Morphological and Functional Outcomes after Intravitreal Dexamethasone Injection for Macular Edema in Patients with Central Vein Occlusion at 48-Week Follow-Up.
ABSTRACT: Purpose:The purpose of the study was to assess the efficacy of intravitreal dexamethasone implant (IDI: Ozurdex®) injection in eyes with macular edema due to retinal vein occlusion. Material and Method. A retrospective, nonrandomized study was conducted in patients with macular edema (ME) due to retinal vein occlusion (RVO) who undertook intravitreal Ozurdex® as first-line treatment. We performed a complete ocular exam including macular OCT. Results:The mean BCVA (logMar) improved from 0.420.42?±?0.23 logMar at baseline to 0.21?±?0.23 logMar at 48 weeks in the BRVO group and from 0.72?±?0.16 logMar at baseline to 0.31?±?0.23 logMar at 48 weeks in the CRVO group. In both groups, CFT values decreased significantly compared to baseline (p < 0.0001 at each timepoint). Reinjection for recurrent macular edema after 18 weeks was indicated in five eyes (41.67%) in the BRVO group and in six eyes (25%) in the CRVO group. Cataract developed in two eyes (16.67%) in the BRVO group and in one eye (4.17%) in the CRVO group. The IOP was higher than 25?mmHg in two cases in the BRVO group (16.66%) and in three cases (8.33%) in the CRVO group. Conclusion:Ozurdex® injected intravitreally significantly improved the mean CFT and BCVA in eyes with macular edema due to retinal vein occlusion.
Project description:We aimed to evaluate the 1-year efficacy and safety of low-frequency intravitreal bevacizumab in the treatment of macular edema due to retinal vein occlusions (RVOs).The study comprised an interventional prospective study of patients with macular edema due to central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) or branch retinal vein occlusion, followed for 12 months. Treatment-naïve patients with reduced best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and central macular thickness (CMT) of at least 250 μm received intravitreal injection of bevacizumab. After 1 month, BCVA and optical coherence tomography (OCT) images of the macula were recorded. In patients with <30% improvement in BCVA and CMT, two more injections were applied at 1.5-month intervals. In all other patients, further injections were applied as needed. In cases with ischemic areas of retina, laser photocoagulation of the retina was performed.In total, 33 patients with CRVO and 55 with BRVO were treated. After 1 year, 65 eyes (73.86%) had clinically significant improvement of BCVA (>0.3 log of the minimum angle of resolution [logMAR] units) with average number of injections of 1.98. Improvement of mean BCVA in CRVO was significant (P=0.001) from baseline (1.2±0.95 logMAR units) to 1 year (0.75±0.6 logMAR units). Significant improvement of mean BCVA (P<0.001) was also found in BRVO, from 0.71±0.75 logMAR units at baseline to 0.28±0.5 logMAR units at 1 year. Baseline CMT was 852.21±298.20 μm for CRVO and 597.95±185.63 μm for BRVO. In both groups, there was significant decrease (P<0.001) in CMT after 1 year of treatment. Panretinal laser photocoagulation was done in 75.8% of all eyes with CRVO and sectoral photocoagulation in 49.1% of eyes with BRVO.In macular edema due to RVO, intravitreal bevacizumab provides improvement in visual acuity and reduction of macular edema in a high percentage of treated eyes after 1 year, even with low number of injections.
Project description:To evaluate the anatomical and functional outcome of intravitreal dexamethasone implant for macular edema secondary to central (C) or branch (B) retinal vein occlusion (RVO) in patients with persistent macular edema (ME) refractory to intravitreal antivascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) treatment compared to treatment naïve patients and to dexamethasone-refractory eyes switched to anti-VEGF.Retrospective, observational study including 30 eyes previously treated with anti-VEGF (8 CRVO, 22 BRVO, mean age 69?±?10?yrs), compared to 11 treatment naïve eyes (6 CRVO, 5 BRVO, 73?±?11?yrs) and compared to dexamethasone nonresponders (2 CRVO, 4 BRVO, 69?±?12). Outcome parameters were change in best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and central foveal thickness (CFT) measured by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography.Mean BCVA improvement after switch to dexamethasone implant was 4 letters (p = 0.08), and treatment naïve eyes gained 10 letters (p = 0.66), while we noted no change in eyes after switch to anti-VEGF (p = 0.74). Median CFT decrease was most pronounced in treatment naïve patients (-437??m, p = 0.002) compared to anti-VEGF refractory eyes (-170??m, p = 0.003) and dexamethasone-refractory eyes (-157, p = 0.31).Dexamethasone significantly reduced ME secondary to RVO refractory to anti-VEGF. Functional gain was limited compared to treatment naïve eyes, probably due to worse BCVA and CFT at baseline in treatment naïve eyes.
