Platelet-Rich Plasma in Maxillary Sinus Augmentation: Systematic Review.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Sinus augmentation can be performed with or without grafting biomaterials, and to date, there is no quality evidence regarding the augmentation of the sinus floor using only platelet concentrates, which can improve the healing period and enhance bone regeneration by stimulating angiogenesis and bone formation. The main objective of this paper was to assess the effect of the sole use of platelet concentrates in sinus augmentation in terms of newly formed bone, augmented bone height, and clinical outcomes and to assess the additional beneficial effects of platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) in combination with other grafting biomaterials. METHODS:A systematic review was conducted following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Pooled analyses were performed with the Review Manager software. RESULTS:For sinus elevation only using platelet concentrates, 11 studies met the inclusion criteria and were included for qualitative synthesis. Only one study was a clinical trial, which reported improved outcomes for the allograft group compared to the titanium-PRF (T-PRF) group. A total of 12 studies where PRF was used in addition to grafting biomaterials met eligibility criteria and were included in the review. Results from meta-analyses provided no additional beneficial effects of PRF in sinus augmentation in terms of bone height and percentage of soft tissue area. There was a statistically significant lower percentage of residual bone substitute material in the PRF (+) group compared to the PRF (-) group. The percentage of newly formed bone was slightly higher in the PRF (+) group, but this was not statistically significant. CONCLUSION:There is no robust evidence to make firm conclusions regarding the beneficial effects of the sole use of platelet concentrates in sinus augmentation. However, studies have shown favorable outcomes regarding implant survival, bone gain, and bone height. The use of PRF with other grafting biomaterials appears to provide no additional beneficial effects in sinus lift procedures, but they may improve the healing period and bone formation. Well-conducted randomized clinical trials (RCTs) are necessary to confirm the available results to provide recommendations for the clinical practice.
Project description:Objectives:The goal of this systematic review was to assess the current literature about sinus augmentation procedure using different types of tooth derived bone graft materials, thorough analysing the outcomes of sinus grafting with tooth grafts compared to sinus grafting with xenografts, allografts and alloplasts by radiography and histomorphometry. Material and Methods:An electronic search in the MEDLINE (NCBI PubMed and PubMed Central) database was conducted to identify articles concerning application of tooth bone grafts in sinus augmentation. The search was restricted to English language articles published in the last 10 years (December 2009 to March 2019). Results:In total, 21 articles were found, out of which 7 met the inclusion criteria and were included in the final synthesis. According to the type of diagnostic tool, data about graft material outcome in sinus was extracted, and included the residual alveolar height, augmented graft height, resorption height as seen in panoramic radiography and histomorphometric analysis of new bone formation and residual graft material. Conclusions:Within the limitations of our review, we suggest that tooth derived graft materials are as successful as xenografts, allografts and alloplasts in sinus augmentation procedures according to the radiographic and histomorphometric showings. Additional wider research should be conducted in order to determine whether tooth derived graft materials are superior to the currently used materials.
