Age of puberty and Sleep duration: Observational and Mendelian randomization study.
ABSTRACT: Earlier age of puberty has detrimental consequences for many aspects of health. Here, for the first time, we assessed the association of earlier puberty with sleep duration observationally and with validation using Mendelian Randomization. In the "Children of 1997" birth cohort (n?=?8,327), we used adjusted multivariable logistic regression to assess the associations of each clinically assessed marker of earlier puberty with self-report sleep duration in adolescence. Using two-sample MR, we assessed the effect of earlier puberty timing based on 203 single nucleotide polymorphisms applied to genome wide association studies of sleep duration in adults (n?=?335,410). In "Children of 1997", cross-sectionally, older age of menarche was associated with longer (9+ hours) sleep duration [odds ratio (OR) 1.11, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.01 to 1.21] at 13.5 years. The other earlier puberty markers were unrelated to sleep duration. Using inverse variance weighting, later of age at menarche increased adult sleep duration [0.020 per category, 95% CI 0.006 to 0.034]. This study demonstrated a causal effect of age at menarche on adult sleep duration, since age of menarche also affects obesity, our novel finding may be relevant to the observed relation of sleep duration with obesity and poor health.
Project description:Age of puberty has declined substantially in developed settings and is now declining in the rest of the world with economic development. Early age of puberty is associated with non-communicable diseases in adulthood, and may be a long-term driver of population health with effects over generations. In a non-Western setting, we examined the association of maternal age of menarche with blood pressure in late childhood/adolescence.We used generalised estimating equations to estimate the adjusted association of maternal age of menarche with age-, sex- and height-adjusted blood pressure z-score from 10 to 16 years in Hong Kong's population-representative birth cohort, "Children of 1997" (n = 8327). We also assessed whether associations were mediated by body mass index (BMI) or pubertal stage.Earlier maternal age of menarche was associated with higher systolic blood pressure in adolescence [-0.02 z-score per year older maternal age of menarche, 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.04 to -0.003]. The association of maternal age of menarche with systolic blood pressure was mediated by adiposity and/or pubertal stage at 11 years. Maternal age of menarche was not associated with diastolic blood pressure.Earlier maternal age of puberty was associated with higher systolic blood pressure, largely mediated by adiposity, highlighting the importance of tackling childhood obesity as a public health priority in view of the secular trend of declining age of puberty.
Project description:Rett syndrome is a unique neurodevelopmental disorder, affecting approximately one in 10,000 live female births, most experiencing reduced growth. We characterized pubertal trajectories in females with Rett syndrome. We hypothesized that pubertal trajectory deviates from the general female population with early pubertal onset and delayed menarche.Participants were individuals enrolled in the Rett Syndrome Natural History Study with clinical diagnosis of Rett syndrome or mutations in MECP2. Intervals to thelarche, adrenarche, and menarche were assessed by survival analysis; body mass index, mutation type, clinical severity, and pubertal milestone relationships were assessed by log-likelihood test; pathway synchrony (relationship between thelarche, adrenarche, and menarche) was assessed by chi-squared analysis.Compared with the general female population, more than 25% initiated puberty early, yet entered menarche later (median age 13.0 years). A total of 19% experienced delayed menarche. Median length of puberty, from thelarche to menarche, was 3.9 years. Higher body mass index correlated with earlier thelarche and adrenarche but not menarche; milder mutations correlated with earlier menarche; and milder clinical presentation correlated with earlier thelarche and menarche. Fifty-two percent entered puberty in synchrony, but different from the general population, 15% led with thelarche and 32% with adrenarche.Pubertal trajectories in Rett syndrome differ from general population, entering puberty early and reaching menarche later. Body mass index affects pubertal timing, but the relationship between specific mutations, clinical presentation, and underlying neuroendocrine pathology is less clear.