Material Design Methodology for Optimized Wear-Resistant Thermoplastic-Matrix Composites Based on Polyetheretherketone and Polyphenylene Sulfide.
ABSTRACT: The main goal of this paper is to design and justify optimized compositions of thermoplastic-matrix wear-resistant composites based on polyetheretherketone (PEEK) and polyphenylene sulfide (PPS). Their mechanical and tribological properties have been specified in the form of bilateral and unilateral limits. For this purpose, a material design methodology has been developed. It has enabled to determine the optimal degrees of filling of the PEEK- and PPS-based composites with carbon microfibers and polytetrafluoroethylene particles. According to the results of tribological tests, the PEEK-based composites have been less damaged on the metal counterpart than the PPS-based samples having the same degree of filling. Most likely, this was due to more uniform permolecular structure and greater elasticity of the matrix. The described methodology is versatile and can be used to design various composites. Its implementation does not impose any limits on the specified properties of the material matrix or the reinforcing inclusions. The initial data on the operational characteristics can be obtained experimentally or numerically. The methodology enables to design the high-strength wear-resistant composites which are able to efficiently operate both in metal-polymer and ceramic-polymer friction units.
Project description:The mechanical and tribological properties of polyetheretherketone (PEEK)- and PEEK + PTFE (polytetrafluoroethylene)-based composites loaded with and four types of nanoparticles (carbonaceous, metallic, bimetal oxide, and ceramic) under metal- and ceramic-polymer tribological contact conditions were investigated. It was found that loading with the nanofillers in a small content (0.3 wt.%) enabled improvement of the elastic modulus of the PEEK-based composites by 10-15%. In the metal-polymer tribological contact, wear resistance of all nanocomposites was increased by 1.5-2.3 times. In the ceramic-polymer tribological contact, loading PEEK with metal nanoparticles caused the intensification of oxidation processes, the microabrasive counterpart wear, and a multiple increase in the wear rate of the composites. The three component "PEEK/10PTFE/0.3 nanofillers" composites provided an increase in wear resistance, up to 22 times, for the metal-polymer tribological contact and up to 12 times for the ceramic-polymer one (with a slight decrease in the mechanical properties) compared to that of neat PEEK. In all cases, this was achieved by the polymer transfer film formation and adherence on the counterparts. The various effects of the four types of nanoparticles on wear resistance were determined by their ability to fix the PTFE-containing transfer film on the counterpart surfaces.
Project description:The revolution in the global market of composite materials is evidenced by their increasing use in such segments as the transport, aviation, and wind industries. The innovative aspect of this research is the methodology approach, based on the simultaneous analysis of mechanical and tribological loads of composite materials, which are intended for practical use in the construction of aviation parts. Simultaneously, the methodology allows the composition of the composites used in aviation to be optimized. Therefore, the presented tests show the undefined properties of the new material, which are necessary for verification at the application stage. They are also a starting point for further research planned by the authors related to the improvement of the tribological properties of this material. In this article, the selected mechanical and tribological properties of an aviation polymer composite are investigated with the matrix of L285-cured hardener H286 and six reinforcement layers of carbon fabric GG 280P/T. The structure of a polymer composite has a significant influence on its mechanical properties; thus, a tribological analysis in the context of abrasive wear in reciprocating the movement for the specified polymer composite was performed. Moreover, the research was expanded to dynamic analysis for the discussed composite. This is crucial knowledge of material dynamics in the context of aviation design for the conditions of resonance vibrations. For this reason, experimental dynamical investigations were performed to determine the basic resonance of the material and its dynamics behavior response. The research confirmed the assumed hypotheses related to the abrasive wear process for the newly developed material, as well as reporting an empirical evaluation of the dependencies of the resonance zone from the fabric orientation sets.
