Comparison of Eight Technologies to Determine Genotype at the UGT1A1 (TA)n Repeat Polymorphism: Potential Clinical Consequences of Genotyping Errors?
ABSTRACT: To ensure accuracy of UGT1A1 (TA)n (rs3064744) genotyping for use in pharmacogenomics-based irinotecan dosing, we tested the concordance of several commonly used genotyping technologies. Heuristic genotype groupings and principal component analysis demonstrated concordance for Illumina sequencing, fragment analysis, and fluorescent PCR. However, Illumina sequencing and fragment analysis returned a range of fragment sizes, likely arising due to PCR "slippage". Direct sequencing was accurate, but this method led to ambiguous electrophoregrams, hampering interpretation of heterozygotes. Gel sizing, pyrosequencing, and array-based technologies were less concordant. Pharmacoscan genotyping was concordant, but it does not ascertain (TA)8 genotypes that are common in African populations. Method-based genotyping differences were also observed in the publication record (p < 0.0046), although fragment analysis and direct sequencing were concordant (p = 0.11). Genotyping errors can have significant consequences in a clinical setting. At the present time, we recommend that all genotyping for this allele be conducted with fluorescent PCR (fPCR).
Project description:The UGT1A1 enzyme is involved in the metabolism of bilirubin and numerous medications. Unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia, commonly presented as Gilbert syndrome (GS), is a result of decreased activity of the UGT1A1 enzyme, variable number of TA repeats in the promoter of the UGT1A1 gene affects enzyme activity. Seven and eight TA repeats cause a decrease of UGT1A1 activity and risk GS alleles, while six TA repeats contribute to normal UGT1A1 activity and non-risk GS allele. Also, the UGT1A1 (TA)n promoter genotype is recognized as a clinically relevant pharmacogenetic marker. The aim of this study was to assess diagnostic value of UGT1A1 (TA)n promoter genotyping in pediatric GS patients. Correlation of the UGT1A1 (TA)n genotypes and level of unconjugated bilirubin at diagnosis and after hypocaloric and phenobarbitone tests in these patients was analyzed. Another aim of the study was to assess pharmacogenetic potential of UGT1A1 (TA)n variants in Serbia. Fifty-one pediatric GS patients and 100 healthy individuals were genotyped using different methodologies, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) followed by acrylamide electrophoresis, fragment length analysis and/or DNA sequencing. Concordance of the UGT1A1 (TA)n promoter risk GS genotypes with GS was found in 80.0% of patients. Therefore, UGT1A1 (TA)n promoter genotyping is not a reliable genetic test for GS, but it is useful for differential diagnosis of diseases associated with hyperbilirubinemia. Level of bilirubin in pediatric GS patients at diagnosis was UGT1A1 (TA)n promoter genotype-dependent. We found that the frequency of pharmacogenetic relevant UGT1A1 (TA)n promoter genotypes was 63.0%, pointing out that UGT1A1 (TA)n promoter genotyping could be recommended for preemptive pharmacogenetic testing in Serbia.
Project description:We designed a universal human papillomavirus (HPV) typing assay based on target enrichment and whole-genome sequencing (eWGS). The RNA bait included 23,941 probes targeting 191 HPV types and 12 probes targeting beta-globin as a control. We used the Agilent SureSelect XT2 protocol for library preparation, Illumina HiSeq 2500 for sequencing, and CLC Genomics Workbench for sequence analysis. Mapping stringency for type assignment was determined based on 8 (6 HPV-positive and 2 HPV-negative) control samples. Using the optimal mapping conditions, types were assigned to 24 blinded samples. eWGS results were 100% concordant with Linear Array (LA) genotyping results for 9 plasmid samples and fully or partially concordant for 9 of the 15 cervical-vaginal samples, with 95.83% overall type-specific concordance for LA genotyping. eWGS identified 7 HPV types not included in the LA genotyping. Since this method does not involve degenerate primers targeting HPV genomic regions, PCR bias in genotype detection is minimized. With further refinements aimed at reducing cost and increasing throughput, this first application of eWGS for universal HPV typing could be a useful method to elucidate HPV epidemiology.
Project description:As genotyping technologies continue to evolve, so have their throughput and multiplexing capabilities. In this study, we demonstrate a new PCR-based genotyping technology that multiplexes thousands of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers with high-throughput capabilities in a simple protocol using a two-step PCR approach. The bioinformatic pipeline is user friendly and yields results that are intuitive to interpret. This method was tested on two recombinant inbred line (RIL) populations that had previous genotyping data from the Illumina Infinium assay for Triticum aestivum L. and the two data sets were found to be 100% in agreement. The genotyping by multiplexed sequencing (GMS) protocol multiplexes 1,656 wheat SNP markers, 207 syntenic barley SNP markers, and 49 known informative markers, which generate a possible 2,433 data points (including homoeoalleles and paralogs). This genotyping approach has the flexibility of being sequenced on either the Ion Torrent or Illumina next generation sequencing (NGS) platforms. Products are the result of direct sequencing and are therefore more reliable than scatter plot analysis which is the output of other genotyping methods such as the Illumina Infinium assay, komeptitive allele specific PCR and other like technologies.