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Earlier age at onset of pubertal events and longer intervals between them (tempo) have been associated with increased breast cancer risk. It is unknown whether the timing and tempo of puberty are associated with adult breast density, which could mediate the increased risk. METHODS:From 1988 to 1997, girls participating in the Dietary Intervention Study in Children (DISC) were clinically assessed annually between ages 8 and 17?years for Tanner stages of breast development (thelarche) and pubic hair (pubarche), and onset of menses (menarche) was self-reported. In 2006-2008, 182 participants then aged 25-29?years had their percent dense breast volume (%DBV) measured by magnetic resonance imaging. Multivariable, linear mixed-effects regression models adjusted for reproductive factors, demographics, and body size were used to evaluate associations of age and tempo of puberty events with %DBV. RESULTS:The mean (standard deviation) and range of %DBV were 27.6 (20.5) and 0.2-86.1. Age at thelarche was negatively associated with %DBV (p trend?=?0.04), while pubertal tempo between thelarche and menarche was positively associated with %DBV (p trend?=?0.007). %DBV was 40% higher in women whose thelarche-to-menarche tempo was 2.9?years or longer (geometric mean (95%CI)?=?21.8% (18.2-26.2%)) compared to women whose thelarche-to-menarche tempo was less than 1.6?years (geometric mean (95%CI)?=?15.6% (13.9-17.5%)). CONCLUSIONS:Our results suggest that a slower pubertal tempo, i.e., greater number of months between thelarche and menarche, is associated with higher percent breast density in young women. Future research should examine whether breast density mediates the association between slower tempo and increased breast cancer risk.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Earlier puberty is widely linked with future obesity and cardiometabolic disease. We examined whether age at puberty onset likely influences adiposity and cardiometabolic traits independent of childhood adiposity. METHODS AND FINDINGS:One-sample Mendelian randomisation (MR) analyses were conducted on up to 3,611 white-European female and male offspring from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) cohort recruited at birth via mothers between 1 April 1991 and 31 December 1992. Time-sensitive exposures were age at menarche and age at voice breaking. Outcomes measured at age 18 y were body mass index (BMI), dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry-based fat and lean mass indices, blood pressure, and 230 cardiometabolic traits derived from targeted metabolomics (150 concentrations plus 80 ratios from nuclear magnetic resonance [NMR] spectroscopy covering lipoprotein subclasses of cholesterol and triglycerides, amino acids, inflammatory glycoproteins, and others). Adjustment was made for pre-pubertal BMI measured at age 8 y. For negative control MR analyses, BMI and cardiometabolic trait measures taken at age 8 y (before puberty, and which therefore cannot be an outcome of puberty itself) were used. For replication analyses, 2-sample MR was conducted using summary genome-wide association study data on up to 322,154 adults for post-pubertal BMI, 24,925 adults for post-pubertal NMR cardiometabolic traits, and 13,848 children for pre-pubertal obesity (negative control). Like observational estimates, 1-sample MR estimates in ALSPAC using 351 polymorphisms for age at menarche (explaining 10.6% of variance) among 2,053 females suggested that later age at menarche (per year) was associated with -1.38 kg/m2 of BMI at age 18 y (or -0.34 SD units, 95% CI -0.46, -0.23; P = 9.77 × 10-09). This coefficient attenuated 10-fold upon adjustment for BMI at age 8 y, to -0.12 kg/m2 (or -0.03 SDs, 95% CI -0.13, 0.07; P = 0.55). Associations with blood pressure were similar, but associations across other traits were small and inconsistent. In negative control MR analyses, later age at menarche was associated with -0.77 kg/m2 of pre-pubertal BMI measured at age 8 y (or -0.39 SDs, 95% CI -0.50, -0.29; P = 6.28 × 10-13), indicating that variants influencing menarche also influence BMI before menarche. Cardiometabolic trait associations were weaker and less consistent among males and both sexes combined. Higher BMI at age 8 y (per 1 kg/m2 using 95 polymorphisms for BMI explaining 3.4% of variance) was associated with earlier menarche among 2,648 females (by -0.26 y, 95% CI -0.37, -0.16; P = 1.16 × 10-06), likewise among males and both sexes combined. In 2-sample MR analyses using 234 polymorphisms and inverse variance weighted (IVW) regression, each year later age at menarche was associated with -0.81 kg/m2 of adult BMI (or -0.17 SD units, 95% CI -0.21, -0.12; P = 4.00 × 10-15). Associations were weaker with cardiometabolic traits. Using 202 polymorphisms, later menarche was associated with lower odds of childhood obesity (IVW-based odds ratio = 0.52 per year later, 95% CI 0.48, 0.57; P = 6.64 × 10-15). Study limitations include modest sample sizes for 1-sample MR, lack of inference to non-white-European populations, potential selection bias through modest completion rates of puberty questionnaires, and likely disproportionate measurement error of exposures by sex. The cardiometabolic traits examined were heavily lipid-focused and did not include hormone-related traits such as insulin and insulin-like growth factors. CONCLUSIONS:Our results suggest that puberty timing has a small influence on adiposity and cardiometabolic traits and that preventive interventions should instead focus on reducing childhood adiposity.