An integrated analysis of rare CNV and exome variation in Autism Spectrum Disorder using the Infinium PsychArray.
ABSTRACT: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental condition with a complex and heterogeneous genetic etiology. While a proportion of ASD risk is attributable to common variants, rare copy-number variants (CNVs) and protein-disrupting single-nucleotide variants (SNVs) have been shown to significantly contribute to ASD etiology. We analyzed a homogeneous cohort of 127 ASD Italian families genotyped with the Illumina PsychArray, to perform an integrated analysis of CNVs and SNVs and to assess their contribution to ASD risk. We observed a higher burden of rare CNVs, especially deletions, in ASD individuals versus unaffected controls. Furthermore, we identified a significant enrichment of rare CNVs intersecting ASD candidate genes reported in the SFARI database. Family-based analysis of rare SNVs genotyped by the PsychArray also indicated an increased transmission of rare SNV variants from heterozygous parents to probands, supporting a multigenic model of ASD risk with significant contributions of both variant types. Moreover, our study reinforced the evidence for a significant role of VPS13B, WWOX, CNTNAP2, RBFOX1, MACROD2, APBA2, PARK2, GPHN, and RNF113A genes in ASD susceptibility. Finally, we showed that the PsychArray, besides providing useful genotyping data in psychiatric disorders, is a valuable and cost-efficient tool for genic CNV detection, down to 10?kb.
Project description:Increased male prevalence has been repeatedly reported in several neurodevelopmental disorders (NDs), leading to the concept of a "female protective model." We investigated the molecular basis of this sex-based difference in liability and demonstrated an excess of deleterious autosomal copy-number variants (CNVs) in females compared to males (odds ratio [OR] = 1.46, p = 8 × 10(-10)) in a cohort of 15,585 probands ascertained for NDs. In an independent autism spectrum disorder (ASD) cohort of 762 families, we found a 3-fold increase in deleterious autosomal CNVs (p = 7 × 10(-4)) and an excess of private deleterious single-nucleotide variants (SNVs) in female compared to male probands (OR = 1.34, p = 0.03). We also showed that the deleteriousness of autosomal SNVs was significantly higher in female probands (p = 0.0006). A similar bias was observed in parents of probands ascertained for NDs. Deleterious CNVs (>400 kb) were maternally inherited more often (up to 64%, p = 10(-15)) than small CNVs < 400 kb (OR = 1.45, p = 0.0003). In the ASD cohort, increased maternal transmission was also observed for deleterious CNVs and SNVs. Although ASD females showed higher mutational burden and lower cognition, the excess mutational burden remained, even after adjustment for those cognitive differences. These results strongly suggest that females have an increased etiological burden unlinked to rare deleterious variants on the X chromosome. Carefully phenotyped and genotyped cohorts will be required for identifying the symptoms, which show gender-specific liability to mutational burden.
Project description:The identification of rare inherited and de novo copy number variations (CNVs) in human subjects has proven a productive approach to highlight risk genes for autism spectrum disorder (ASD). A variety of microarrays are available to detect CNVs, including single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) arrays and comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) arrays. Here, we examine a cohort of 696 unrelated ASD cases using a high-resolution one-million feature CGH microarray, the majority of which were previously genotyped with SNP arrays. Our objective was to discover new CNVs in ASD cases that were not detected by SNP microarray analysis and to delineate novel ASD risk loci via combined analysis of CGH and SNP array data sets on the ASD cohort and CGH data on an additional 1000 control samples. Of the 615 ASD cases analyzed on both SNP and CGH arrays, we found that 13,572 of 21,346 (64%) of the CNVs were exclusively detected by the CGH array. Several of the CGH-specific CNVs are rare in population frequency and impact previously reported ASD genes (e.g., NRXN1, GRM8, DPYD), as well as novel ASD candidate genes (e.g., CIB2, DAPP1, SAE1), and all were inherited except for a de novo CNV in the GPHN gene. A functional enrichment test of gene-sets in ASD cases over controls revealed nucleotide metabolism as a potential novel pathway involved in ASD, which includes several candidate genes for follow-up (e.g., DPYD, UPB1, UPP1, TYMP). Finally, this extensively phenotyped and genotyped ASD clinical cohort serves as an invaluable resource for the next step of genome sequencing for complete genetic variation detection.