Project description:Purpose:Report 5-year outcomes of patients receiving anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) for the treatment of macular oedema secondary to retinal vein occlusion (RVO. Methods:Retrospective review of eyes with RVO which initiated anti-VEGF treatment. Data including age, gender, visual acuity (VA) and injection numbers were obtained from medical records. Optical coherence tomography scans were graded for presence or absence of macular oedema and central foveal thickness (CFT). Macular perfusion was assessed on fundus fluorescein angiography by masked graders. Results:68 eyes (31 branch RVO, BRVO; 35 central RVO, CRVO and 2 hemi-RVO) with 5 years of follow-up after initiation of anti-VEGF treatment. Mean change in VA at 5?years was + 9.6 ± 21.6 letters among CRVO eyes and + 14.2 ± 15.6 letters among eyes with BRVO (p=0.001). Vision of 20/40 or better was achieved in 65 % of treated eyes. The proportion of eyes with a three-line improvement of vision (15 letters) at 5?years was 22 %. Mean CFT decreased by 257.6 ± 249.8?µm in eyes with CRVO and 145.6 ± 143.3 µm in eyes with BRVO. Conclusion:The results confirm good long-term outcomes can be achieved with anti-VEGF therapy for RVO.
Project description:The aim of this study was to evaluate retinal and choriocapillaris vessel density using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) in eyes with central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) and branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) complicated by macular edema (ME). Sixty eyes of 60 patients with CRVO or BRVO and ME and 40 healthy subjects underwent measurements of superficial and deep foveal and parafoveal vessel density (FVD, PFVD) and choricapillary density using OCTA at baseline and 60 days after intravitreal dexamethasone implant (IVDEX). FVD and PFVD of the superficial plexus were not significantly lower in CRVO group compared to the controls while in the BRVO group overall PFVD were significantly lower compared to control group (p?<?0.001). Overall PFVD of the deep plexus was significantly lower in CRVO and BRVO groups compared to the control group (p?<?0.001). FVD and overall PFVD of choriocapillaris were significantly reduced compared to controls in CRVO group (p?<?0.001) and PFVD of choriocapillaris was significantly reduced compared to controls in the affected hemi fields in BRVO groups (p?<?0.001). OCTA showed vessel density reduction in BRVO and CRVO with main involvement of the deep retinal plexus compared to the superficial retinal plexus due to ischemia that did not recover after intravitreal dexamethasone implant.
Project description:BACKGROUND:To evaluate the subfoveal choroidal thickness (SFCT) in eyes with macular edema (ME) secondary to retinal vein occlusion(RVO), and to investigate the short term response after a single intravitreal ranibizumab (IVR) injection. What is more, to compare SFCT and SFCT change between central RVO (CRVO) and branch RVO (BRVO). METHODS:In the retrospective study, we had collected 36-six treatment-naïve patients with unilateral ME secondary to RVO (including 19 CRVO and 17 BRVO). All patients had received IVR injection after newly diagnosed. The SFCT was measured at the onset and after 2 weeks of IVR injection. Paired t test was performed to compare the SFCT of RVO eyes and fellow eyes, as well as the SFCT of pre-injection and post-injection. In further, independent t test was used to compare SFCT and SFCT change between CRVO eyes and BRVO eyes. RESULTS:The mean SFCT at the onset was 326.03?±?30.86??m in CRVO eyes, which was significantly thicker than that in contralateral fellow eyes (p?<?0.01, paired t test), and reduced to 294.15?±?30.83??m rapidly after 2 weeks of IVR injection (p?<?0.01, paired t test). Similarly, the SFCT in BRVO eyes was significantly thicker than that in contralateral eyes at the onset, and decreased significantly after IVR injection. However, our findings showed that there was no statistically significant difference in SFCT and SFCT reduction after IVR injection between CRVO eyes and BRVO eyes. CONCLUSIONS:The SFCT in eyes with ME secondary to CRVO and BRVO was significantly thicker than that in fellow eyes, and decreased significantly within a short time in response to a single IVR injection. In further, the study showed that SFCT and SFCT change had no correlation with RVO subtypes.