Project description:Objectives:To evaluate the performances of six different bone substitute materials used as graft in maxillary sinus augmentation by means of histological and histomorphometric analysis of bone biopsies retrieved from human subjects after a 6-month healing period. Materials and Methods:Six consecutive patients (3 males, 3 females, aged 50-72 years), healthy, nonsmokers, and with good oral hygiene, presenting edentulous posterior maxilla with a residual bone crest measuring ? 4 mm in vertical height and 3 to 5 mm in horizontal thickness at radiographic examination, were selected to receive sinus augmentation and delayed implant placement. Under randomized conditions, sinus augmentation procedures were carried out using mineralized solvent-dehydrated bone allograft (MCBA), freeze-dried mineralized bone allograft (FDBA), anorganic bovine bone (ABB), equine-derived bone (EB), synthetic micro-macroporous biphasic calcium-phosphate block consisting of 70% beta-tricalcium phosphate and 30% hydroxyapatite (HA-?-TCP 30/70), or bioapatite-collagen (BC). After 6 months, bone core biopsies were retrieved and 13 implants were placed. Bone samples were processed for histological and histomorphometric analysis. CT scans were taken before and after surgery. After 4 months of healing, patients were restored with a provisional fixed acrylic resin prosthesis, as well as after further 2-4 months with a definitive cemented zirconia or porcelain-fused-to-metal crowns. Results:There were no postoperative complications or implant failures. The histological examination showed that all biomaterials were in close contact with newly formed bone, surrounding the graft granules with a bridge-like network. No signs of acute inflammation were observed. The histomorphometry revealed 20.1% newly formed bone for MCBA, 32.1% for FDBA, 16.1% for ABB, 22.8% for EB, 20.3% for HA-?-TCP 30/70, and 21.4% for BC. Conclusions:Within the limitations of the present investigation, all the six tested biomaterials showed good biocompatibility and osteoconductive properties when used in sinus augmentation procedures, although the FDBA seemed to have a better histomorphometric result in terms of newly formed bone and residual graft material. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier (Registration Number): NCT03496688.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The use of guided bone regeneration (GBR) for vertical and horizontal bone gain is a predictable approach to correct the bone defects before implant installation; however, the use of different protocols is associated with different clinical results. It is suggested that platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) could improve the outcomes of regenerative procedures. Thus, this study aimed to describe the bone gain associated with GBR procedures combining membranes, bone grafts, and PRF for vertical and horizontal bone augmentation. MATERIALS AND METHODS:Eighteen patients who needed vertical or horizontal bone regeneration before installing dental implants were included in the study. The horizontal bone defects were treated with a GBR protocol that includes the use of a mixture of particulate autogenous and xenogenous grafts in the proportion of 1:1, injectable form of PRF (i-PRF) to agglutinate the graft, an absorbable collagen membrane covering the regenerated region, and leukocyte PRF (L-PRF) membrane covering the GBR membrane. The vertical bone defects were treated with the same grafted mixture protected by a titanium-reinforced non-resorbable high-density polytetrafluoroethylene (d-PTFE-Ti) membrane and covered by L-PRF. The bone gain was measured using a cone-beam computed tomography at baseline and after a period of 7.5 (± 1.0) months. RESULTS:All patients underwent surgery to install implants after this regenerative protocol. The GBR produces an increase in bone thickness (p < 0.001) and height (p < 0.005) after treatment, with a bone gain of 5.9 ± 2.4 for horizontal defects and 5.6 ± 2.6 for vertical defects. In horizontal defects, the gain was higher in the maxilla than in mandible (p = 0.014) and in anterior than the posterior region (p = 0.033). No differences related to GBR location were observed in vertical defects (p > 0.05). CONCLUSION:GBR associated with a mixture of particulate autogenous and xenogenous grafts and i-PRF is effective for vertical and horizontal bone augmentation in maxillary and mandibular regions, permitting sufficient bone gain to future implant placement. TRIAL REGISTRATION:REBEC, RBR-3CSG3J . Date of registration-19 July 2019, retrospectively registered. http://www.ensaiosclinicos.gov.br/rg/RBR-3csg3j/.
Project description:To evaluate and compare the stability, quantity and quality of bone augmentation at maxillary sinus elevation sites by non-grafted transcrestal sinus floor elevation (TSFE) and platelet concentration grafted transcrestal sinus floor elevation (PC-TSFE). A complete literature search was performed up to April 2019. Clinical controlled trials, retrospective cohort studies, and prospective cohort studies were selected based on inclusion criteria. The clinical outcomes were implant survival rate (ISR), marginal/crestal bone loss (MBL/CBL) and endo-sinus bone gain (ESBG). Meta-analysis was conducted on these 1-year based values. Furthermore, another meta-analysis on 1-year ISR value was conducted among studies with different residual bone heights (RBH) within the non-grafted TSFE group. A total of 18 studies were included: 13 in TSFE group and 5 in PC-TSFE group. No significant differences were displayed between the 1-year ISR of TSFE (97%, 95%CI?=?0.96-0.99) and PC-TSFE group (99%, 95%CI?=?0.97-1.00). Among the various studies with different RBH within TSFE group, no significant differences in 1-year ISR were displayed. The 1-year MBL/CBL value of PC-TSFE group (0.73?mm, 95%CI?=?0.43-1.13?mm) did not show significant difference as compared to TSFE group (0.60?mm, 95%CI?=?0.10-1.10?mm). Furthermore, no significant enhancement was observed on 1-year ESBG value on PC-TSFE group (3.51?mm, 95%CI?=?2.31-4.71?mm) in comparison with the TSFE group (2.87?mm, 95%CI?=?2.18m-3.55?mm). Grafting platelet concentrations around dental implants at TSFE sites did not significantly enhance the adjacent bone regeneration. Moreover, TSFE was shown to be a reliable therapeutic option for implant sites that need simultaneous maxillary sinus augmentation, even under limited RBH.
