TiO2 Nanomaterials Non-Controlled Contamination Could Be Hazardous for Normal Cells Located in the Field of Radiotherapy.
ABSTRACT: Among nanomaterials (NMs), titanium dioxide (TiO2) is one of the most manufactured NMs and can be found in many consumers' products such as skin care products, textiles and food (as E171 additive). Moreover, due to its most attractive property, a photoactivation upon non-ionizing UVA radiation, TiO2 NMs is widely used as a decontaminating agent. Uncontrolled contaminations by TiO2 NMs during their production (professional exposure) or by using products (consumer exposure) are rather frequent. So far, TiO2 NMs cytotoxicity is still a matter of controversy depending on biological models, types of TiO2 NMs, suspension preparation and biological endpoints. TiO2 NMs photoactivation has been widely described for UV light radiation exposure, it could lead to reactive oxygen species production, known to be both cyto- and genotoxic on human cells. After higher photon energy exposition, such as X-rays used for radiotherapy and for medical imaging, TiO2 NMs photoactivation still occurs. Importantly, the question of its hazard in the case of body contamination of persons receiving radiotherapy was never addressed, knowing that healthy tissues surrounding the tumor are indeed exposed. The present work focuses on the analysis of human normal bronchiolar cell response after co-exposition TiO2 NMs (with different coatings) and ionizing radiation. Our results show a clear synergistic effect, in terms of cell viability, cell death and oxidative stress, between TiO2 NMS and radiation.
Project description:Titanium dioxide (TiO2) based nanomaterials (NMs) are among the most produced NMs worldwide. When irradiated with light, particularly UV, TiO2 is photoactive, a property that is explored for several purposes. There is an increasingly number of reports on the negative effects of photoactivated TiO2 to non-target organisms. We have here studied the effect of a suite of reference type TiO2 NMs i.e. NM103, NM104, NM105 and compared these to the Bulk) with and without UV radiation to the oligochaete Enchytraeus crypticus. High-throughput gene expression was used to assess the molecular mechanisms, while also anchoring it to known effects at organism level (i.e., reproduction). Results showed that the photoactivity of TiO2 (UV exposed) played a major role in enhancing TiO2 toxicity, activating transcription of oxidative stress, lysosome damage and apoptosis mechanisms. For non-UV activated TiO2, where toxicity at organism level (reproduction) was lower, results showed the potential for long-term effects (i.e., mutagenic and epigenetic). NM specific mechanisms were identified: NM103 affected transcription and translation, NM104_UV negatively affected reproductive system/organs; and NM105_UV activated superoxide anion response. Results provided mechanistic information for UV-related phototoxicity of TiO2 materials and evidences of the potential long-term effects. Overall design: Gene expression profile of Enchytraeus crypticus was analysed after 5 days of exposure to: i) TiO2 NMs under standard lab illumination (No-UV) and ii) TiO2 NMs + UV radiation. To maximise exposure, the test media was reconstituted water (ISO 1). The concentration tested was 1 mg/L (known to cause effects at reproduction - 3 weeks - after transference to clean soil). Three biological replicates per test treatment/NM and controls (standard laboratory light or UV) were used.