Project description:Structural variation is thought to play a major etiological role in the development of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), and numerous studies documenting the relevance of copy number variants (CNVs) in ASD have been published since 2006. To determine if large ASD families harbor high-impact CNVs that may have broader impact in the general ASD population, we used the Affymetrix genome-wide human SNP array 6.0 to identify 153 putative autism-specific CNVs present in 55 individuals with ASD from 9 multiplex ASD pedigrees. To evaluate the actual prevalence of these CNVs as well as 185 CNVs reportedly associated with ASD from published studies many of which are insufficiently powered, we designed a custom Illumina array and used it to interrogate these CNVs in 3,000 ASD cases and 6,000 controls. Additional single nucleotide variants (SNVs) on the array identified 25 CNVs that we did not detect in our family studies at the standard SNP array resolution. After molecular validation, our results demonstrated that 15 CNVs identified in high-risk ASD families also were found in two or more ASD cases with odds ratios greater than 2.0, strengthening their support as ASD risk variants. In addition, of the 25 CNVs identified using SNV probes on our custom array, 9 also had odds ratios greater than 2.0, suggesting that these CNVs also are ASD risk variants. Eighteen of the validated CNVs have not been reported previously in individuals with ASD and three have only been observed once. Finally, we confirmed the association of 31 of 185 published ASD-associated CNVs in our dataset with odds ratios greater than 2.0, suggesting they may be of clinical relevance in the evaluation of children with ASDs. Taken together, these data provide strong support for the existence and application of high-impact CNVs in the clinical genetic evaluation of children with ASD.
Project description:More than 98% of the human genome is made up of non-coding DNA, but techniques to ascertain its contribution to human disease have lagged far behind our understanding of protein coding variations. Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has been mostly associated with coding variations via de novo single nucleotide variants (SNVs), recessive/homozygous SNVs, or de novo copy number variants (CNVs); however, most ASD cases continue to lack a genetic diagnosis. We analyzed 187 consanguineous ASD families for biallelic CNVs. Recessive deletions were significantly enriched in affected individuals relative to their unaffected siblings (17% versus 4%, p?<?0.001). Only a small subset of biallelic deletions were predicted to result in coding exon disruption. In contrast, biallelic deletions in individuals with ASD were enriched for overlap with regulatory regions, with 23/28 CNVs disrupting histone peaks in ENCODE (p?<?0.009). Overlap with regulatory regions was further demonstrated by comparisons to the 127-epigenome dataset released by the Roadmap Epigenomics project, with enrichment for enhancers found in primary brain tissue and neuronal progenitor cells. Our results suggest a novel noncoding mechanism of ASD, describe a powerful method to identify important noncoding regions in the human genome, and emphasize the potential significance of gene activation and regulation in cognitive and social function.
Project description:Both schizophrenia (SCZ) and autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are neuropsychiatric disorders with overlapping genetic etiology. Protocadherin 15 (PCDH15), which encodes a member of the cadherin super family that contributes to neural development and function, has been cited as a risk gene for neuropsychiatric disorders. Recently, rare variants of large effect have been paid attention to understand the etiopathology of these complex disorders. Thus, we evaluated the impacts of rare, single-nucleotide variants (SNVs) in PCDH15 on SCZ or ASD. First, we conducted coding exon-targeted resequencing of PCDH15 with next-generation sequencing technology in 562 Japanese patients (370 SCZ and 192 ASD) and detected 16 heterozygous SNVs. We then performed association analyses on 2,096 cases (1,714 SCZ and 382 ASD) and 1,917 controls with six novel variants of these 16 SNVs. Of these six variants, four (p.R219K, p.T281A, p.D642N, c.3010-1G>C) were ultra-rare variants (minor allele frequency < 0.0005) that may increase disease susceptibility. Finally, no statistically significant association between any of these rare, heterozygous PCDH15 point variants and SCZ or ASD was found. Our results suggest that a larger sample size of resequencing subjects is necessary to detect associations between rare PCDH15 variants and neuropsychiatric disorders.
Project description:Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a group of clinically and genetically heterogeneous neurodevelopmental disorders. Recent tremendous advances in the whole exome sequencing (WES) enable rapid identification of variants associated with ASD including single nucleotide variations (SNVs) and indels. To further explore genetic etiology of ASD in Chinese children with negative findings of copy number variants (CNVs), we applied WES in 80 simplex families with a single affected offspring with ASD or suspected ASD, and validated variations predicted to be damaging by Sanger sequencing. The results showed that an overall diagnostic yield of 8.8% (9.2% in the group of ASD and 6.7% in the group of suspected ASD) was observed in our cohort. Among patients with diagnosed ASD, developmental delay or intellectual disability (DD/ID) was the most common comorbidity with a diagnostic yield of 13.3%, followed by seizures (50.0%) and craniofacial anomalies (40.0%). All of identified de novo SNVs and indels among patients with ASD were loss of function (LOF) variations and were slightly more frequent among female (male vs. female: 7.3% vs. 8.5%). A total of seven presumed causative genes (CHD8, AFF2, ADNP, POGZ, SHANK3, IL1RAPL1, and PTEN) were identified in this study. In conclusion, WES is an efficient diagnostic tool for diagnosed ASD especially those with negative findings of CNVs and other neurological disorders in clinical practice, enabling early identification of disease related genes and contributing to precision and personalized medicine.
