion by HNSCC cell lines (SAS and HSC3). These findings suggested that both passenger strands and guide strands of miRNA are involved in cancer pathogenesis. In silico database and genome-wide gene expression analyses revealed that the gene coding for integrin ?3 (ITGA3) was regulated by all members of the miR-199 family in HNSCC cells. Knockdown of ITGA3 significantly inhibited cancer cell migration and invasion by HNSCC cells. Moreover, overexpression of ITGA3 was confirmed in HNSCC specimens, and high expression of ITGA3 predicted poorer survival of the patients (P = 0.0048). Our data revealed that both strands of pre-miR-199a (miR-199a-5p and miR-199a-3p) and pre-miR-199b (miR-199b-5p and miR-199b-3p) acted as anti-tumor miRNA in HNSCC cells. Importantly, the involvement of passenger strand miRNA in the regulation of cellular processes is a novel concept in RNA research. Novel miRNA-based approaches for HNSCC can be used to identify potential targets for the development of new therapeutic strategies.
Project description:Recent studies revealed that some passenger strands of miRNAs acted as anti-tumor or oncogenic miRNAs in cancer cells. In this study, we focused on miR-455-5p (the passenger strand) and miR-455-3p (the guide strand) based on microRNA (miRNA) expression signatures of cancer cells. Both miR-455-5p and miR-455-3p were downregulated in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) tissues and low expression of these miRNAs was significantly associated with poor prognosis. Cancer cell proliferation, migration and invasive abilities were significantly inhibited by ectopic expression of miR-455-5p and miR-455-3p. To identify their oncogenic targets, we applied a combination of genome-wide gene expression and in silico miRNA database analyses. We focused on spindle and kinetochore-associated proteins, SKA1 and SKA3 and demonstrated direct regulation of SKA1 by miR-455-5p and SKA3 by miR-455-3p in RCC cells. Our present data demonstrated overexpression of SKA3 in RCC clinical specimens. Moreover, the study showed that the miR-455-3p/SKA3 axis contributed to cancer cell aggressiveness. Analytic strategies based on anti-tumor miRNAs, including passenger strands of miRNAs, are effective approaches for the elucidation of the molecular pathogenesis of RCC.
Project description:Androgen deprivation therapy is frequently used to treat prostate cancer (PCa), but resistance can occur, a condition known as castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Thus, novel approaches for identification of CRPC are important for designing effective PCa treatments. Analysis of microRNA (miRNA) expression signatures by RNA sequencing showed that both passenger and guide strands of the miR-455-duplex (miR-455-5p and miR-455-3p, respectively) acted as antitumor miRNAs in PCa cells. The involvement of miRNA passenger strands in cancer pathogenesis is a novel concept for miRNA functionality. Based on a large patient cohort in The Cancer Genome Atlas, expression of eight miR-455-5p/-3p target genes (PIR: P = 0.0137, LRP8: P = 0.0495, IGFBP3: P = 0.0172, DMBX1: P = 0.0175, CCDC64: P = 0.0446, TUBB1: P = 0.0149, KIF21B: P = 0.0336, and NFAM1: P = 0.0013) was significantly associated with poor prognosis of PCa patients. Here, we focused on PIR (pirin), a highly conserved member of the cupin superfamily. PIR expression was directly regulated by miR-455-5p, and PIR overexpression was detected in hormone-sensitive prostate cancer (HSPC) surgical specimens and CRPC autopsy specimens. Loss-of-function assays using siRNA or an inhibitor (bisamide) showed that downregulation of PIR expression blocked cancer cell migration and invasion. Moreover, the miR-455-5p/PIR axis contributed to cancer cell aggressiveness. These results suggest that PIR might be a promising diagnostic marker for HSPC and CRPC. Furthermore, CRPC treatment strategies targeting PIR may be possible in the future. Identification of antitumor miRNAs, including miRNA passenger strands, may contribute to the development of new diagnostic markers and therapeutic strategies for CRPC.