Project description:Titanium dioxide (TiO2) particles are commonly used as a food additive (E171 in the EU) for its whitening and opacifying properties. However, the risk of gut barrier disruption is an increasing concern because of the presence of a nano-sized fraction. Food-grade E171 may interact with mucus, a gut barrier protagonist still poorly explored in food nanotoxicology. To test this hypothesis, a comprehensive approach was performed to evaluate in vitro and in vivo interactions between TiO2 and intestinal mucus, by comparing food-grade E171 with NM-105 (Aeroxyde P25) OECD reference nanomaterial.We tested E171-trapping properties of mucus in vitro using HT29-MTX intestinal epithelial cells. Time-lapse confocal laser scanning microscopy was performed without labeling to avoid modification of the particle surface. Near-UV irradiation of E171 TiO2 particles at 364 nm resulted in fluorescence emission in the visible range, with a maximum at 510 nm. The penetration of E171 TiO2 into the mucoid area of HT29-MTX cells was visualized in situ. One hour after exposure, TiO2 particles accumulated inside "patchy" regions 20 µm above the substratum. The structure of mucus produced by HT29-MTX cells was characterized by MUC5AC immunofluorescence staining. The mucus layer was thin and organized into regular "islands" located approximately 20 µm above the substratum. The region-specific trapping of food-grade TiO2 particles was attributed to this mucus patchy structure. We compared TiO2-mediated effects in vivo in rats after acute or sub-chronic oral daily administration of food-grade E171 and NM-105 at relevant exposure levels for humans. Cecal short-chain fatty acid profiles and gut mucin O-glycosylation patterns remained unchanged, irrespective of treatment.Food-grade TiO2 is trapped by intestinal mucus in vitro but does not affect mucin O-glycosylation and short-chain fatty acid synthesis in vivo, suggesting the absence of a mucus barrier impairment under "healthy gut" conditions.
Project description:Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is one of the most extensively utilized food additives (E171) in the food industry. Along with nanotechnology development, the concern about the presence of nanostructured particles in E171 TiO2 and commercial food products is growing. In the present study, the physicochemical properties of commercially available E171 TiO2 particles, including particle size distribution, were investigated, followed by their cytotoxicity and intestinal transport evaluation. The fate determination and quantification of E171 TiO2 in commercial foods were carried out based on the analytical procedure developed using simulated foods. The results demonstrated that TiO2 is a material mainly composed of particles larger than 100 nm, but present as an agglomerated or aggregated particle in commercial foods with amounts of less than 1% (wt/wt). Titanium dioxide particles generated reactive oxygen species and inhibited long-term colony formation, but the cytotoxicity was not related to particle size distribution or particle type (food- or general-grade). All TiO2 particles were mainly transported by microfold (M) cells, but also by intestinal tight junction. These findings will be useful for TiO2 application in the food industry and predicting its potential toxicity.
Project description:Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) are in consideration to be used in plant protection products. Before these products can be placed on the market, ecotoxicological tests have to be performed. In this study, the nitrogen fixing bacterium Rhizobium trifolii and red clover were exposed to two TiO2 NPs, i.e., P25, E171 and a non-nanomaterial TiO2. Growth of both organisms individually and their symbiotic root nodulation were investigated in liquid and hydroponic systems. While 23 and 18 mg l(-1) of E171 and non-nanomaterial TiO2 decreased the growth rate of R. trifolii by 43 and 23% respectively, P25 did not cause effects. Shoot length of red clover decreased between 41 and 62% for all tested TiO2 NPs. In 21% of the TiO2 NP treated plants, no nodules were found. At high concentrations certain TiO2 NPs impaired R. trifolii as well as red clover growth and their symbiosis in the hydroponic systems.
