Experimental validation of the prestretch-strain relationship as a non-invasive index of left ventricular myocardial contractility.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:The slope of the relationship between segmental PreS and total systolic shortening (S) has been proposed as a non-invasive index of left ventricular contractility. The aim of this study was to correlate this novel parameter to invasive gold standard measurements of contractility and to investigate how it is influenced by afterload. METHODS:In domestic pigs, afterload was increased by either balloon inflation in the aorta or by administration of phenylephrine while contractility was increased by dobutamine infusion. During all interventions, left ventricular pressure-volume measurements and trans-diaphragmatic two-dimensional echocardiographic images were acquired. The PreS-S slope was constructed from 18 segmental strain curves obtained by speckle tracking analysis and compared to the slope of the end systolic PV relationship (Emax) and the pre-load recruitable stroke work (PRSW). RESULTS:Sixteen datasets of increased contractility and afterload were analyzed. During dobutamine infusion, the LV volumes decreased (p<0.05) while ejection fraction increased (p<0.05). Emax, PRSW and the slope of the intra-ventricular PreS-S relation increased significantly during dobutamine infusion. Afterload increase led to increase in systolic blood pressure (105±16mmHg vs. 138±25mmHg; p<0.01) and decrease of LV stroke volume and ejection fraction (p<0.01). The PreS-S slope was not influenced by loading conditions in concordance with the PRSW findings. The absolute values of the PreS-S slope did not correlate with Emax or PRSW. However, the change of the PreS-S slope in relation with different interventions demonstrated good correlation with changes in PRSW or Emax, (r = 0.66, p<0.05 and r = 0.69, p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS:The slope of the PreS-S relationship is sensitive to changes in inotropy and is less load-dependent than conventional non-invasive parameters of left ventricular function. The magnitude of the change of this slope correlates well with changes in invasive contractility measurements making it an attractive parameter to assess contractile reserve or contractile changes during longitudinal follow-up of patients.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Maximal left ventricular (LV) pressure rise (LV dP/dt<sub>max</sub>), a classical marker of LV systolic function, requires LV catheterization, thus surrogate arterial pressure waveform measures have been proposed. We compared LV and arterial (femoral and radial) dP/dt<sub>max</sub> to the slope of the LV end-systolic pressure-volume relationship (Ees), a load-independent measure of LV contractility, to determine the interactions between dP/dt<sub>max</sub> and Ees as loading and LV contractility varied.<h4>Methods</h4>We measured LV pressure-volume data using a conductance catheter and femoral and radial arterial pressures using a fluid-filled catheter in 10 anesthetized pigs. Ees was calculated as the slope of the end-systolic pressure-volume relationship during a transient inferior vena cava occlusion. Afterload was assessed by the effective arterial elastance. The experimental protocol consisted of sequentially changing afterload (phenylephrine/nitroprusside), preload (bleeding/fluid bolus), and contractility (esmolol/dobutamine). A linear-mixed analysis was used to assess the contribution of cardiac (Ees, end-diastolic volume, effective arterial elastance, heart rate, preload-dependency) and arterial factors (total vascular resistance and arterial compliance) to LV and arterial dP/dt<sub>max</sub>.<h4>Results</h4>Both LV and arterial dP/dt<sub>max</sub> allowed the tracking of Ees changes, especially during afterload and contractility changes, although arterial dP/dt<sub>max</sub> was lower compared to LV dP/dt<sub>max</sub> (bias 732 ± 539 mmHg⋅s<sup>- 1</sup> for femoral dP/dt<sub>max</sub>, and 625 ± 501 mmHg⋅s<sup>- 1</sup> for radial dP/dt<sub>max</sub>). Changes in cardiac contractility (Ees) were the main determinant of LV and arterial dP/dt<sub>max</sub> changes.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Although arterial dP/dt<sub>max</sub> is a complex function of central and peripheral arterial factors, radial and particularly femoral dP/dt<sub>max</sub> allowed reasonably good tracking of LV contractility changes as loading and inotropic conditions varied.