Project description:MBD5 (Methyl-CpG-binding domain 5) is a critical gene for normal development. While deletion or duplication of MBD5 may contribute to a genetic predisposition to autism spectrum disorders (ASD), intellectual disability, or epilepsy, the impact of rare MBD5 single nucleotide variants (SNVs) on neurodevelopmental features, particularly features with late onset, has not been fully explored. In this study, we conducted exon-targeted resequencing of MBD5 with next-generation sequencing technology in 562 Japanese patients (192 with idiopathic ASD and 370 with schizophrenia (SCZ)) and detected 16 MBD5 SNVs with allele frequencies of ?1%. We then performed phenotype analyses with 12 novel variants of these 16 SNVs. SCZ patients with these variants exhibited mainly within normal development ranges until the first psychosis and ASD patients with SNVs did not precisely overlap with the core characteristics described in previous literature as being associated with MBD5 SNVs. Our results suggested that MBD5 variants might contribute to a broad spectrum of neurodevelopmental pathophysiology. Further research and assessment of clinical diagnostic screening are necessary for understanding the burden of rare MBD5 SNVs for these neurodevelopmental disorders.
Project description:Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is heterogeneous in symptom and etiology. Rare copy number variations (CNVs) are important genetic factors contributing to ASD. Currently chromosomal microarray (CMA) detecting CNVs is recommended as a first-tier diagnostic assay, largely based on research in North America and Europe. The feature of rare CNVs has not been well characterized in ASD cohorts from non-European ancestry. In this study, high resolution CMA was utilized to investigate rare CNVs in a Chinese cohort of ASD (n = 401, including 177 mildly/moderately and 224 severely affected individuals), together with an ancestry-matched control cohort (n = 197). Diagnostic yield was about 4.2%, with 17 clinically significant CNVs identified in ASD individuals, of which 12 CNVs overlapped with recurrent autism risk loci or genes. Autosomal rare CNV burden analysis showed an overrepresentation of rare loss events in ASD cohort, whereas the rate of rare gain events correlated with the phenotypic severity. Further analysis showed rare losses disrupting genes highly intolerant of loss-of-function variants were enriched in the ASD cohort. Among these highly constrained genes disrupted by rare losses, RIMS2 is a promising candidate contributing to ASD risk. This pilot study evaluated clinical utility of CMA and the feature of rare CNVs in Chinese ASD, with candidate genes identified as potential risk factors.
Project description:The range of genetic variation with potential clinical implications in schizophrenia, beyond rare copy number variants (CNVs), remains uncertain. We therefore analyzed genome sequencing data for 259 unrelated adults with schizophrenia from a well-characterized community-based cohort previously examined with chromosomal microarray for CNVs (none with 22q11.2 deletions). We analyzed these genomes for rare high-impact variants considered causal for neurodevelopmental disorders, including single-nucleotide variants (SNVs) and small insertions/deletions (indels), for potential clinical relevance based on findings for neurodevelopmental disorders. Also, we investigated a novel variant type, tandem repeat expansions (TREs), in 45 loci known to be associated with monogenic neurological diseases. We found several of these variants in this schizophrenia population suggesting that these variants have a wider clinical spectrum than previously thought. In addition to known pathogenic CNVs, we identified 11 (4.3%) individuals with clinically relevant SNVs/indels in genes converging on schizophrenia-relevant pathways. Clinical yield was significantly enriched in females and in those with broadly defined learning/intellectual disabilities. Genome analyses also identified variants with potential clinical implications, including TREs (one in DMPK; two in ATXN8OS) and ultra-rare loss-of-function SNVs in ZMYM2 (a novel candidate gene for schizophrenia). Of the 233 individuals with no pathogenic CNVs, we identified rare high-impact variants (i.e., clinically relevant or with potential clinical implications) for 14 individuals (6.0%); some had multiple rare high-impact variants. Mean schizophrenia polygenic risk score was similar between individuals with and without clinically relevant rare genetic variation; common variants were not sufficient for clinical application. These findings broaden the individual and global picture of clinically relevant genetic risk in schizophrenia, and suggest the potential translational value of genome sequencing as a single genetic technology for schizophrenia.
Project description:Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease is a heterogeneous group of genetic disorders of the peripheral nervous system. Copy-number variants (CNVs) contribute significantly to CMT, as duplication of PMP22 underlies the majority of CMT1 cases. We hypothesized that CNVs and/or single-nucleotide variants (SNVs) might exist in patients with CMT with an unknown molecular genetic etiology.Two hundred patients with CMT, negative for both SNV mutations in several CMT genes and for CNVs involving PMP22, were screened for CNVs by high-resolution oligonucleotide array comparative genomic hybridization. Whole-exome sequencing was conducted on individuals with rare, potentially pathogenic CNVs.Putatively causative CNVs were identified in five subjects (~2.5%); four of the five map to known neuropathy genes. Breakpoint sequencing revealed Alu-Alu-mediated junctions as a predominant contributor. Exome sequencing identified MFN2 SNVs in two of the individuals.Neuropathy-associated CNV outside of the PMP22 locus is rare in CMT. Nevertheless, there is potential clinical utility in testing for CNVs and exome sequencing in CMT cases negative for the CMT1A duplication. These findings suggest that complex phenotypes including neuropathy can potentially be caused by a combination of SNVs and CNVs affecting more than one disease-associated locus and contributing to a mutational burden.Genet Med 18 5, 443-451.