Project description:Exposure to titanium dioxide (TiO2) food additive by ingestion increased over the years. TiO2 is used in food to give a brighter, fresher colour to sweets, cookies, salad dressing under the name E171. New studies on E171 showed that after ingestion in a colorectal cancer mouse model, a significant increased number of colorectal tumours were found. In addition, short-term exposure to E171 induces gene expression changes in relation to oxidative stress responses, an impairment of the immune system, activation of signalling and cancer-related genes. Furthermore, dysregulation of the immune system was also observed after ingestion of E171 in rats. E171 comprises nanoparticles (NPs) and microparticles (MPs). Previous in vitro studies showed the capacity of E171, TiO2 NPs and MPs to induce oxidative stress, DNA damage, and induction of the micronuclei. The aim of our study was to investigate the relative contribution of the NPs and MPs fractions to the effects of E171 at the molecular level. This investigation was performed using in vitro exposure of Caco-2 cells to E171 as well as the NPs and MPs fractions of TiO2 and assessing effects with genome wide gene expression analysis. Results showed that the E171, TiO2 NPs and MPs induce gene expression changes in signalling, inflammation, immune system, transport, and cancer. Contribution of NPs was observed on genes involved in TLR cascade, MHC class I and II presentation, late cornified envelope, potassium channels, and cell cycle. MPs contribution was observed with changes in gene expression on a target to Hedgehog family, α-defensins, cadherin and cholinergic receptors. The gene expression changes associated with the immune system and inflammation induced by E171, MPs, and NPs suggest the creation of a favourable environment for cancer development. Overall design: Total of 76 samples, 3 biological replicates plus every sample in duplicate. One time course exposure to TiO2 NPs for 2, 4, and 24h and exposure to MPs and E171 for 24h. Samples of MPs and E171 also have a time 0h exposure. First pre-processing was performed with the samples of the time course experiment with NPs. For this, six groups were defined: NPs 2h, 4h, and 24h for the exposed samples and control 2h, 4h, and 24h for the controls. The second pre-processing was split in 2 parts in which the first part was a pre-processing of the NPs 24h with its time-matched control and the second part was a pre-processing of E171 24h and MPs 24h with their time-matched control. The second pre-processing was split in 2 because the experiments were performed independently.
Project description:Recent studies indicate the presence of nano-scale titanium dioxide (TiO2) as an additive in human foodstuffs, but a practical protocol to isolate and separate nano-fractions from soluble foodstuffs as a source of material remains elusive. As such, we developed a method for separating the nano and submicron fractions found in commercial-grade TiO2 (E171) and E171 extracted from soluble foodstuffs and pharmaceutical products (e.g., chewing gum, pain reliever, and allergy medicine). Primary particle analysis of commercial-grade E171 indicated that 54% of particles were nano-sized (i.e., < 100 nm). Isolation and primary particle analysis of five consumer goods intended to be ingested revealed differences in the percent of nano-sized particles from 32%?58%. Separation and enrichment of nano- and submicron-sized particles from commercial-grade E171 and E171 isolated from foodstuffs and pharmaceuticals was accomplished using rate-zonal centrifugation. Commercial-grade E171 was separated into nano- and submicron-enriched fractions consisting of a nano:submicron fraction of approximately 0.45:1 and 3.2:1, respectively. E171 extracted from gum had nano:submicron fractions of 1.4:1 and 0.19:1 for nano- and submicron-enriched, respectively. We show a difference in particle adhesion to the cell surface, which was found to be dependent on particle size and epithelial orientation. Finally, we provide evidence that E171 particles are not immediately cytotoxic to the Caco-2 human intestinal epithelium model. These data suggest that this separation method is appropriate for studies interested in isolating the nano-sized particle fraction taken directly from consumer products, in order to study separately the effects of nano and submicron particles.
Project description:Food-grade titanium dioxide (TiO2) containing a nanoscale particle fraction (TiO2-NPs) is approved as a white pigment (E171 in Europe) in common foodstuffs, including confectionary. There are growing concerns that daily oral TiO2-NP intake is associated with an increased risk of chronic intestinal inflammation and carcinogenesis. In rats orally exposed for one week to E171 at human relevant levels, titanium was detected in the immune cells of Peyer's patches (PP) as observed with the TiO2-NP model NM-105. Dendritic cell frequency increased in PP regardless of the TiO2 treatment, while regulatory T cells involved in dampening inflammatory responses decreased with E171 only, an effect still observed after 100 days of treatment. In all TiO2-treated rats, stimulation of immune cells isolated from PP showed a decrease in Thelper (Th)-1 IFN-? secretion, while splenic Th1/Th17 inflammatory responses sharply increased. E171 or NM-105 for one week did not initiate intestinal inflammation, while a 100-day E171 treatment promoted colon microinflammation and initiated preneoplastic lesions while also fostering the growth of aberrant crypt foci in a chemically induced carcinogenesis model. These data should be considered for risk assessments of the susceptibility to Th17-driven autoimmune diseases and to colorectal cancer in humans exposed to TiO2 from dietary sources.
