DYSKIMOT: An Ultra-Low-Cost Inertial Sensor to Assess Head's Rotational Kinematics in Adults during the Didren-Laser Test.
ABSTRACT: Various noninvasive measurement devices can be used to assess cervical motion. The size, complexity, and cost of gold-standard systems make them not suited to clinical practice, and actually difficult to use outside a dedicated laboratory. Nowadays, ultra-low-cost inertial measurement units are available, but without any packaging or a user-friendly interface. The so-called DYSKIMOT is a home-designed, small-sized, motion sensor based on the latter technology, aiming at being used by clinicians in "real-life situations". DYSKIMOT was compared with a gold-standard optoelectronic system (Elite). Our goal was to evaluate the DYSKIMOT accuracy in assessing fast head rotations kinematics. Kinematics was simultaneously recorded by systems during the execution of the DidRen Laser test and performed by 15 participants and nine patients. Kinematic variables were computed from the position, speed and acceleration time series. Two-way ANOVA, Passing-Bablok regressions, and dynamic time warping analysis showed good to excellent agreement between Elite and DYSKIMOT, both at the qualitative level of the time series shape and at the quantitative level of peculiar kinematical events' measured values. In conclusion, DYSKIMOT sensor is as relevant as a gold-standard system to assess kinematical features during fast head rotations in participants and patients, demonstrating its usefulness in both clinical practice and research environments.
Project description:The estimate of a consistent and clinically meaningful joint kinematics using wearable inertial and magnetic sensors requires a sensor-to-segment coordinate system calibration. State-of-the-art calibration procedures for the upper limb are based on functional movements and/or pre-determined postures, which are difficult to implement in subjects that have impaired mobility or are bedridden in acute units. The aim of this study was to develop and validate an alternative calibration procedure based on the direct identification of palpable anatomical landmarks (ALs) for an inertial and magnetic sensor-based upper limb movement analysis protocol. The proposed calibration procedure provides an estimate of three-dimensional shoulder/elbow angular kinematics and the linear trajectory of the wrist according to the standards proposed by the International Society of Biomechanics. The validity of the method was assessed against a camera-based optoelectronic system during uniaxial joint rotations and a reach-to-grasp task. Joint angular kinematics was found as characterised by a low-biased range of motion (<-2.6°), a low root mean square deviation (RMSD) (<4.4°) and a high waveform similarity coefficient (R<sup>2</sup> >?0.995) with respect to the gold standard. Except for the cranio-caudal direction, the linear trajectory of the wrist was characterised by a low-biased range of motion (<11?mm) together with a low RMSD (8?mm) and high waveform similarity (R<sup>2</sup> >?0.968). The proposed method enabled the estimation of reliable joint kinematics without requiring any active involvement of the patient during the calibration procedure, complying with the metrological standards and requirements of clinical movement analysis.
Project description:Inertial sensor-based measurements of lower body kinematics in football players may improve physical load estimates during training sessions and matches. However, the validity of inertial-based motion analysis systems is specific to both the type of movement and the intensity at which movements are executed. Importantly, such a system should be relatively simple, so it can easily be used in daily practice. This paper introduces an easy-to-use inertial-based motion analysis system and evaluates its validity using an optoelectronic motion analysis system as a gold standard. The system was validated in 11 football players for six different football specific movements that were executed at low, medium, and maximal intensity. Across all movements and intensities, the root mean square differences (means ± SD) for knee and hip flexion/extension angles were 5.3° ± 3.4° and 8.0° ± 3.5°, respectively, illustrating good validity with the gold standard. In addition, mean absolute flexion/extension angular velocities significantly differed between the three movement intensities. These results show the potential to use the inertial based motion analysis system in football practice to obtain lower body kinematics and to quantify movement intensity, which both may improve currently used physical load estimates of the players.
Project description:3D joint kinematics can provide important information about the quality of movements. Optical motion capture systems (OMC) are considered the gold standard in motion analysis. However, in recent years, inertial measurement units (IMU) have become a promising alternative. The aim of this study was to validate IMU-based 3D joint kinematics of the lower extremities during different movements. Twenty-eight healthy subjects participated in this study. They performed bilateral squats (SQ), single-leg squats (SLS) and countermovement jumps (CMJ). The IMU kinematics was calculated using a recently-described sensor-fusion algorithm. A marker based OMC system served as a reference. Only the technical error based on algorithm performance was considered, incorporating OMC data for the calibration, initialization, and a biomechanical model. To evaluate the validity of IMU-based 3D joint kinematics, root mean squared error (RMSE), range of motion error (ROME), Bland-Altman (BA) analysis as well as the coefficient of multiple correlation (CMC) were calculated. The evaluation was twofold. First, the IMU data was compared to OMC data based on marker clusters; and, second based on skin markers attached to anatomical landmarks. The first evaluation revealed means for RMSE and ROME for all joints and tasks below 3°. The more dynamic task, CMJ, revealed error measures approximately 1° higher than the remaining tasks. Mean CMC values ranged from 0.77 to 1 over all joint angles and all tasks. The second evaluation showed an increase in the RMSE of 2.28°- 2.58° on average for all joints and tasks. Hip flexion revealed the highest average RMSE in all tasks (4.87°- 8.27°). The present study revealed a valid IMU-based approach for the measurement of 3D joint kinematics in functional movements of varying demands. The high validity of the results encourages further development and the extension of the present approach into clinical settings.