Project description:Background:There are no authoritative meta-analyses and no clear quantitative assessments available estimating effects of open flap debridement (OFD) combined with platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) or platelet-rich plasma (PRP) over and above that of OFD. This study evaluated the actual quantitative mean gain for various clinical (clinical attachment level [CAL], probing pocket depth [PPD] and gingival marginal level [GML]) and radiographic (intrabony defect depth [IBD]) parameters of Platelet Concentrates- PCs (PRP/PRF) as sole grafting material along with OFD and OFD alone in the treatment of intrabony defects. Materials and Methods:A detailed electronic search was carried out in PUBMED/MEDLINE, COCHRANE, EBSCOHOST, and Google Scholar databases by unifying related search terms with additional hand searches in select specialty journals up to May 2017. The eligibility criteria included human randomized clinical trials, either of a parallel group or a split-mouth design with follow-up period of at least 6 months. Periodontal intrabony defects with radiographic IBD ≥3 mm with corresponding CAL ≥5 mm were included. For the meta-analysis, the inverse variance method was used in fixed- or random-effect models. Results:Actual quantitative mean gains were calculated for OFD with PRF/PRP (CAL = 1.1 mm, IBD = 1.68 mm, PPD = 0.97 mm and GML = 0.48 mm) over and above that of OFD alone. Conclusion:Because of very high heterogeneity, the results may not be dependable. Apart from gains in radiographic bone fill, all other periodontal clinical parameters showed negligible gains. Using PRF technologies in periodontal intrabony defects may not be of great clinical significance over and above that of OFD alone, the effect sizes are also not large enough.
Project description:A human-cultured alveolar bone-derived periosteal (hCP) sheet is an osteogenic grafting material used clinically in periodontal regenerative therapy, while platelet-rich fibrin (PRF), a platelet concentrate with fibrin clot, is considered to augment the wound healing process. Therefore, whether the combined use of hCP-PRF complex could facilitate bone regeneration synergistically was evaluated in animal models. Human periosteal segments (1 × 1 mm) were cultured initially on plastic dishes and formed an hCP sheet. The hCP sheet was implanted with freshly prepared human PRF into subcutaneous tissue (hCP: n = 4, hCP + PRF: n = 4) and 4 mm diameter calvarial bone defect models (hCP: n = 4, hCP + PRF: n = 4, control [defect-only]: n = 4) that prepared in nude mice. At 4 weeks postimplantation, new bone formation was evaluated by using ?CT. Cell growth and neovascularization were evaluated by histochemical and immunohistological methods. In the subcutaneous tissue, mineral deposit formation, collagen deposition, and number of vessels were higher in the hCP + PRF group than in the hCP alone group. In the calvarial defect models, new bone formation was significantly higher in the hCP + PRF group than in the hCP alone group and defect-only control group. The numbers of vessels and PCNA-positive cells in calvarial defects were also increased in the hCP + PRF group more than in the hCP alone group. Platelet-rich fibrin preparations support the proliferation and the growth of periosteal cells to form well-combined active biological materials. Platelet-rich fibrin also stimulates the local angiogenesis in the implantation site. Therefore, the combined use of hCP and PRF could be clinically applicable in bone regeneration therapy.