Project description:The micro RNA (miR)-34 family is composed of 5p and 3p strands of miR-34a, miR-34b, and miR-34c. The 5p strand's expression and function is studied in cervical cancer. The 3p strand's function and regulation remain to be elucidated. To study the function of the passenger strands of miR-34 family members, we overexpressed 5p and 3p strands using a synthetic miRNA in cervical cell lines. Cell proliferation was evaluated using crystal violet. Migration and invasion were tested using transwell assays, Western blot, and zymography. Possible specific targets and cell signaling were investigated for each strand. We found that miR-34a-5p inhibited proliferation, migration, and cell invasion accompanied by matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9) activity and microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2) protein reduction. We also found that miR-34b-5p and miR-34c-5p inhibit proliferation and migration, but not invasion. In contrast, miR-34c-5p inhibits MMP9 activity and MAP2 protein, while miR-34b-5p has no effect on these genes. Furthermore, miR-34a-3p and miR-34b-3p inhibit proliferation and migration, but not invasion, despite the later reducing MMP2 activity, while miR-34c-3p inhibit proliferation, migration, and cell invasion accompanied by MMP9 activity and MAP2 protein inhibition. The difference in cellular processes, MMP2 and MMP9 activity, and MAP2 protein inhibition by miR-34 family members suggests the participation of other regulated genes. This study provides insights into the roles of passenger strands (strand*) of the miR-34 family in cervical cancer.
Project description:In microRNA (miRNA) biogenesis, the guide-strand of miRNA integrates into the RNA induced silencing complex (RISC), whereas the passenger-strand is inactivated through degradation. Analysis of our miRNA expression signature of bladder cancer (BC) by deep-sequencing revealed that microRNA (miR)-145-5p (guide-strand) and miR-145-3p (passenger-strand) were significantly downregulated in BC tissues. It is well known that miR-145-5p functions as a tumor suppressor in several types of cancer. However, the impact of miR-145-3p on cancer cells is still ambiguous. The aim of the present study was to investigate the functional significance of miR-145-3p and BC oncogenic pathways and targets regulated by miR-145-5p/miR-145-3p. Ectopic expression of either miR-145-5p or miR-145-3p in BC cells significantly suppressed cancer cell growth, migration and invasion and it also induced apoptosis. The gene encoding ubiquitin-like with PHD and ring finger domains 1 (UHRF1) was a direct target of these miRNAs. Silencing of UHRF1 induced apoptosis and inhibited cancer cell proliferation, migration, and invasion in BC cells. In addition, overexpressed UHRF1 was confirmed in BC clinical specimens, and the high UHRF1 expression group showed a significantly poorer cause specific survival rate in comparison with the low expression group. Taken together, our present data demonstrated that both strands of miR-145 (miR-145-5p: guide-strand and miR-145-3p: passenger-strand) play pivotal roles in BC cells by regulating UHRF1. The identification of the molecular target of a tumor suppressive miRNAs provides novel insights into the potential mechanisms of BC oncogenesis and suggests novel therapeutic strategies.
Project description:We previously used RNA sequencing to establish the microRNA (miRNA) expression signature of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). We found that both strands of pre-miR-148a (miR-148a-5p: the passenger strand and miR-148a-3p: the guide strand) were downregulated in cancer tissues. Ectopic expression of miR-148a-5p and miR-148a-3p significantly inhibited cancer cell migration and invasion, indicating that both strands of pre-miR-148a had tumor-suppressive roles in PDAC cells. In silico database and genome-wide gene expression analyses identified a total of 15 genes that were putative targets regulated by these miRNAs. High expression of miR-148a-5p targets (PHLDA2, LPCAT2 and AP1S3) and miR-148a-3p targets (SMA, ENDOD1 and UHMK1) was associated with poor prognosis of patients with PDAC. Moreover, knockdown of PHLDA2 expression inhibited cancer cell aggressiveness, suggesting PHLDA2 acted as an oncogene in PDAC cells. Involvement of the passenger strand of pre-miR-148a (miR-148-5p) is a new concept in cancer research. Novel approaches that identify tumor-suppressive miRNA regulatory networks in lethal PDAC might provide new prognostic markers and therapeutic targets for this disease.