Project description:Acute pulmonary embolism is a frequent condition in emergency medicine and potentially fatal. Cause of death is right ventricular failure due to increased right ventricular afterload from both pulmonary vascular obstruction and vasoconstriction. Inodilators are interesting drugs of choice as they may improve right ventricular function and lower its afterload. We aimed to investigate the cardiovascular effects of three clinically relevant inodilators: levosimendan, milrinone, and dobutamine in acute pulmonary embolism. We conducted a randomized, blinded, animal study using 18 female pigs. Animals received large autologous pulmonary embolism until doubling of baseline mean pulmonary arterial pressure and were randomized to increasing doses of each inodilator. Effects were evaluated with bi-ventricular pressure-volume loop recordings, right heart catheterization, and blood gas analyses. Induction of pulmonary embolism increased right ventricular afterload and pulmonary pressure (<i>p</i> < 0.05) causing right ventricular dysfunction. Levosimendan and milrinone showed beneficial hemodynamic profiles by lowering right ventricular pressures and volume (<i>p</i> < 0.001) and improved right ventricular function and cardiac output (<i>p</i> < 0.05) without increasing right ventricular mechanical work. Dobutamine increased right ventricular pressure and function (<i>p</i> < 0.01) but at a cost of increased mechanical work at the highest doses, showing an adverse hemodynamic profile. In a porcine model of acute pulmonary embolism, levosimendan and milrinone reduced right ventricular afterload and improved right ventricular function, whereas dobutamine at higher doses increased right ventricular afterload and right ventricular mechanical work. The study motivates clinical testing of inodilators in patients with acute pulmonary embolism and right ventricular dysfunction.
Project description:Sildenafil has been reported to improve exercise capacity in Fontan patients, but the physiologic mechanisms behind these findings are not completely understood. The objective of this study was to study the acute effect of sildenafil on pressure-volume loop (PVL) measures of ventricular function in Fontan patients. Patients after Fontan operation who were presenting for a clinically indicated catheterization were enrolled. Patients were randomized in a double-blinded fashion to receive placebo (n = 9) or sildenafil (n = 10) 30-90 min prior to catheterization. PVLs were recorded using microconductance catheters at baseline and after infusion of dobutamine (10 mcg/kg/min). The primary outcome was change in ventriculoarterial (VA) coupling. For the entire cohort, VA coupling trended toward improvement with dobutamine (1.4 ± 0.4 to 1.8 ± 0.9, p = 0.07). End-systolic elastance showed improvement (2.6 ± 0.9 to 3.8 ± 1.4 mmHg m(2)/ml, p < 0.01) with dobutamine infusion. The cohorts had similar VA coupling at baseline (p = 0.32), but the sildenafil cohort trended toward having less of an improvement in VA coupling with dobutamine stress (p = 0.06). There were no differences between PVL measures of systolic or diastolic function between treatment groups, both at baseline and after dobutamine infusion. Patients with Fontan circulation had improved contractility and trended toward improvement in VA coupling with dobutamine stress. Acute sildenafil administration was not associated with improved PVL measurements of ventricular function in this population. These results suggest that clinical improvements seen with administration of sildenafil in Fontan patients are not associated with an acute improvement in ventricular function.www.clinicaltrials.gov ; Clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01815502.
Project description:BACKGROUND:An accurate assessment of intrinsic right ventricular (RV) contractility and its relation to pulmonary arterial load is essential for the management of pulmonary hypertension. The pressure-volume relationship with load manipulation is the gold standard assessment used for this purpose, but its clinical application has been hindered by the lack of a single-beat method that is valid for the human RV. In the present study, we sought to validate a novel single-beat method to estimate the preload recruitable stroke work (PRSW) and its derivative for ventriculoarterial coupling in the human RV. METHODS AND RESULTS:A novel single-beat slope of the PRSW relationship (Msw) was derived by calculating the mean ejection pressure when the end-systolic volume was equal to volume-axis intercept of the PRSW relationship. In addition, by using a mathematical transformation of the equation representing the linearity of the PRSW relationship, a novel index for ventriculoarterial coupling, Msw/mean ejection pressure, was developed. RV pressure-volume relationships were measured in 31 patients (including 23 patients with pulmonary hypertension) who were referred for right-sided heart catheterization. In this cohort, the single-beat Msw was strongly correlated with the multiple-beat Msw (r=0.91, P<0.0001). Moreover, a significant correlation was observed between the single- and multiple-beat Msw/mean ejection pressure (r=0.53, P=0.002), with a stronger correlation in those with greater RV systolic pressure (r=0.70, P=0.003). CONCLUSIONS:The novel single-beat approach provided an accurate estimation of indexes for the PRSW relationship and ventriculoarterial coupling. It may be particularly useful in assessing RV adaptation to increased pressure overload.
