Nonstationary flood coincidence risk analysis using time-varying copula functions.
ABSTRACT: The coincidence of flood flows in a mainstream and its tributaries may lead to catastrophic floods. In this paper, we investigated the flood coincidence risk under nonstationary conditions arising from climate changes. The coincidence probabilities considering flood occurrence dates and flood magnitudes were calculated using nonstationary multivariate models and compared with those from stationary models. In addition, the "most likely" design based on copula theory was used to provide the most likely flood coincidence scenarios. The Huai River and Hong River were selected as case studies. The results show that the highest probabilities of flood coincidence occur in mid-July. The marginal distributions for the flood magnitudes of the two rivers are nonstationary, and time-varying copulas provide a better fit than stationary copulas for the dependence structure of the flood magnitudes. Considering the annual coincidence probabilities for given flood magnitudes and the "most likely" design, the stationary model may underestimate the risk of flood coincidence in wet years or overestimate this risk in dry years. Therefore, it is necessary to use nonstationary models in climate change scenarios.
Project description:Sea level rise (SLR), a well-documented and urgent aspect of anthropogenic global warming, threatens population and assets located in low-lying coastal regions all around the world. Common flood hazard assessment practices typically account for one driver at a time (e.g., either fluvial flooding only or ocean flooding only), whereas coastal cities vulnerable to SLR are at risk for flooding from multiple drivers (e.g., extreme coastal high tide, storm surge, and river flow). Here, we propose a bivariate flood hazard assessment approach that accounts for compound flooding from river flow and coastal water level, and we show that a univariate approach may not appropriately characterize the flood hazard if there are compounding effects. Using copulas and bivariate dependence analysis, we also quantify the increases in failure probabilities for 2030 and 2050 caused by SLR under representative concentration pathways 4.5 and 8.5. Additionally, the increase in failure probability is shown to be strongly affected by compounding effects. The proposed failure probability method offers an innovative tool for assessing compounding flood hazards in a warming climate.
Project description:El Niño and La Niña events, the extremes of ENSO climate variability, influence river flow and flooding at the global scale. Estimates of the historical probability of extreme (high or low) precipitation are used to provide vital information on the likelihood of adverse impacts during extreme ENSO events. However, the nonlinearity between precipitation and flood magnitude motivates the need for estimation of historical probabilities using analysis of hydrological data sets. Here, this analysis is undertaken using the ERA-20CM-R river flow reconstruction for the twentieth century. Our results show that the likelihood of increased or decreased flood hazard during ENSO events is much more complex than is often perceived and reported; probabilities vary greatly across the globe, with large uncertainties inherent in the data and clear differences when comparing the hydrological analysis to precipitation.
Project description:The Momoge National Nature Reserve (MNNR) is located at the intersection of Nenjiang and Taoer Rivers in Baicheng City, Jilin Province, where the Taoer River is the main source of water for the nature reserve. However, due to the construction of the water control project in the upper reaches of the Taoer River, the MNNR has been in a state of water shortage for a long time. To guarantee the wetland function of the nature reserve, the government planned to carry out normal and flood water supply from Nenjiang River through the West Water Supply Project of Jilin Province. Therefore, how to improve the utilization of flood resources effectively has become one of the key issues of ecological compensation for the MNNR. In this paper, a flood resources optimal allocation model that is based on the interval two-stage stochastic programming method was constructed, and the corresponding flood resource availability in different flow scenarios of Nenjiang River were included in the total water resources to improve their utilization. The results showed that the proportion of flood resources that were used in the MNNR after optimization was more than 70% under different flow scenarios, among which the proportion of flood resources under a low-flow scenario reached 77%, which was 23% higher than the proposed increase. In addition, the ecological benefits of low, medium, and high flow levels reached the range of 26.30 (10? CNY) to 32.14(10? CNY), 28.21(10? CNY) to 34.49(10? CNY) and 29.41(10? CNY) to 35.94(10? CNY), respectively. According to the results, flood resources significantly reduce the utilization of normal water resources, which can be an effective supplement to the ecological compensation of nature reserves and provide a basis for the distribution of transit flood resources in other regions.
Project description:Extreme climatic events are growing more severe and frequent, calling into question how prepared our infrastructure is to deal with these changes. Current infrastructure design is primarily based on precipitation Intensity-Duration-Frequency (IDF) curves with the so-called stationary assumption, meaning extremes will not vary significantly over time. However, climate change is expected to alter climatic extremes, a concept termed nonstationarity. Here we show that given nonstationarity, current IDF curves can substantially underestimate precipitation extremes and thus, they may not be suitable for infrastructure design in a changing climate. We show that a stationary climate assumption may lead to underestimation of extreme precipitation by as much as 60%, which increases the flood risk and failure risk in infrastructure systems. We then present a generalized framework for estimating nonstationary IDF curves and their uncertainties using Bayesian inference. The methodology can potentially be integrated in future design concepts.
Project description:Modeling sensitivity to drugs based on genetic characterizations is a significant challenge in the area of systems medicine. Ensemble based approaches such as Random Forests have been shown to perform well in both individual sensitivity prediction studies and team science based prediction challenges. However, Random Forests generate a deterministic predictive model for each drug based on the genetic characterization of the cell lines and ignores the relationship between different drug sensitivities during model generation. This application motivates the need for generation of multivariate ensemble learning techniques that can increase prediction accuracy and improve variable importance ranking by incorporating the relationships between different output responses. In this article, we propose a novel cost criterion that captures the dissimilarity in the output response structure between the training data and node samples as the difference in the two empirical copulas. We illustrate that copulas are suitable for capturing the multivariate structure of output responses independent of the marginal distributions and the copula based multivariate random forest framework can provide higher accuracy prediction and improved variable selection. The proposed framework has been validated on genomics of drug sensitivity for cancer and cancer cell line encyclopedia database.