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Animal studies suggest that phthalates and bisphenol A (BPA), endocrine-disrupting chemicals found in many consumer products, may impact the timing of puberty. OBJECTIVES:We aimed to determine the association of prenatal exposure to high-molecular-weight phthalates and BPA with pubertal timing in boys and girls participating in the Center for the Health Assessment of Mothers and Children of Salinas (CHAMACOS) longitudinal cohort study. METHODS:We quantified urinary concentrations of eight phthalate metabolites and BPA at two time points during pregnancy among participating mothers ([Formula: see text]) and conducted clinical Tanner staging of puberty on their children every 9 months between 9 and 13 y of age. We conducted accelerated failure time models and examined the role of child overweight/obese status in this association. RESULTS:The sum of urinary metabolites of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate [Formula: see text], monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP), and BPA were associated with later onset of at least one of the three outcomes assessed in girls (thelarche, pubarche, or menarche) and with earlier onset of at least one of the two outcomes assessed in boys (gondarche and pubarche). We found that monocarboxynonyl phthalate, monocarboxyoctyl phthalate, mono(3-carboxypropyl) phthalate, and BPA were associated with later pubarche and menarche mostly among normal-weight girls but not overweight/obese girls. MBzP was associated with later thelarche in all girls, and [Formula: see text] was associated with later thelarche and menarche in all girls. BPA and all phthalate biomarkers were associated with earlier gonadarche and pubarche in all boys as well as in overweight/obese boys when stratified by weight. Among normal-weight boys, associations with BPA were also inverse, whereas associations with phthalate metabolites were close to the null or positive. CONCLUSIONS:Several high-molecular-weight phthalates and BPA were associated with later puberty in girls and earlier puberty in boys included in the CHAMACOS cohort study. Childhood overweight/obesity may modify these associations. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP3424.
Project description:Understanding the regulation of puberty timing has relevance to developmental and human biology and to the pathogenesis of various diseases. Recent large-scale genome-wide association studies on puberty timing and adult height, body mass index (BMI) and central body shape provide evidence for shared biological mechanisms that regulate these traits. There is a substantial genetic overlap between age at menarche in women and BMI, with almost invariable directional consistency with the epidemiological associations between earlier menarche and higher BMI. By contrast, the genetic loci identified for age at menarche are largely distinct from those identified for central body shape, while alleles that confer earlier menarche can be associated with taller or shorter adult height. The findings of population-based studies on age at menarche show increasing relevance for other studies of rare monogenic disorders and enrich our understanding of the mechanisms that regulate the timing of puberty and reproductive function.
Project description:BACKGROUND:In many countries, an increased prevalence of obesity in pregnancy has coincided with a declining pubertal age. We aimed to explore the potential effect of maternal pre-pregnancy overweight and obesity on timing of puberty in sons and daughters. METHODS:Between 2012 and 2018, 15 819 of 22 439 invited children from the Danish National Birth Cohort, born 2000-03, provided half-yearly information from the age of 11?years on the pubertal milestones: Tanner stages, voice break, first ejaculation, menarche, acne and axillary hair. We estimated adjusted mean monthly differences (with 95% confidence intervals) in age at attaining the pubertal milestones for children exposed to maternal pre-pregnancy obesity [body mass index (BMI) ?30.0?kg/m2] or overweight (BMI 25.0 to 29.9?kg/m2) with normal weight (BMI 18.5 to 24.9?kg/m2) as reference. In mediation analysis, we explored whether childhood BMI at age 7?years mediated the associations. RESULTS:Maternal pre-pregnancy obesity was associated with earlier age at attaining most pubertal milestones in sons, and pre-pregnancy overweight and obesity were associated with earlier age at attaining all pubertal milestones in daughters. When combining all pubertal milestones, pre-pregnancy obesity [sons: -1.5 (-2.5, -0.4) months; daughters: -3.2 (-4.2, -2.1) months] and overweight [daughters only: -2.6 (-3.3, -1.8) months] were associated with earlier timing of puberty. The associations in sons were completely mediated by higher childhood BMI and partly so in daughters. CONCLUSIONS:Maternal pre-pregnancy obesity appears to lower timing of puberty through childhood obesity in sons and mainly through other mechanisms in daughters.