Project description:The article describes a dataset of gait measures acquired to validate the use of wearable sensors in gait analysis since its measurements can be compared with those provided by the stereophotogrammetric system. The comparison with a gold standard in gait analysis makes the dataset useful for the development, testing and validation of algorithms for estimating gait parameters.The dataset contains measurements simultaneously acquired by the wearable sensors and the stereophotogrammetric system during an acquisition campaign performed on 5 healthy subjects (2 females and 3 males aged between 25 and 35 years). In the acquisition campaign the involved subjects carried out a motion task wearing the wearable sensors and reflective markers of the stereophotogrammetric system. In particular, the subjects wore in each foot a wearable sensor on the instep and a reflective marker on heel, first metatarsal head, fifth metatarsal head, and above the sensor, respectively. During the motion task each subject walked over an 11-meter long walkway according to its own course. The 5 subjects involved in the acquisition campaign performed 3 repetitions of the motion task, for a total of 15 trials in where the measures collected by wearable sensors and the stereophotogrammetric system can be compared.
Project description:The introduction of low cost optical 3D motion tracking sensors provides new options for effective quantification of motor dysfunction.The present study aimed to evaluate the Kinect V2 sensor against a gold standard motion capture system with respect to accuracy of tracked landmark movements and accuracy and repeatability of derived clinical parameters.Nineteen healthy subjects were concurrently recorded with a Kinect V2 sensor and an optical motion tracking system (Vicon). Six different movement tasks were recorded with 3D full-body kinematics from both systems. Tasks included walking in different conditions, balance and adaptive postural control. After temporal and spatial alignment, agreement of movements signals was described by Pearson's correlation coefficient and signal to noise ratios per dimension. From these movement signals, 45 clinical parameters were calculated, including ranges of motions, torso sway, movement velocities and cadence. Accuracy of parameters was described as absolute agreement, consistency agreement and limits of agreement. Intra-session reliability of 3 to 5 measurement repetitions was described as repeatability coefficient and standard error of measurement for each system.Accuracy of Kinect V2 landmark movements was moderate to excellent and depended on movement dimension, landmark location and performed task. Signal to noise ratio provided information about Kinect V2 landmark stability and indicated larger noise behaviour in feet and ankles. Most of the derived clinical parameters showed good to excellent absolute agreement (30 parameters showed ICC(3,1) > 0.7) and consistency (38 parameters showed r > 0.7) between both systems.Given that this system is low-cost, portable and does not require any sensors to be attached to the body, it could provide numerous advantages when compared to established marker- or wearable sensor based system. The Kinect V2 has the potential to be used as a reliable and valid clinical measurement tool.
Project description:The development of context-appropriate sensor technologies could alleviate the significant burden of stroke in Sub-Saharan African rehabilitation clinicians and health care facilities. However, many commercially available wearable sensors are beyond the financial capabilities of the majority of African persons. In this study, we evaluated the concurrent validity of a low-cost wearable sensor (i.e., the outREACH sensor) to measure upper limb movement kinematics of 31 healthy persons, using an 8-camera Vicon motion capture system as the reference standard. The outREACH sensor showed high correlation (r range: 0.808-0.990) and agreement (mean difference range: -1.60 to 1.10) with the reference system regardless of task or kinematic parameter. Moreover, Bland-Altman analyses indicated that there were no significant systematic errors present. This study indicates that upper limb movement kinematics can be accurately measured using the outREACH sensor, and have the potential to enhance stroke evaluation and rehabilitation in sub-Saharan Africa.
Project description:Noninvasive analysis of motion has important uses as qualitative markers for organ function and to validate biomechanical computer simulations relative to experimental observations. Tagged MRI is considered the gold standard for noninvasive tissue motion estimation in the heart, and this has inspired multiple studies focusing on other organs, including the brain under mild acceleration and the tongue during speech. As with other motion estimation approaches, using tagged MRI to measure 3D motion includes several preprocessing steps that affect the quality and accuracy of estimation. Benchmarks, or test suites, are datasets of known geometries and displacements that act as tools to tune tracking parameters or to compare different motion estimation approaches. Because motion estimation was originally developed to study the heart, existing test suites focus on cardiac motion. However, many fundamental differences exist between the heart and other organs, such that parameter tuning (or other optimization) with respect to a cardiac database may not be appropriate. Therefore, the objective of this research was to design and construct motion benchmarks by adopting an "image synthesis" test suite to study brain deformation due to mild rotational accelerations, and a benchmark to model motion of the tongue during speech. To obtain a realistic representation of mechanical behavior, kinematics were obtained from finite-element (FE) models. These results were combined with an approximation of the acquisition process of tagged MRI (including tag generation, slice thickness, and inconsistent motion repetition). To demonstrate an application of the presented methodology, the effect of motion inconsistency on synthetic measurements of head-brain rotation and deformation was evaluated. The results indicated that acquisition inconsistency is roughly proportional to head rotation estimation error. Furthermore, when evaluating non-rigid deformation, the results suggest that inconsistent motion can yield "ghost" shear strains, which are a function of slice acquisition viability as opposed to a true physical deformation.