Project description:Present study was aimed to explore the effect of (TA)n UGT1A1 gene promoter polymorphism on bilirubin metabolism, bilirubinaemia, predisposition to cholelithiasis and subsequent cholecystectomy, in Sickle-Cell Anemia (SCA) and beta-Thalasemia major (bTH) in Kuwaiti subjects compared to other population. This polymorphism was analyzed and correlated to total bilirubin and cholelithiasis in 270 age, gender, ethnically matched subjects (92 bTH, 116 SCA and 62 Controls) using PCR, dHPLC, fragment analysis and direct sequencing. Four genotypes of UGT1A1 were detected in this study (TA6/6, TA6/7, TA6/8 and TA7/7). (TA)6/8 was found only in four individuals; hence it was not included in the analysis. There was a statistically significant association of genotypes with serum total bilirubin levels in both bTH and SCA groups (p<0.001). Subjects with (TA)7/7 had the highest total serum bilirubin level (178.7 ± 3.5 µmole/l). A significant association was observed between allele (TA)7 and cholelithiasis development (p = 0.0001). The 40%, 67.5% and 100% of SCA with (TA)6/6, (TA)6/7 and (TA)7/7 respectively developed cholelithiasis and were subsequently cholecystectomized. Our results confirm UGT1A1 (TA)7 allele as one of the factors accounting for the hyperbilirubinemia and cholelithiasis observed in SCA and bTH.
Project description:Whole-genome sequencing is becoming commonplace, but the accuracy and completeness of variant calling by the most widely used platforms from Illumina and Complete Genomics have not been reported. Here we sequenced the genome of an individual with both technologies to a high average coverage of ?76×, and compared their performance with respect to sequence coverage and calling of single-nucleotide variants (SNVs), insertions and deletions (indels). Although 88.1% of the ?3.7 million unique SNVs were concordant between platforms, there were tens of thousands of platform-specific calls located in genes and other genomic regions. In contrast, 26.5% of indels were concordant between platforms. Target enrichment validated 92.7% of the concordant SNVs, whereas validation by genotyping array revealed a sensitivity of 99.3%. The validation experiments also suggested that >60% of the platform-specific variants were indeed present in the genome. Our results have important implications for understanding the accuracy and completeness of the genome sequencing platforms.
Project description:Microarray technologies are widely used to quantify the abundance of transcripts corresponding to thousands of genes. To maximise the robustness of transcriptome results, we have tested the performance and reproducibility of rat and mouse gene expression data obtained with Affymetrix, Illumina and Operon platforms.We present a thorough analysis of the degree of reproducibility provided by analysing the transcriptomic profile of the same animals of several experimental groups under different popular microarray technologies in different tissues. Concordant results from inter- and intra-platform comparisons were maximised by testing many popular computational methods for generating fold changes and significances and by only considering oligonucleotides giving high expression levels. The choice of Affymetrix signal extraction technique was shown to have the greatest effect on the concordance across platforms. In both species, when choosing optimal methods, the agreement between data generated on the Affymetrix and Illumina was excellent; this was verified using qRT-PCR on a selection of genes present on all platforms.This study provides an extensive assessment of analytical methods best suited for processing data from different microarray technologies and can assist integration of technologically different gene expression datasets in biological systems.
Project description:BACKGROUND:In 2009, 3 genome-wide association studies implicated IL28B single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) as the strongest genetic pretreatment predictor of sustained virological response (SVR) in hepatitis C infection. Recently, the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases (AASLD) and the European Association for the Study of the Liver (EASL) included IL28B testing in their guidelines. OBJECTIVES:The main aim of this study was to develop and validate a simple, rapid, and inexpensive polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method for genotyping of common IL28B polymorphisms (rs12979860 and rs8099917). PATIENTS AND METHODS:Two methods were developed to genotype common IL28B polymorphisms: 1) PCR-sequencing as a reference method and 2) PCR-RFLP as a rapid and inexpensive method. Both polymorphisms were genotyped in 104 Iranian hepatitis C patients by both methods simultaneously. To validate the PCR-RFLP method, the PCR-RFLP genotyping results should be 100% concordant with the PCR-sequencing results. RESULTS:Genotyping of rs12979860 and rs8099917 by PCR-RFLP was concordant with PCR-sequencing in 104 (100%) individuals. The analytical sensitivity and specificity of the PCR-RFLP method for genotyping of both SNPs are 100%. Among these 104 patients with chronic hepatitis C, the frequency of the rs12979860 CC, CT and TT genotypes were 40.4%, 47.1% and 12.5% and the frequency of the rs8099917 TT, GT and GG genotypes were 59.6%, 35.6% and 4.8%, respectively. Also, three IL28B haplotypes (rs12979860-rs8099917) were found among our patients including C-T, T-G and T-T with 63.9%, 22.6% and 13.5% frequency, respectively. C-G haplotype was absent in all of our patients. CONCLUSIONS:We have developed a validated, fast, and simple PCR-RFLP method for genotyping of common IL28B SNPs that is more cost-effective than sequencing.