Project description:BACKGROUND:To study potential ischemic effects of intravitreal Bevacizumab (IVB) on unaffected retina in treatment-naive eyes with macular edema secondary to branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) and contralateral eyes secondary to systemic absorption. METHODS AND FINDINGS:Prospective, interventional series included 27 treatment-naive eyes with BRVO and macular edema. EXCLUSION CRITERIA:Eyes with diabetic retinopathy, glaucoma, vasculitides, papilledema or systemic neurologic condition. Subjects underwent complete ophthalmological examination including fluoroscein angiography (FA), optical coherence tomography (OCT) and multifocal electroretinogram (mf-ERG). All subjects received single 1.25 mg/0.05ml IVB injection. Two observers measured all parameters; inter-observer agreements were expressed as kappa values. Paired t-test was used to compare values at baseline and follow-up. The statistical analysis was done using SPSS for Windows, Version 14.0. (Chicago, SPSS Inc.) Presenting mean CFT (central foveal thickness) was 499.5(+/-229.7) ?m, mean BCVA (best corrected visual acuity) was 0.64(+/-0.41) logMAR. At last follow-up, mean CFT was 267.9(+/-159.3) ?m (P<0.001), 95% CI [127.18, 422.32]; mean BCVA was 0.28(+/-0.24) logMAR. Respectively, mean N1 and P1 amplitudes of mfERG in 'unaffected quadrant' at presentation were -6.10(+/-4.00) nV/deg2 and 17.17(+/-11.54)nV/deg2; and -5.33(+/-1.30)nV/deg2 and 15.29(+/-4.69)nV/deg2 at final follow-up (P = 0.631 and 0.197, respectively), (95% CIs [-0.93, 1.42] and [-4.22, 1.08] respectively). In fundus quadrant of fellow eyes corresponding to unaffected quadrant in treated eyes, mean N1 and P1 amplitudes at presentation were -5.39(+/-1.56)nV/deg2 and 15.89(+/-3.89)nV/deg2; and -5.39(+/-1.90)nV/deg2 and 15.9(+/-5.52)nV/deg2 (P = 0.380 and 0.208), (95% CIs [-0.57, 1.28] and [-4.1, 1.1]) at last follow-up, respectively. LIMITATIONS:This study analysed the effects with a single injection of bevacizumab. However, whether ischemic adverse effects will emerge with repeated IVB injections as a consequence of cumulative dosing needs further investigation. The setting of our study being a tertiary care centre, the numbers of fresh BRVO cases without prior intervention were limited. Thus, the limitations of our study include a small sample size with a small follow-up period. No major ocular/systemic adverse event was observed in the study period. CONCLUSION:No evidence of progressive ischaemia attributable to single bevacizumab treatment was observed in this study. However, a larger prospective study involving subjects with cumulative dosing of bevacizumab and a longer follow-up could provide a better understanding of the potential ischaemic effects of bevacizumab or other anti-VEGF agents.
Project description:To assess the efficacy and safety of intravitreal conbercept injections in patients with macular edema secondary to retinal vein occlusion (RVO).A prospective, Phase II clinical trial was performed on 60 patients with macular edema secondary to RVO. Thirty patients had branch RVO (BRVO) and 30 had central RVO (CRVO). Each patient received intravitreal injections of conbercept monthly up to 3 months, followed by monthly evaluation and injection pro re nata to Month 9.The average change of best-corrected visual acuity from baseline to Month 9 was 17.83 ± 10.89 letters in BRVO and 14.23 ± 11.74 letters in CRVO. The change in best-corrected visual acuity was not statistically different between the groups (P = 0.216). The mean reduction of central retina thickness from baseline to Month 9 was 289.97 ± 165.42 ?m and 420.47 ± 235.89 ?m in BRVO and CRVO, respectively. The mean numbers of injections was 7.14 ± 1.90 in BRVO and 7.59 ± 1.39 in CRVO from baseline to Month 9 (P = 0.4705). There were 7 serious adverse events (SAEs) in 5 patients (8.33%, 2 BRVO and 3 CRVO). All the SAEs were nonocular and were not related to the drug or the injection procedure.Intravitreal injections of conbercept demonstrated a generally favorable safety and tolerability profile as well as efficacy in the treatment of macular edema due to RVO.