Project description:Chronic high-thoracic and cervical spinal cord injury (SCI) results in a complex phenotype of cardiovascular consequences, including impaired left ventricular (LV) contractility. Here, we aim to determine whether such dysfunction manifests immediately post-injury, and if so, whether correcting impaired contractility can improve spinal cord oxygenation (SCO2), blood flow (SCBF) and metabolism. Using a porcine model of T2 SCI, we assess LV end-systolic elastance (contractility) via invasive pressure-volume catheterization, monitor intraparenchymal SCO2 and SCBF with fiberoptic oxygen sensors and laser-Doppler flowmetry, respectively, and quantify spinal cord metabolites with microdialysis. We demonstrate that high-thoracic SCI acutely impairs cardiac contractility and substantially reduces SCO2 and SCBF within the first hours post-injury. Utilizing the same model, we next show that augmenting LV contractility with the ?-agonist dobutamine increases SCO2 and SCBF more effectively than vasopressor therapy, whilst also mitigating increased anaerobic metabolism and hemorrhage in the injured cord. Finally, in pigs with T2 SCI survived for 12 weeks post-injury, we confirm that acute hemodynamic management with dobutamine appears to preserve cardiac function and improve hemodynamic outcomes in the chronic setting. Our data support that cardio-centric hemodynamic management represents an advantageous alternative to the current clinical standard of vasopressor therapy for acute traumatic SCI.
Project description:Dobutamine associated left ventricular (LV) wall motion analyses exhibit reduced sensitivity for detecting inducible ischemia in individuals with increased LV wall thickness. This study was performed to better understand the mechanism of this reduced sensitivity in the elderly who often manifest increased LV wall thickness and risk factors for coronary artery disease.During dobutamine cardiovascular magnetic resonance (DCMR) stress testing, we assessed rate pressure product (RPP), aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV), LV myocardial oxygen demand (pressure volume area, PVA, mass, volumes, concentricity, and the presence of wall motion abnormalities (WMA) and first pass gadolinium enhanced perfusion defects (PDs) indicative of ischemia in 278 consecutively recruited individuals aged 69?±?8 years with pre-existing or known risk factors for coronary artery disease. Each variable was assessed independently by personnel blinded to participant identifiers and analyses of other DCMR or hemodynamic variables.Participants were 80% white, 90% hypertensive, 43% diabetic and 55% men. With dobutamine, 60% of the participants who exhibited PDs had no inducible WMA. Among these participants, myocardial oxygen demand was lower than that observed in those who had both wall motion and perfusion abnormalities suggestive of ischemia (p?=?0.03). Relative to those with PDs and inducible WMAs, myocardial oxygen demand remained different in these individuals with PDs without an inducible WMA after accounting for LV afterload and contractility (p?=?0.02 and 0.03 respectively), but not after accounting for either LV stress related end diastolic volume index (LV preload) or resting concentricity (p?=?0.31-0.71).During dobutamine stress testing, elderly patients experience increased LV concentricity and declines in LV preload and myocardial oxygen demand, all of which are associated with an absence of inducible LV WMAs indicative of myocardial ischemia. These findings provide insight as to why dobutamine associated wall motion analyses exhibit reduced sensitivity for identifying inducible ischemia in elderly.This study was registered with Clinicaltrials.gov (NCT00542503).
Project description:INTRODUCTION: Prostacyclin inhalation is increasingly used to treat acute pulmonary hypertension and right ventricular failure, although its pharmacodynamic properties remain controversial. Prostacyclins not only affect vasomotor tone but may also have cAMP-mediated positive inotropic effects and modulate autonomic nervous system tone. We studied the role of these different mechanisms in the overall haemodynamic effects produced by iloprost inhalation in an experimental model of acute pulmonary hypertension. METHODS: In this prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled animal study, twenty-six pigs (mean weight 35 +/- 2 kg) were instrumented with biventricular conductance catheters, a pulmonary artery flow probe and a high-fidelity pulmonary artery pressure catheter. The effects of inhaled iloprost (50 microg) were studied in the following groups: animals with acute hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension, and healthy animals with and without blockade of the autonomic nervous system. RESULTS: During pulmonary hypertension, inhalation of iloprost resulted in a 51% increase in cardiac output compared with placebo (5.6 +/- 0.7 versus 3.7 +/- 0.8 l/minute; P = 0.0013), a selective reduction in right ventricular afterload (effective pulmonary arterial elastance: 0.6 +/- 0.3 versus 1.2 +/- 0.5 mmHg/ml; P = 0.0005) and a significant increase in left ventricular end-diastolic volume (91 +/- 12 versus 70 +/- 20 ml; P = 0.006). Interestingly, right ventricular contractility was reduced after iloprost-treatment (slope of preload recruitable stroke work: 2.2 +/- 0.5 versus 3.4 +/- 0.8 mWatt.s/ml; P = 0.0002), whereas ventriculo-vascular coupling remained essentially preserved (ratio of right ventricular end-systolic elastance to effective pulmonary arterial elastance: 0.97 +/- 0.33 versus 1.03 +/- 0.15). In healthy animals, inhaled iloprost had only minimal haemodynamic effects and produced no direct effects on myocardial contractility, even after pharmacological blockade of the autonomic nervous system. CONCLUSIONS: In animals with acute pulmonary hypertension, inhaled iloprost improved global haemodynamics primarily via selective pulmonary vasodilatation and restoration of left ventricular preload. The reduction in right ventricular afterload is associated with a paradoxical decrease in right ventricular contractility. Our data suggest that this reflects an indirect mechanism by which ventriculo-vascular coupling is maintained at the lowest possible energetic cost. We found no evidence for a direct negative inotropic effect of iloprost.