Project description:Prostate cancer (PC) is the most common and the second leading cause of cancer-related death among American men. Early diagnosis is a prerequisite to improving therapeutic benefits. However, the current clinical biomarkers for PC do not reliably decipher indolent PC from other urogenital disorders. Thus, effective clinical intervention necessitates development of new biomarkers for early detection of PC. The present study aimed to identify the miRNA signature in organ-confined (Gleason Score 6) prostate tumors. MicroRNA (miRNA/miR) array analysis identified 118 upregulated and 73 downregulated miRNAs in microdissected tumors in comparison to matched neighboring normal prostate epithelium. The miRs-Plus-A1083, -92b-5p, -18a-3p, -19a-3p, -639, -3622b-3p, -3189-3p, -155-3p, -410, -1179, 548b-5p, and -4469 are predominantly expressed (7-11-fold), whereas miRs-595, 4490, -3120-5p, -1299, -21-5p, -3677-3, -let-7b-5p, -5189, 3-121-5p, -4518, -200a-5p, -3682-5p, -3689d, -3149 represent the most downregulated (12-113-fold) miRNAs in microdissected prostate tumors. The array expression profile of selected miRNA signature and their potential mRNA targets was validated by qRT-PCR analysis in PC cell lines. Integrated in silico and computational prediction analyses demonstrated that the dysregulated miRNA signature map to key regulatory factors involved in tumorigenesis, including cell cycle, apoptosis, and p53 pathways. The newly identified miRNA signature has potential clinical utility as biomarkers, prognostic indicators, and therapeutic targets for early detection of PC. Further studies are needed to assess the functional significance and clinical usefulness of the identified miRNAs. Impact Statement To our knowledge his is the first study of identifying miRNA signatures in microdissected indolent (Gleason score 6) prostate cancer in comparison to matched normal prostate epithelium. By employing in silico and computational prediction analysis, the study provides a landscape of potential miRNA targets and key cellular pathways involved in prostate tumorigenesis. Identification if miRNAs and their relevant targets and pathways pave the way for underpinning their mechanistic role of miRNAs in human prostate tumorigenesis, and possibly other human cancers. Importantly, the outcome of the study has important clinical implications for the management of prostate cancer, including the use of miRNA(s) as biomarkers for early detection of prostate cancer.
Project description:Many reports have indicated that the abnormal expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) is associated with the progression of disease and have identified miRNAs as attractive targets for therapeutic intervention. However, the bifunctional mechanisms of miRNA guide and passenger strands in RNA interference (RNAi) therapy have not yet been clarified. Here, we show that miRNA (miR)-582-5p and -3p, which are strongly decreased in high-grade bladder cancer clinical samples, regulate tumor progression in vitro and in vivo. Significantly, the overexpression of miR-582-5p or -3p reduced the proliferation and invasion of UM-UC-3 human bladder cancer cells. Furthermore, transurethral injections of synthetic miR-582 molecule suppressed tumor growth and metastasis in an animal model of bladder cancer. Most interestingly, our study revealed that both strands of miR-582-5p and -3p suppressed the expression of the same set of target genes such as protein geranylgeranyltransferase type I beta subunit (PGGT1B), leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) and DIX domain containing 1 (DIXDC1). Knockdown of these genes using small interfering RNA (siRNA) resulted in the inhibition of cell growth and invasiveness of UM-UC-3. These findings uncover the unique regulatory pathway involving tumor suppression by both strands of a single miRNA that is a potential therapeutic target in the treatment of invasive bladder cancer.