Project description:Stabilization of the head in animals with limited capacity to move their eyes is key to maintain a stable image on the retina. In many birds, including pigeons, a prominent example for the important role of head stabilization is the characteristic head-bobbing behavior observed during walking. Multimodal sensory feedback from the eyes, the vestibular system and proprioceptors in body and neck is required to control head stabilization. Here, we trained unrestrained pigeons (Columba livia) to stand on a perch that was sinusoidally moved with a motion platform along all three translational and three rotational degrees of freedom. We varied the frequency of the perturbation and we recorded the pigeons' responses under both light and dark conditions. Head, body, and platform movements were assessed with a high-speed motion capture system and the data were used to compute gain and phase of head and body movements in response to the perturbations. Comparing responses under dark and light conditions, we estimated the contribution of visual feedback to the control of the head. Our results show that the head followed the movement of the motion platform to a large extent during translations, but it was almost perfectly stabilized against rotations. Visual feedback only improved head stabilization during translations but not during rotations. The body compensated rotations around the forward-backward and the lateral axis, but did not contribute to head stabilization during translations and rotations around the vertical axis. From the results, we conclude that head stabilization in response to translations and rotations depends on different sensory feedback and that visual feedback plays only a limited role for head stabilization during standing.
Project description:For the purpose of gaining a deeper understanding of the relationship between external training load and health in competitive alpine skiing, an accurate and precise estimation of the athlete's kinematics is an essential methodological prerequisite. This study proposes an inertial sensor-based method to estimate the athlete's relative joint center positions and center of mass (CoM) kinematics in alpine skiing. Eleven inertial sensors were fixed to the lower and upper limbs, trunk, and head. The relative positions of the ankle, knee, hip, shoulder, elbow, and wrist joint centers, as well as the athlete's CoM kinematics were validated against a marker-based optoelectronic motion capture system during indoor carpet skiing. For all joints centers analyzed, position accuracy (mean error) was below 110 mm and precision (error standard deviation) was below 30 mm. CoM position accuracy and precision were 25.7 and 6.7 mm, respectively. Both the accuracy and precision of the system to estimate the distance between the ankle of the outside leg and CoM (measure quantifying the skier's overall vertical motion) were found to be below 11 mm. Some poorer accuracy and precision values (below 77 mm) were observed for the athlete's fore-aft position (i.e., the projection of the outer ankle-CoM vector onto the line corresponding to the projection of ski's longitudinal axis on the snow surface). In addition, the system was found to be sensitive enough to distinguish between different types of turns (wide/narrow). Thus, the method proposed in this paper may also provide a useful, pervasive way to monitor and control adverse external loading patterns that occur during regular on-snow training. Moreover, as demonstrated earlier, such an approach might have a certain potential to quantify competition time, movement repetitions and/or the accelerations acting on the different segments of the human body. However, prior to getting feasible for applications in daily training, future studies should primarily focus on a simplification of the sensor setup, as well as a fusion with global navigation satellite systems (i.e., the estimation of the absolute joint and CoM positions).
Project description:To determine if increased visual dependence can be quantified through its impact on automatic postural responses, we have measured the combined effect on the latencies and magnitudes of postural response kinematics of transient optic flow in the pitch plane with platform rotations and translations.Six healthy (29-31 yrs) and 4 visually sensitive (27-57 yrs) subjects stood on a platform rotated (6 deg of dorsiflexion at 30 deg/sec) or translated (5 cm at 5 deg/sec) for 200 msec. Subjects either had eyes closed or viewed an immersive, stereo, wide field of view virtual environment (scene) moved in upward pitch for a 200 msec period for three 30 sec trials at 5 velocities. RMS values and peak velocities of head, trunk, and head with respect to trunk were calculated. EMG responses of 6 trunk and lower limb muscles were collected and latencies and magnitudes of responses determined.No effect of visual velocity was observed in EMG response latencies and magnitudes. Healthy subjects exhibited significant effects (p < 0.05) of visual field velocity on peak angular velocities of the head. Head and trunk velocities and RMS values of visually sensitive subjects were significantly larger than healthy subjects (p < 0.05), but their responses were not modulated by visual field velocity. When examined individually, patients with no history of vestibular disorder demonstrated exceedingly large head velocities; patients with a history of vestibular disorder exhibited head velocities that fell within the bandwidth of healthy subjects.Differentiation of postural kinematics in visually sensitive subjects when exposed to the combined perturbations suggests that virtual reality technology could be useful for differential diagnosis and specifically designed interventions for individuals whose chief complaint is sensitivity to visual motion.