Project description:Early menarche is linked to higher incidence of adult asthma, suggesting that earlier puberty may influence type 2 immune response characteristics of allergic diseases. We examined the hypothesis that timing of breast and pubic hair development, which precede menarche, is associated with increased childhood atopic conditions.Girls were enrolled at 6-8 yr of age (2004-2007) in the Breast Cancer and the Environment Research Program Puberty Study and were followed through 2011. Pubertal stages were assessed and atopic conditions were queried annually. Associations of age at pubertal stage 2 for breast or pubic hair development with atopic conditions were assessed using prevalence ratios (PR) or odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) from log-binomial regression and generalized estimating equation models, controlling for body mass index and other covariates. A total of 1055 girls with medical and pubertal stage data were included.Asthma (ever vs. never) was associated with younger pubarche (?10 vs. >10 yr, PR = 1.15, CI: 1.04-1.28 adjusted for race/ethnicity and site; PR = 1.13, CI: 1.01-1.25 further adjusted for BMI), but not thelarche. In longitudinal models, risk of developing allergies increased with younger age at pubarche (adjusted OR = 1.60, CI: 1.10-2.34; ?10 vs. >10 yr). Risks were highest among black girls with earlier pubarche (n = 248/326); for allergies, their fully adjusted OR was 2.35, CI: 1.06-5.19 for pubarche ?10 vs. >10 yr.Atopic conditions during childhood are associated with younger age at pubarche, independent of obesity, and these relationships may vary by racial/ethnic groups.
Project description:BACKGROUND:A secular trend towards earlier puberty has been observed in girls, while a similar trend has been more uncertain in boys. We estimated current ages at pubertal development in both boys and girls. METHODS:In this population-based cohort study, 14 759 of 22 439 invited boys and girls born from 2000 to 2003 in the Danish National Birth Cohort gave half-yearly self-reported information on puberty from the age of 11.5 years and throughout puberty. This late start of follow-up limits the estimation of age at onset of puberty but not later pubertal milestones. We estimated mean age at attaining the following pubertal milestones in years with 95% confidence intervals (CI): age at menarche, voice break, first ejaculation of semen and Tanner stages for pubic hair development and breast development or genital development. Further, the difference in mean age at menarche between mothers and daughters was estimated. RESULTS:In boys, voice break occurred at 13.1 (95% CI 13.0, 13.1) years, first ejaculation of semen occurred at 13.4 (95% CI 13.3, 13.4) years, and Tanner Genital Stage 5 occurred at 15.6 (95% CI 15.5, 15.6) years. In girls, age at menarche occurred at 13.0 (95% CI 13.0, 13.1) years and Tanner Breast Stage 5 occurred at 15.8 (95% CI 15.7, 15.9) years. Daughters had menarche 3.6 (95% CI 3.1, 4.2) months earlier than their mothers had. CONCLUSION:These data indicate that age at menarche has declined and to some extent support a decline in age at attaining other markers of pubertal development among boys.
Project description:To examine the influence of childhood obesity on the early onset of puberty and sex hormones in girls.Healthy girls with different percentages of body fat at baseline (40 obese, 40 normal, and 40 lean) were recruited from three elementary schools in Shenyang, China. These girls (mean age 8.5 years) were also matched by height, school grade, Tanner stage, and family economic status at baseline. Anthropometry, puberty characteristics, and sex hormone concentrations were measured at baseline and at each follow-up visit. The generalized estimating equation model and analysis of variance for repeated measures using a generalized linear model were used to determine the differences in puberty characteristics and sex hormones among three groups.Over 4 years, mean age of breast II onset was earlier among obese girls (8.8 years) than normal girls (9.2 years) and lean girls (9.3 years). The prevalence (%) of early-maturation in the obese, normal, and lean groups was 25.9%, 11.1%, and 7.4%, respectively. Obesity was associated with an increased risk for breast stage II (year 2: RR, 6.3; 95% CI, 1.9-21.1 and year 3: RR, 6.9; 95% CI, 0.8-60.1). None of the girls experienced menarche in the first year; however, by the fourth year 50.0% of obese girls had menarche onset, which was higher than normal weight (27.5%) and lean girls (8.1%). The mean estradiol level increased with age in the obese, normal, and lean groups. The mean estradiol concentration was higher in obese girls than in normal and lean girls throughout the 4-year period (P<0.05).Childhood obesity contributes to early onset of puberty and elevated levels of estradiol in girls.