Infection prevention and control lapse involving medical equipment reprocessing at a family medicine clinic in Ottawa, Ontario, 2018.
ABSTRACT: Background:In April 2018, Ottawa Public Health identified a large-scale infection prevention and control (IPAC) lapse spanning 15 years related to inadequate reprocessing of reusable critical medical equipment used in a family medicine clinic. Objectives:To describe the public health response to, and estimate the risk of hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission from, this IPAC lapse. Methods:Patients who underwent a procedure of concern (during which reusable equipment may have been used) at this clinic were identified using Ontario Health Insurance Plan data and individually notified. Testing for HBV, HCV and HIV at the Public Health Ontario Laboratory was recommended, and the odds of infection were estimated. Results:Of 4,495 patients possibly exposed to improperly reprocessed equipment, 1,496 (33.3%) underwent testing within six months of notification. The prevalence of HBV, HCV and HIV infection in this group was lower than in the general Canadian population. Among patients first diagnosed with HBV after a procedure of concern, the odds of HBV transmission were not increased when the procedure occurred within seven or 28 days of another patient with a positive HBV test result (OR7 days, age-adjusted=0.59, 95% CI: 0.14-2.51; OR28 days, age-adjusted=1.35, 95% CI: 0.62-2.93). The odds of HCV and HIV transmission could not be estimated because no patient was diagnosed with HCV or HIV after having a procedure of concern within 28 days of another patient with a positive HCV or HIV test result. Conclusion:We found no evidence of HBV, HCV or HIV transmission associated with this IPAC lapse. However, transmission cannot be ruled out conclusively because only a third of possibly exposed patients underwent testing.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Unsafe reuse of injection equipment in hospitals is an on-going threat to patient safety in many parts of Africa. The extent of this problem is difficult to measure. Standard WHO injection safety assessment protocols used in the 2003 national injection safety assessment in Cameroon are problematic because health workers often behave differently under the observation of visitors. The main objective of this study is to assess the extent of unsafe injection equipment reuse and potential for blood-borne virus transmission in Cameroon. This can be done by probing for misconceptions about injection safety that explain reuse without sterilization. These misconceptions concern useless precautions against cross-contamination, i.e. "indirect reuse" of injection equipment. To investigate whether a shortage of supply explains unsafe reuse, we compared our survey data against records of purchases.<h4>Methods</h4>All health workers at public hospitals in two health districts in the Northwest Province of Cameroon were interviewed about their own injection practices. Injection equipment supply purchase records documented for January to December 2009 were compared with self-reported rates of syringe reuse. The number of HIV, HBV and HCV infections that result from unsafe medical injections in these health districts is estimated from the frequency of unsafe reuse, the number of injections performed, the probability that reused injection equipment had just been used on an infected patient, the size of the susceptible population, and the transmission efficiency of each virus in an injection.<h4>Results</h4>Injection equipment reuse occurs commonly in the Northwest Province of Cameroon, practiced by 44% of health workers at public hospitals. Self-reported rates of syringe reuse only partly explained by records on injection equipment supplied to these hospitals, showing a shortage of syringes where syringes are reused. Injection safety interventions could prevent an estimated 14-336 HIV infections, 248-661 HBV infections and 7-114 HCV infections each year in these health districts.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Injection safety assessments that probe for indirect reuse may be more effective than observational assessments. The autodisable syringe may be an appropriate solution to injection safety problems in some hospitals in Cameroon. Advocacy for injection safety interventions should be a public health priority.