Project description:The ultimate goal of research on platelet concentrates (PCs) is to develop a more predictable PC therapy. Because platelet-rich plasma (PRP), a representative PC, was identified as a possible therapeutic agent for bone augmentation in the field of oral surgery, PRP and its derivative, platelet-rich fibrin (PRF), have been increasingly applied in a regenerative medicine. However, a rise in the rate of recurrence (e.g., in tendon and ligament injuries) and adverse (or nonsignificant) clinical outcomes associated with PC therapy have raised fundamental questions regarding the validity of the therapy. Thus, rigorous evidence obtained from large, high-quality randomized controlled trials must be presented to the concerned regulatory authorities of individual countries or regions. For the approval of the regulatory authorities, clinicians and research investigators should understand the real nature of PCs and PC therapy (i.e., adjuvant therapy), standardize protocols of preparation (e.g., choice of centrifuges and tubes) and clinical application (e.g., evaluation of recipient conditions), design bias-minimized randomized clinical trials, and recognize superfluous brand competitions that delay sound progress. In this review, we retrospect the recent past of PC research, reconfirm our ultimate goals, and discuss what will need to be done in future.
Project description:The effects of hydroxyapatite (HA)-coating onto collagen carriers for application of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2 (rhBMP-2) on cell differentiation in vitro, and on in vivo healing patterns after sinus-augmentation and alveolar socket-grafting were evaluated. In vitro induction of osteogenic/adipogenic differentiation was compared between the culture media with rhBMP-2 solution and with the released rhBMP-2 from the control collagen and from the HA-coated collagen. Demineralized bovine bone and collagen/HA-coated collagen were grafted with/without rhBMP-2 in sinus-augmentation and tooth-extraction-socket models. Adipogenic induction by rhBMP-2 released from HA-coated collagen was significantly reduced compared to collagen. In the sinus-augmentation model, sites that received rhBMP-2 exhibited large amounts of vascular tissue formation at two weeks and increased adipose tissue formation at eight weeks; this could be significantly reduced by using HA-coated collagen as a carrier for rhBMP-2. In extraction-socket grafting, dimensional reduction of alveolar ridge was significantly decreased at sites received rhBMP-2 compared to control sites, but adipose tissue was increased within the regenerated socket area. In conclusion, HA-coated collagen carrier for Escherichia coli-derived rhBMP-2 (ErhBMP-2) may reduce in vitro induction of adipogenic differentiation and in vivo adipose bone marrow tissue formation in bone tissue engineering by ErhBMP-2.
Project description:In periodontitis patients, furcation defects are crucial sites to regenerate due to their complex anatomy. Various modern surgical techniques and use of biomaterials have been suggested in the literature. Among all, platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) has potential in tissue regeneration thanks to its role in the release of growth factors. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the beneficial effect of the addition of PRF to open flap debridement (OFD) or as an adjuvant to other biomaterials such as bone grafts in the treatment of grade 2 mandibular furcation defects. Systematic research was carried out on the databases Medline, Scopus, Embase, and Cochrane Library and registered on PROSPERO (CRD42020167662). According to the PICO guidelines by Cochrane, randomized trials and prospective non-randomized trials were evaluated, with a minimum follow-up period of 6 months. The inclusion criteria were the absence of systemic diseases, non-smoking patients, and a population aged from 18 to 65 years. Vertical pocket probing depth (PPD), vertical clinical attachment level (VCAL), and gingival recession (REC) were the primary outcomes. Vertical furcation depth (VFD), and the percentage of bone defect fill (%v-BDF) were considered as secondary outcomes. A meta-analysis of the primary and secondary outcomes was performed. Publication bias was assessed through a funnel plot. Eighty-four articles were initially extracted. Eight randomized clinical trials were analyzed according to the exclusion and inclusion criteria. The Quality assessment instrument (QAI) revealed four articles at low risk of bias, one at moderate, and three at high risk of bias. The metanalysis showed significant data regarding PPD, VCAL, VFD and %v-BDF in the comparison between PRF + OFD vs. OFD alone. The adjunct of PRF to a bone graft showed a significant difference for VCAL and a not statistically significant result for the other involved parameters. In conclusion, the adjunctive use of PRF to OFD seems to enhance the periodontal regeneration in the treatment of grade 2 furcation defects. The combination of PRF and bone graft did not show better clinical results, except for VCAL, although the amount of literature with low risk of bias is scarce. Further well-designed studies to evaluate the combination of these two materials are therefore needed.