Project description:In recent years, the deployment of sensors and other ancillary technologies has turned out to be vital in the investigation of tribological behavioral patterns of composites. The tribological behavioral patterns of AA7075 hybrid metal matrix composites (MMCs) reinforced with multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), and pulverized fuel ash (PFA) were investigated in this work. The stir casting technique was used to fabricate the composites. The mechanical properties such as tensile strength and hardness were determined for the fabricated material. Besides, microstructure analysis was performed for these AA7075 hybrid MMCs reinforced with MWCNTs and pulverized fuel ash. A pin-on-disc wear testing setup was used to evaluate the wear rate, in which the EN 31 steel disc was used as the counter-face. Taguchi's design of the experiments was used to optimize the input parameters that impact the characteristics of the hybrid composites, and ANOVA (analysis of variance) was used to determine the contribution of input parameters on the wear behavior. Electrical discharge machining (EDM) was conducted on the AA7075 hybrid metal matrix composites using a copper electrode for determining the material removal rate. These investigations and the results were utilized for determining the optimized output process parameter values of the AA7075 metal matrix composite.
Project description:The aim of the study was to develop a design methodology for the UltraHigh Molecular Weight Polyethylene (UHMWPE)-based composites used in friction units. To achieve this, stress-strain analysis was done using computer simulation of the triboloading processes. In addition, the effects of carbon fiber size used as reinforcing fillers on formation of the subsurface layer structures at the tribological contacts as well as composite wear resistance were evaluated. A structural analysis of the friction surfaces and the subsurface layers of UHMWPE as well as the UHMWPE-based composites loaded with the carbon fibers of various (nano-, micro-, millimeter) sizes in a wide range of tribological loading conditions was performed. It was shown that, under the "moderate" tribological loading conditions (60 N, 0.3 m/s), the carbon nanofibers (with a loading degree up to 0.5 wt.%) were the most efficient filler. The latter acted as a solid lubricant. As a result, wear resistance increased by 2.7 times. Under the "heavy" test conditions (140 N, 0.5 m/s), the chopped carbon fibers with a length of 2 mm and the optimal loading degree of 10 wt.% were more efficient. The mechanism is underlined by perceiving the action of compressive and shear loads from the counterpart and protecting the tribological contact surface from intense wear. In doing so, wear resistance had doubled, and other mechanical properties had also improved. It was found that simultaneous loading of UHMWPE with Carbon Nano Fibers (CNF) as a solid lubricant and Long Carbon Fibers (LCF) as reinforcing carbon fibers, provided the prescribed mechanical and tribological properties in the entire investigated range of the "load-sliding speed" conditions of tribological loading.
Project description:The performance of polymer composites in seawater, under high hydrostatic pressure (typically few tens of MPa), for simulating exposures at great depths in seas and oceans, has been little studied. In this paper, polyetheretherketone (PEEK) and its composites reinforced by carbon fibres and glass fibres were prepared. The seawater environment with different seawater hydrostatic pressure ranging from normal pressure to 40 MPa was simulated with special equipment, in which the seawater absorption and wear behaviour of PEEK and PEEK-based composites were examined in situ. The effects of seawater hydrostatic pressure on the mechanical properties, wear resistance and microstructure of PEEK and its composites were focused on. The results showed that seawater absorption of PEEK and its composites were greatly accelerated by increased hydrostatic pressure in the deep sea. Affected by seawater absorption, both for neat PEEK and composites, the degradation on mechanical properties, wear resistance and crystallinity were induced, the degree of which was increasingly serious with the increase of hydrostatic pressure of seawater environment. There existed a good correlation in an identical form of exponential function between the wear rate and the seawater hydrostatic pressure. Moreover, the corresponding mechanisms of the effects of deep-sea hydrostatic pressure were also discussed.
Project description:Artificially fabricated surface textures can significantly improve the friction and wear resistance of a tribological contact. Recently, this surface texturing technique has been applied to polymer materials to improve their tribological performance. However, the wear behavior of textured tribo-pairs made of steel and polymer materials has been less thoroughly investigated and is not well understood; thus, it needs further research. The aim of this study is to investigate the wear properties of tribological contacts made of textured stainless steel against polymer surfaces. Three polymer materials were selected in this study, namely, ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE), polyoxymethylene (POM) and (polyetheretherketone) PEEK. Wear tests were operated through a ring-on-plane mode. The results revealed that the texture features and material properties affected the wear rates and friction coefficients of the textured tribo-pairs. In general, PEEK/textured steel achieved the lowest wear rate among the three types of tribo-pairs investigated. Energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX) analysis revealed that the elements of C and O on the contacting counterfaces varied with texture features and indicated different wear behavior. Experimental and simulated results showed differences in the stress distribution around the dimple edge, which may influence wear performance. Wear debris with different surface morphologies were found for tribo-pairs with varying texture features. This study has increased the understanding of the wear behavior of tribo-pairs between textured stainless steel and polymer materials.