Project description:The food additive titanium dioxide (TiO2), or E171, is a white food colorant. Recent studies showed after E171 ingestion a significantly increased number of colorectal tumours in a colorectal cancer mouse model as well as inflammatory responses and dysregulation of the immune system in the intestine of rats. In the mouse colon, E171 induced gene expression changes related to oxidative stress, impairment of the immune system, activation of signalling and cancer-related processes. E171 comprises nanoparticles (NPs) and microparticles (MPs). Previous in vitro studies showed that E171, NPs and MPs induced oxidative stress responses, DNA damage and micronuclei formation. This study aimed to investigate the relative contribution of the NPs and MPs to effects of E171 at the transcriptome level in undifferentiated Caco-2 cells by genome wide microarray analysis. The results showed that E171, NPs, and MPs induce gene expression changes related to signalling, inflammation, immune system, transport and cancer. At the pathway level, metabolism of proteins with the insulin processing pathway and haemostasis were specific to E171 exposure. The gene expression changes associated with the immune system and inflammation induced by E171, MPs, and NPs suggest the creation of a favourable environment for colon cancer development.
Project description:Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) account for the majority of deaths worldwide. Radiation-induced heart diseases (RIHD) is one of the side effects following exposure to ionizing radiation (IR). Exposure could be from various forms such as diagnostic imaging, radiotherapy for cancer treatment, as well as nuclear disasters and nuclear accidents. RIHD is mostly observed after radiotherapy for thoracic malignancies, especially left breast cancer. RIHD may affect the supply of blood to heart muscles, leading to an increase in the risk of heart attacks to irradiated persons. Due to its dose-limiting consequence, RIHD has a negative effect on the therapeutic efficacy of radiotherapy. Several methods have been proposed for protection against RIHD. In this paper, we review the use of natural products, which have shown promising results for protection against RIHD.
Project description:Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is commonly used as a food additive (E171 in the EU) for its whitening and opacifying properties. However, a risk of intestinal barrier disruption, including dysbiosis of the gut microbiota, is increasingly suspected because of the presence of a nano-sized fraction in this additive. We hypothesized that food-grade E171 and Aeroxyde P25 (identical to the NM-105 OECD reference nanomaterial in the European Union Joint Research Centre) interact with both commensal intestinal bacteria and transient food-borne bacteria under non-UV-irradiated conditions. Based on differences in their physicochemical properties, we expect a difference in their respective effects. To test these hypotheses, we chose a panel of eight Gram-positive/Gram-negative bacterial strains, isolated from different biotopes and belonging to the species Escherichia coli, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactococcus lactis (subsp. lactis and cremoris), Streptococcus thermophilus, and Lactobacillus sakei. Bacterial cells were exposed to food-grade E171 vs. P25 in vitro and the interactions were explored with innovative (nano)imaging methods. The ability of bacteria to trap TiO2 was demonstrated using synchrotron UV fluorescence imaging with single cell resolution. Subsequent alterations in the growth profiles were shown, notably for the transient food-borne L. lactis and the commensal intestinal E. coli in contact with food-grade TiO2. However, for both species, the reduction in cell cultivability remained moderate, and the morphological and ultrastructural damages, observed with electron microscopy, were restricted to a small number of cells. E. coli exposed to food-grade TiO2 showed some internalization of TiO2 (7% of cells), observed with high-resolution nano-secondary ion mass spectrometry (Nano-SIMS) chemical imaging. Taken together, these data show that E171 may be trapped by commensal and transient food-borne bacteria within the gut. In return, it may induce some physiological alterations in the most sensitive species, with a putative impact on gut microbiota composition and functioning, especially after chronic exposure.