Project description:Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients are at a higher risk for co-infection with Hepatitis B virus (HBV), Hepatitis C virus (HCV), and Treponema pallidum (TP; the agent causing syphilis) than the general population. The prevalence of HBV, HCV, and syphilis has geographic differences and varies from region to region among HIV-positive individuals. A retrospective study was carried out on HIV-positive individuals between June 2011 and June 2016 in Shaanxi Province. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses using stepwise regression analysis regarding risk factors for HIV-HBV, HIV-HCV, and HIV-syphilis co-infection. HBV-HCV, HCV-syphilis, HBV-syphilis, and HBV-HCV-syphilis co-infection rates were 1.7%, 2.2%, 2.6%, and 0.1%, respectively. The rate of ineffective hepatitis B vaccine immunization was as high as 30.2% among HIV-positive individuals. Ethnicity (OR = 31.030, 95% CI: 11.643-82.694) and HIV transmission routes (OR = 134.024, 95% CI: 14.328-1253.653) were the risk factors for HCV infection in HIV-positive individuals. Among the HIV-positive individuals with the antibodies of TP, the rate of homosexual transmission was also higher, but heterosexual transmission was lower (OR = 0.549 95% CI: 0.382-0.789) The HIV-infected patients in Shaanxi Province had the characteristics of low active detection rate and late diagnosis. The high rate of ineffective vaccination against HBV suggests a need for improved vaccination services.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Hepatitis B (HBV) or hepatitis C (HCV) virus co-infections in HIV are alarming during pregnancy due to the risk of vertical transmission and the eventual adverse effects on neonates. This study was conducted to ascertain the sero-prevalence of HIV/HBV and HIV/HCV co-infections, evaluate the effect of the co-infections on the immunological and virological characteristics and assess the association between some demographic and lifestyle characteristics and risk of HBV, HCV, HIV/HBV and HIV/HCV co-infections among pregnant women living in the Brong-Ahafo Region of Ghana.<h4>Methods</h4>This comparative cross-sectional study was conducted at the anti-retroviral therapy (ART) clinics of the St. Elizabeth Hospital and the Holy Family Hospital, Brong-Ahafo Region, Ghana. A total of 248 consecutive consenting pregnant Ghanaian women, 148 diagnosed with HIV [HIV (+)] and 100 who were HIV negative [HIV (-)], were recruited. Validated questionnaire was used to obtain demographic and lifestyle data. Venous blood samples were obtained and HCV status, HBV profile, CD4+ T cell count, and HIV-1 RNA load were determined.<h4>Results</h4>The sero-prevalence of HIV (+) /HBV, HIV (+) /HCV, HIV (-)/HBV, and HIV (-)/HCV infections were 22 (14.9%), 6 (4.1%), 10 (10.0%), and 12 (12.0%) respectively. HIV-1 viral load was not significantly different between HIV/HBV, HIV/HCV co-infection and HIV mono-infection. However, CD4+ T lymphocyte count (364 vs 512 vs 514 cells/?l; p = 0.0009) was significantly lower in HIV/HBV co-infection compared to HIV/HCV and HIV mono-infection respectively. There was no significant association between demographic and lifestyle characteristics and risk of HBV and HCV infections in HIV positive and negative subjects except for late diagnosis of HIV and history of sharing razors blades and pins, where increased odds of HIV (+) /HBV and HIV (-)/HBV infection were observed.<h4>Conclusions</h4>The prevalence of HIV (+)/HBV (14.9%), HIV (+)/HCV (4.1%), HIV (-)/HBV (10.0%), and HIV (-)/HCV (12.0%) are high among pregnant women in the Brong Ahafo Region of Ghana. HIV/HBV is associated with reduced CD4+ T lymphocyte count but not HIV-1 viral load. Early diagnosis of HIV and intensification of routine antenatal HBV and HCV are essential to abate the risk of maternal to child transmission.
Project description:Hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) transmissions among people who inject drugs (PWID) continue to pose a challenging global health problem. Here, we aimed to analyse a universally applicable inactivation procedure, namely microwave irradiation, as a safe and effective method to reduce the risk of viral transmission. The exposure of HCV from different genotypes to microwave irradiation resulted in a significant reduction of viral infectivity. Furthermore, microwave irradiation reduced viral infectivity of HIV-1 and of HCV/HIV-1 suspensions indicating that this inactivation may be effective at preventing co-infections. To translate microwave irradiation as prevention method to used drug preparation equipment, we could further show that HCV as well as HIV-1 infectivity could be abrogated in syringes and filters. This study demonstrates the power of microwave irradiation for the reduction of viral transmission and establishment of this safety strategy could help reduce the transmission of blood-borne viruses.