Project description:The correlation between the mechanical properties of Fillers/Epoxy composites and their tribological behavior was investigated. Tensile, hardness, wear, and friction tests were conducted for Neat Epoxy (NE), Graphite/Epoxy composites (GE), and Data Palm Fiber/Epoxy with or without Graphite composites (GFE and FE). The correlation was made between the tensile strength, the modulus of elasticity, elongation at the break, and the hardness, as an individual or a combined factor, with the specific wear rate (SWR) and coefficient of friction (COF) of composites. In general, graphite as an additive to polymeric composite has had an eclectic effect on mechanical properties, whereas it has led to a positive effect on tribological properties, whilst date palm fibers (DPFs), as reinforcement for polymeric composite, promoted a mechanical performance with a slight improvement to the tribological performance. Statistically, this study reveals that there is no strong confirmation of any marked correlation between the mechanical and the specific wear rate of filler/Epoxy composites. There is, however, a remarkable correlation between the mechanical properties and the friction coefficient of filler/Epoxy composites.
Project description:A new friction counterpart for carbon fiber-reinforced silicon carbide ceramic-matrix composites (C/SiCs) and zirconia (ZrO2) toughened by magnesia ceramics is proposed. The effects of the C/SiC surface processing parameters friction on the tribological performance are investigated under dry friction and ambient temperature conditions. The wear tests are carried out using the pin-on-disc friction method. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) on an instrument equipped with an energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) is used to observe the surfaces of the pins and discs before and after the application of friction to reveal the wear mechanism. The results show that surface processing influenced the tribological properties of C/SiC significantly. When the pressure is 30?N, the speed is 0.5?m/s, and the C/SiC surface is ground using 1500# sandpaper, the counterpart tribological performance is the best among the samples considered herein. It is found that the retention ability of the counterparts influenced the tribology performance significantly.
Project description:A strategy for the preparation of bioactive poly-ether-ether-ketone/hydroxyapatite (PEEK/HA) composites was proposed in this study with the aim of controlling the biological and mechanical properties of different parts of the composites. The strategy integrated solvent-based extrusion freeforming 3D printing technology in order to print high-resolution HA scaffolds and compression molding processes for the production of bioactive PEEK/HA composites. To this end, an optimized model, established using response surface methodology, was employed to optimize the extrusion process parameters on the basis of accurate characterization of the extrusion pressure, and the effects of the filament/pore sizes on the PEEK infiltration depth into the HA scaffold were investigated. The results of scanning electron microscopy and computed tomography analyses revealed that the PEEK/HA composites exhibited a uniform microstructure and a good interface between the HA filaments and the PEEK matrix following the optimization of the process parameters. The HA scaffolds were fully infiltrated by PEEK in both vertical and lateral directions with an infiltration depth of 3 mm while maintaining the HA network structure and uniformity. The biological and mechanical performance test results validated that the PEEK/HA composites possessed excellent biocompatibility as well as yields and compressive strengths within the range of human cortical bone suitable for load-bearing applications.
Project description:Nanodiamonds (ND) present a unique combination of desirable mechanical, functional, and chemical characteristics that are ideally suited for reinforcing and enhancing the wear resistance of carbide based materials. Tungsten carbide cobalt (WC-Co) matrix nanocomposites reinforced with varying amounts of ND (2 - 10 vol.%) were synthesized here by spark plasma sintering. The rapid thermal consolidation route enabled attainment of dense samples with a significant retention of the metastable diamond phase. NDs affected the microstructural evolution, chemistry, and mechanical properties of WC-Co. Macroscale reciprocating pin-on-disk tests were conducted to assess wear behavior under conditions relevant to service environments, e.g., high cycles and high contact pressure. Microscale tribological properties were assessed using microscratch tests in order to investigate the intrinsic effects of ND on the localized mechanical and tribological response of WC-Co-ND composites. The incorporation of 10 vol.% ND enhanced wear resistance at both the micro- and macroscale, by 28% and 35%, respectively.