Project description:The impacts of flooding are expected to rise due to population increases, economic growth and climate change. Hence, understanding the physical and spatiotemporal characteristics of risk drivers (hazard, exposure and vulnerability) is required to develop effective flood mitigation measures. Here, the long-term trend in flood vulnerability was analysed globally, calculated from the ratio of the reported flood loss or damage to the modelled flood exposure using a global river and inundation model. A previous study showed decreasing global flood vulnerability over a shorter period using different disaster data. The long-term analysis demonstrated for the first time that flood vulnerability to economic losses in upper-middle, lower-middle and low-income countries shows an inverted U-shape, as a result of the balance between economic growth and various historical socioeconomic efforts to reduce damage, leading to non-significant upward or downward trends. We also show that the flood-exposed population is affected by historical changes in population distribution, with changes in flood vulnerability of up to 48.9%. Both increasing and decreasing trends in flood vulnerability were observed in different countries, implying that population growth scenarios considering spatial distribution changes could affect flood risk projections.
Project description:Inference of gene sequences in ancestral species has been widely used to test hypotheses concerning the process of molecular sequence evolution. However, the approach may produce spurious results, mainly because using the single best reconstruction while ignoring the suboptimal ones creates systematic biases. Here we implement methods to correct for such biases and use computer simulation to evaluate their performance when the substitution process is nonstationary. The methods we evaluated include parsimony and likelihood using the single best reconstruction (SBR), averaging over reconstructions weighted by the posterior probabilities (AWP), and a new method called expected Markov counting (EMC) that produces maximum-likelihood estimates of substitution counts for any branch under a nonstationary Markov model. We simulated base composition evolution on a phylogeny for six species, with different selective pressures on G+C content among lineages, and compared the counts of nucleotide substitutions recorded during simulation with the inference by different methods. We found that large systematic biases resulted from (i) the use of parsimony or likelihood with SBR, (ii) the use of a stationary model when the substitution process is nonstationary, and (iii) the use of the Hasegawa-Kishino-Yano (HKY) model, which is too simple to adequately describe the substitution process. The nonstationary general time reversible (GTR) model, used with AWP or EMC, accurately recovered the substitution counts, even in cases of complex parameter fluctuations. We discuss model complexity and the compromise between bias and variance and suggest that the new methods may be useful for studying complex patterns of nucleotide substitution in large genomic data sets.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>We compared two methods of rooting a phylogenetic tree: the stationary and the nonstationary substitution processes. These methods do not require an outgroup.<h4>Methods</h4>Given a multiple alignment and an unrooted tree, the maximum likelihood estimates of branch lengths and substitution parameters for each associated rooted tree are found; rooted trees are compared using their likelihood values. Site variation in substitution rates is handled by assigning sites into several classes before the analysis.<h4>Results</h4>In three test datasets where the trees are small and the roots are assumed known, the nonstationary process gets the correct estimate significantly more often, and fits data much better, than the stationary process. Both processes give biologically plausible root placements in a set of nine primate mitochondrial DNA sequences.<h4>Conclusions</h4>The nonstationary process is simple to use and is much better than the stationary process at inferring the root. It could be useful for situations where an outgroup is unavailable.
Project description:Given the complex hydrologic dynamics of water catchments and conflicts between nature protection and public water supply, models may help to understand catchment dynamics and evaluate contamination scenarios and may support best environmental practices and water safety management. A catchment model can be an educative tool for investigating water quality and for communication between parties with different interests in the catchment. This article introduces an interactive computational tool, QMRAcatch, that was developed to simulate concentrations in water resources of , a human-associated microbial source tracking (MST) marker, enterovirus, norovirus, , and as target microorganisms and viruses (TMVs). The model domain encompasses a main river with wastewater discharges and a floodplain with a floodplain river. Diffuse agricultural sources of TMVs that discharge into the main river are not included in this stage of development. The floodplain river is fed by the main river and may flood the plain. Discharged TMVs in the river are subject to dilution and temperature-dependent degradation. River travel times are calculated using the Manning-Gauckler-Strickler formula. Fecal deposits from wildlife, birds, and visitors in the floodplain are resuspended in flood water, runoff to the floodplain river, or infiltrate groundwater. Fecal indicator and MST marker data facilitate calibration. Infection risks from exposure to the pathogenic TMVs by swimming or drinking water consumption are calculated, and the required pathogen removal by treatment to meet a health-based quality target can be determined. Applicability of QMRAcatch is demonstrated by calibrating the tool for a study site at the River Danube near Vienna, Austria, using field TMV data, including a sensitivity analysis and evaluation of the model outcomes.
Project description:Many countries around the world face increasing impacts from flooding due to socio-economic development in flood-prone areas, which may be enhanced in intensity and frequency as a result of climate change. With increasing flood risk, it is becoming more important to be able to assess the costs and benefits of adaptation strategies. To guide the design of such strategies, policy makers need tools to prioritize where adaptation is needed and how much adaptation funds are required. In this country-scale study, we show how flood risk analyses can be used in cost-benefit analyses to prioritize investments in flood adaptation strategies in Mexico under future climate scenarios. Moreover, given the often limited availability of detailed local data for such analyses, we show how state-of-the-art global data and flood risk assessment models can be applied for a detailed assessment of optimal flood-protection strategies. Our results show that especially states along the Gulf of Mexico have considerable economic benefits from investments in adaptation that limit risks from both river and coastal floods, and that increased flood-protection standards are economically beneficial for many Mexican states. We discuss the sensitivity of our results to modelling uncertainties, the transferability of our modelling approach and policy implications.This article is part of the theme issue 'Advances in risk assessment for climate change adaptation policy'.