Project description:Unsterile opioid injection increases risk for infection transmission, including HIV, hepatitis B virus (HBV), or hepatitis C virus (HCV). We assess prevalence of and risk factors associated with opioid overdose and infections with HIV, HBV, or HCV among Medicare beneficiaries with opioid-related fee-for-service claims during 2015. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis to estimate claims for opioid use and overdose and HIV, HBV, or HCV infections, using data from US Medicare fee-for-service claims. Beneficiaries with opioid-related claims had increased odds for HIV (2.3; 95% confidence interval (CI), 2.3-2.4), acute HBV (6.7; 95% CI, 6.3-7.1), chronic HBV (5.0; 95% CI, 4.7-5.4), acute HCV (9.6; 95% CI, 9.2-10.0), and chronic HCV (8.9; 95% CI, 8.7-9.1). Beneficiaries with opioid-related claims and for HIV, HBV, or HCV infection, respectively, had a 1.1-1.9-fold odds for having a claim for opioid overdose. Independent risk factors for opioid overdose and each selected infection outcome included age, sex, race/ethnicity, region, and residence in a high-vulnerability county. Having opioid-related claims and selected demographic attributes were independent, significant risk factors for having HIV, HBV, or HCV claims among US Medicare beneficiaries. These results might help guide interventions intended to reduce incidences of HIV, HCV, and HBV infections among beneficiaries with opioid-related claims.
Project description:Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs) are ambiguous burden of tremendous health, social and economic consequences. The current systematic review was conducted in order to determine awareness and knowledge of Africans toward sexually transmitted infections, not only concerning HIV/AIDS, but also other STIs such as gonorrhea, syphilis, HBV, HCV and HPV. A systematic review of literature was conducted, studies were retrieved and selected after fulfilling the inclusion criteria as well as passing the assessment procedure. Related data was extracted, quantitative analysis was conducted among participants who responded to questions related to HIV, HBV, HCV, HPV or STIs knowledge, sensitivity analysis as well as subgroup analysis were also conducted. Seventy four articles addressing knowledge among 35 African countries were included and 136 questions were analyzed and synthesized. The question "does using condom reduces HIV transmission?" was answered by 1,316,873 Africans in 35 countries, 66.8% [95% Cl; 62.6, 70.9] answered yes. While the question "is sexual contact a possible route of HBV transmission?" was answered by 7,490 participants in 5 countries; 42.5% [95% Cl; 20.4, 64.7] answered yes. The differences observed among populations are highlighting the possibility for improvement by directing light toward specific populations as well as addressing specific awareness knowledge to ensure that the general as well as the related specific preventive knowledge is improved.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Guyana expanded its HIV response in 2005 but the epidemiology of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections has not been characterized. METHODS:The 2011 Seroprevalence and Behavioral Epidemiology Risk Survey for HIV and STIs collected biologic specimens with demographic and behavioral data from a representative sample of Guyana military personnel. Diagnostics included commercial serum: HIV antibody; total antibody to hepatitis B core (anti-HBc); IgM anti-HBc; hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg); anti-HBs; antibody to HCV with confirmatory testing; and HBV DNA sequencing with S gene fragment phylogenetic analysis. Chi-square, p-values and prevalence ratios determined statistical significance. RESULTS:Among 480 participants providing serologic specimens, 176 (36.7%) tested anti-HBc-positive. Overall, 19 (4.0%) participants tested HBsAg-positive; 17 (89.5%) of the HBsAg-positive participants also had detectable anti-HBc, including 1 (5.3%) IgM anti-HBc-positive male. Four (6.8%) females with available HBV testing were HBsAg-positive, all aged 23-29 years. Sixteen (16, 84.2%) HBsAg-positive participants had sufficient specimen for DNA testing. All 16 had detectable HBV DNA, 4 with viral load >2x104IU/ml. Sequencing found: 12 genotype (gt) A1 with 99.9% genetic identity between 1 IgM anti-HBc-positive and 1 anti-HBc-negative; 2 gtD1; and 2 with insufficient specimen. No statistically significant associations between risk factors and HBV infection were identified. CONCLUSIONS:Integrated HIV surveillance identified likely recent adult HBV transmission, current HBV infection among females of reproductive age, moderate HBV infection prevalence (all gtA1 and D1), no HCV infections and low HIV frequency among Guyana military personnel. Integrated HIV surveillance helped characterize HBV and HCV epidemiology, including probable recent transmission, prompting targeted responses to control ongoing HBV transmission and examination of hepatitis B vaccine policies.