Project description:Despite recent advances, the prognosis of pulmonary hypertension (PH) remains poor. While the initial insult in PH implicates the pulmonary vasculature, the functional state, exercise capacity, and survival of such patients are closely linked to right ventricular (RV) function. In the current study, we sought to investigate the effects of maximum incremental exercise on the matching of RV contractility and afterload (i.e. right ventricular-pulmonary arterial [RV-PA] coupling) in patients with exercise PH (ePH) and pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). End-systolic elastance (Ees), pulmonary arterial elastance (Ea), and RV-PA coupling (Ees/Ea) were determined using single-beat pressure-volume loop analysis in 40 patients that underwent maximum invasive cardiopulmonary exercise testing. Eleven patients had ePH, nine had PAH, and 20 were age-matched controls. During exercise, the impaired exertional contractile reserve in PAH was associated with blunted stroke volume index (SVI) augmentation and reduced peak oxygen consumption (peak VO2 %predicted). Compared to PAH, ePH demonstrated increased RV contractility in response to increasing RV afterload during exercise; however, this was insufficient and resulted in reduced peak RV-PA coupling. The dynamic RV-PA uncoupling in ePH was associated with similarly blunted SVI augmentation and peak VO2 as PAH. In conclusion, dynamic rest-to-peak exercise RV-PA uncoupling during maximum exercise blunts SV increase and reduces exercise capacity in exercise PH and PAH. In ePH, the insufficient increase in RV contractility to compensate for increasing RV afterload during maximum exercise leads to deterioration of RV-PA coupling. These data provide evidence that even in the early stages of PH, RV function is compromised.
Project description:The heart pumps blood against the mechanical afterload from arterial resistance, and increased afterload may alter cardiac electrophysiology and contribute to life-threatening arrhythmias. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying mechanoelectric coupling in cardiomyocytes remain unclear. We developed an innovative patch-clamp-in-gel technology to embed cardiomyocytes in a three-dimensional (3D) viscoelastic hydrogel that imposes an afterload during regular myocyte contraction. Here, we investigated how afterload affects action potentials, ionic currents, intracellular Ca<sup>2+</sup> transients, and cell contraction of adult rabbit ventricular cardiomyocytes. We found that afterload prolonged action potential duration (APD), increased transient outward K<sup>+</sup> current, decreased inward rectifier K<sup>+</sup> current, and increased L-type Ca<sup>2+</sup> current. Increased Ca<sup>2+</sup> entry caused enhanced Ca<sup>2+</sup> transients and contractility. Moreover, elevated afterload led to discordant alternans in APD and Ca<sup>2+</sup> transient. Ca<sup>2+</sup> alternans persisted under action potential clamp, indicating that the alternans was Ca<sup>2+</sup> dependent. Furthermore, all these afterload effects were significantly attenuated by inhibiting nitric oxide synthase 1 (NOS1). Taken together, our data reveal a mechano-chemo-electrotransduction (MCET) mechanism that acutely transduces afterload through NOS1-nitric oxide signaling to modulate the action potential, Ca<sup>2+</sup> transient, and contractility. The MCET pathway provides a feedback loop in excitation-Ca<sup>2+</sup> signaling-contraction coupling, enabling autoregulation of contractility in cardiomyocytes in response to afterload. This MCET mechanism is integral to the individual cardiomyocyte (and thus the heart) to intrinsically enhance its contractility in response to the load against which it has to do work. While this MCET is largely compensatory for physiological load changes, it may also increase susceptibility to arrhythmias under excessive pathological loading.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The Bezold-Jarisch reflex (BJR) is a cardioinhibitory parasympathetic response to activation of ventricular mechanoreceptors, which can result in bradycardia, atrioventricular block, or asystole. This phenomenon has been triggered by acute myocardial ischaemia, intra-arterial nitroglycerine use, natriuretic peptides, and with exceptional rarity, in middle-aged women only, by dobutamine infusion during stress echocardiography.<h4>Case summary</h4>We present the case of a 61-year-old woman who suffered a 5.1-s sinus pause during her 20??g/kg/min infusion of dobutamine. Recovery was immediate following termination of dobutamine infusion. Concurrent echocardiography was normal, and subsequent cardiac catheterization and electrophysiologic study were normal.<h4>Discussion</h4>This is the fifth documented case of a severe BJR causing asystole during dobutamine infusion, which adds to the accumulating evidence supporting the benign nature of the condition.