Project description:We describe the application of a new DNA-scanning method, which has been termed Cleavase Fragment Length Polymorphism (CFLP; Third Wave Technologies, Inc., Madison, Wis.), for the determination of the genotype of hepatitis C virus (HCV). CFLP analysis results in the generation of structural fingerprints that allow discrimination of different DNA sequences. We analyzed 251-bp cDNA products generated by reverse transcription-PCR of the well-conserved 5'-noncoding region of HCV. We determined the genotypes of 87 samples by DNA sequencing and found isolates representing 98% of the types typically encountered in the United States, i.e., types 1a, 1b, 2a/c, 2b, 3a, and 4. Blinded CFLP analysis of these samples was 100% concordant with DNA sequencing results, such that closely related genotypes yielded patterns with strong familial resemblance whereas more divergent sequences yielded patterns with pronounced dissimilarities. In each case, the aggregate pattern was indicative of genotypic grouping, while finer changes suggested subgenotypic differences. We also assessed the reproducibility of CFLP analysis in HCV genotyping by analyzing three distinct isolates belonging to a single subtype. These three isolates yielded indistinguishable CFLP patterns, as did replicate analysis of a single isolate. This study demonstrates the suitability of this technology for HCV genotyping and suggests that it may provide a low-cost, high-throughput alternative to DNA sequencing or other, more costly or cumbersome genotyping approaches.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Inosine triphosphate pyrophosphatase (ITPA) gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), rs1127354 and rs7270101, may cause a functional impairment in ITPase enzyme, resulting anemia protection in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection undergoing ribavirin (RBV)-dependent regimens. The main purpose of this study was to provide and validate a simple, rapid, and inexpensive polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) technique for genotyping of ITPA rs1127354 and rs7270101 polymorphisms in chronic HCV-infected patients. METHODS:In the current study, 100 Iranian patients with chronic hepatitis C were examined and genotyped for ITPA rs1127354 and rs7270101 gene polymorphisms. To genotype rs1127354 and rs7270101 polymorphisms, PCR-RFLP technique and sequencing technique were performed on these samples. To validate the PCR-RFLP method, the PCR-RFLP genotyping results should be 100% concordant with the PCR-sequencing results. RESULTS:The rs1127354 and rs7270101 polymorphisms of ITPA gene were genotyped by PCR-RFLP technique and sequencing simultaneously, and the results of both techniques were 100% concordant in all 100 patients. Both PCR-RFLP and sequencing techniques indicated that the genotypic frequency of rs7270101 was 80% AA, 19% AC and 1% CC, and for rs1127354 was 79% CC, 20% CA and 1% AA, respectively. CONCLUSION:We developed and validated a rapid and inexpensive PCR-RFLP technique for the detection of ITPA rs1127354 and rs7270101 gene polymorphisms.
Project description:Technological innovation and increased affordability have contributed to the widespread adoption of genome sequencing technologies in biomedical research. In particular large cancer research consortia have embraced next generation sequencing, and have used the technology to define the somatic mutation landscape of multiple cancer types. These studies have primarily utilised the Illumina HiSeq platforms. In this study we performed whole genome sequencing of three malignant pleural mesothelioma and matched normal samples using a new platform, the BGISEQ-500, and compared the results obtained with Illumina HiSeq X Ten. Germline and somatic, single nucleotide variants and small insertions or deletions were independently identified from data aligned human genome reference. The BGISEQ-500 and HiSeq X Ten platforms showed high concordance for germline calls with genotypes from SNP arrays (>99%). The germline and somatic single nucleotide variants identified in both sequencing platforms were highly concordant (86% and 72% respectively). These results indicate the potential applicability of the BGISEQ-500 platform for the identification of somatic and germline single nucleotide variants by whole genome sequencing. The BGISEQ-500 datasets described here represent the first publicly-available cancer genome sequencing performed using this platform.