Project description:The epidemic of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection among HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM) is in its second decade, but the routes of transmission remain poorly understood. We hypothesized that by pairing single genome sequencing (SGS), to enumerate infecting HCV genomes (viruses), with detailed sexual and drug histories, we could gain insight into the routes of transmission among MSM. We used SGS to analyze blood specimens from eight HIV-infected MSM who had 10 episodes of acute (seronegative) or early HCV infections. Seven of eight men reported condomless receptive anal intercourse (CRAI), six with rectal exposure to semen, and all eight denied rectal trauma or bleeding. Of the 10 HCV infections, eight resulted from transmission of a single virus; one infection resulted from transmission of either one or a few (three or four) closely-related viruses; and one infection resulted from transmission of >10 distinct viruses. The participant infected by >10 viruses reported sharing injection equipment for methamphetamine during sex. Two other participants also injected methamphetamine during sex but they did not share injection equipment and were infected by a single virus. Conclusions: Most HCV infections of HIV-infected MSM without a history of either rectal trauma or bleeding or shared injection equipment were caused by a single virus. Intra-rectal exposure to semen during CRAI is therefore likely sufficient for HCV transmission among MSM. Conversely, rectal trauma or bleeding or shared injection equipment are not necessary for HCV transmission among MSM. These results help clarify routes of HCV transmission among MSM and can therefore help guide the design of much-needed behavioral and other interventions to prevent HCV transmission among MSM.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>worldwide, hepatitis C and B virus infections (HCV and HCV), are the two most common coinfections with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and has become a major threat to the survival of HIV-infected persons. The review aimed to estimate the prevalence of HIV, HBV, HCV, HIV/HCV and HIV/HBV and triple coinfections in different subpopulations in Iran.<h4>Method</h4>Following PRISMA guidelines, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of reports on prevalence of HIV, HBV, HCV and HIV coinfections in different subpopulations in Iran. We systematically reviewed the literature to identify eligible studies from January 1996 to March 2012 in English or Persian/Farsi databases. We extracted the prevalence of HIV antibodies (diagnosed by Elisa confirmed with Western Blot test), HCV antibodies and HBsAg (with confirmatory laboratory test) as the main primary outcome. We reported the prevalence of the three infections and coinfections as point and 95% confidence intervals.<h4>Findings</h4>HIV prevalence varied from %0.00 (95% CI: 0.00-0.003) in the general population to %17.25 (95% CI: 2.94-31.57) in people who inject drugs (PWID). HBV prevalence ranged from % 0.00 (95% CI: 0.00-7.87) in health care workers to % 30.9 (95% CI: 27.88-33.92) in PWID. HCV prevalence ranged from %0.19 (95% CI: 0.00-0.66) in health care workers to %51.46 (95% CI: 34.30-68.62) in PWID. The coinfection of HIV/HBV and also HIV/HCV in the general population and in health care workers was zero, while the most common coinfections were HIV/HCV (10.95%), HIV/HBV (1.88%) and triple infections (1.25%) in PWID.<h4>Conclusions</h4>We found that PWID are severely and disproportionately affected by HIV and the other two infections, HCV and HBV. Screenings of such coinfections need to be reinforced to prevent new infections and also reduce further transmission in their community and to others.
Project description:Intravenous drug use (IDU) is one of the most important transmission routes for blood borne viruses, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), and hepatitis C virus (HCV). These infections alter the subset distributions of T cells; however, knowledge of such effects during HIV, HBV, and or HCV coinfection is limited. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate any associations between T cell distribution and the presence of HIV, HBV, and HCV coinfections among persons who inject drugs (PWID). Blood samples from 88 Caucasian PWID (mean age 30; 82% male) and 47 age-matched subjects negative for all three infections (mean age of 29; 83% male) were analyzed. The T cell markers CD3, CD4, CD8, CD45RA, CCR7, HLA-DR, and CCR5 were assessed using flow cytometry. Of the PWID, 40% were HIV+HBV+HCV+, 20% HBV+HCV+, 19% HCV+, and 13% negative for all three infections. The HIV+HBV+HCV+ PWID had lower percentages of CD4<sup>+</sup> and higher percentages of CD8<sup>+</sup> cells compared to triple negative PWID (p?<?0.001 in all cases). The only difference between HBV+HCV+ with triple negative PWID was the lower CD4<sup>+</sup> cell percentages among the former (52.1% and 58.6%, p?=?0.021). Triple negative PWID had higher immune activation and number of CCR5<sup>+</sup> cells compared to the controls. We suggest that the altered T cell subset distribution among PWID is mainly triggered by HIV infection and or IDU, while HBV and or HCV seropositivity has minimal additional effects on CD4<sup>+</sup> cell distribution.