Project description:PURPOSE:To investigate papillary microvascular changes in patients affected by macular edema due to Central Retinal Vein Occlusions (CRVO) after anti-Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) therapy. METHODS:Prospective analysis of papillary and peripapillary vessel density (VD) changes in 18 eyes of 18 hypertensive patients affected by CRVO before and after the loading-phase of intravitreal Ranibizumab (IVR) injections. Data were quantitatively measured by optical coherence tomography (OCT) and optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) before as well as 1 month and 4 months after injections. The correlation between post-treatment best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and changes in the retinal microvasculature evaluated by OCTA was assessed. Results: 18 eyes of 18 consecutive patients with a known history of arterial hypertension and affected by an acute CRVO episode were enrolled. Central macular thickness (CMT) was significantly reduced after IVR injections (p < 0.001), while mean BCVA improved from 0.70 ± 0.26 logarithm of the minimal angle of resolution (logMAR) units at baseline to 0.25 ± 0.18 logMAR units after 4 months (p < 0.001). VD inside disc and peripapillary significantly increased (p < 0.001 and p = 0.01, respectively) after treatment. CONCLUSIONS:OCTA showed VD increase in the papillary area in patients affected by CRVO after anti-VEGF therapy. This area could represent a new region of interest to study microvasculature changes concomitant with severe macular edema.
Project description:PURPOSE:To correlate aqueous vasoactive protein changes with macular edema after dexamethasone implant in retinal vein occlusion (RVO). DESIGN:Prospective, interventional case series. METHODS:Twenty-three central RVO (CRVO) and 17 branch RVO (BRVO) subjects with edema despite prior anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) treatment had aqueous taps at baseline and 4 and 16 weeks after dexamethasone implant. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and center subfield thickness were measured every 4 weeks. Aqueous vasoactive protein levels were measured by protein array or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS:Thirty-two vasoactive proteins were detected in aqueous in untreated eyes with macular edema due to RVO. Reduction in excess foveal thickness after dexamethasone implant correlated with reduction in persephin and pentraxin 3 (Pearson correlation coefficients = 0.682 and 0.638, P = .014 and P = .003). Other protein changes differed among RVO patients as edema decreased, but ?50% of patients showed reductions in hepatocyte growth factor, endocrine gland VEGF, insulin-like growth factor binding proteins, or endostatin by ?30%. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 18 eyes (12 CRVO, 6 BRVO) showed baseline levels of hepatocyte growth factor and VEGF of 168.2 ± 20.1 pg/mL and 78.7 ± 10.0 pg/mL, and each was reduced in 12 eyes after dexamethasone implant. CONCLUSIONS:Dexamethasone implants reduce several pro-permeability proteins providing a multitargeted approach in RVO. No single protein in addition to VEGF can be implicated as a contributor in all patients. Candidates for contribution to chronic edema in subgroups of patients that deserve further study include persephin, hepatocyte growth factor, and endocrine gland VEGF.
Project description:PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of single-dose intravitreal bevacizumab followed by panretinal and macular grid laser, early in the course of central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO). METHODS: It is a prospective, non-randomized, interventional study of nine eyes of nine patients with <10 days origin of CRVO who received 2.5 mg (0.1 ml) intravitreal bevacizumab, followed 3 weeks later by panretinal and macular grid photocoagulation. Its effect on visual acuity and anatomical features of CRVO were studied. RESULTS: Nine eyes of nine patients (male : female = 8 : 1, mean age 54 years), with <10 days (average 2.67 days) onset of CRVO, received intravitreal bevacizumab within 7 days of presentation (average 3.1 days) followed 3 weeks later by panretinal with macular grid laser. Presenting mean baseline visual acuity was 20/320 (1.2 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (LOGMAR) units). All the patients showed rapid improvement in the form of rapid clearance of retinal hemorrhages, decreased optic disc swelling and venous dilation, and tortuosity. Mean final visual acuity was 20/63 (0.5 LOGMAR units). No patient showed conversion from non-ischemic to ischaemic CRVO, recurrence of macular edema, and disc collateral formation. CONCLUSION: Early intravitreal bevacizumab followed by panretinal and macular grid laser may provide visually and anatomically favourable results in a case of CRVO. It may also obviate the need for repeated injection. It requires a large randomized study to substantiate the results.