NRF2 negatively regulates primary ciliogenesis and hedgehog signaling.
ABSTRACT: Primary cilia are lost during cancer development, but the mechanism regulating cilia degeneration is not determined. While transcription factor nuclear factor-erythroid 2-like 2 (NRF2) protects cells from oxidative, proteotoxic, and metabolic stress in normal cells, hyperactivation of NRF2 is oncogenic, although the detailed molecular mechanisms by which uncontrolled NRF2 activation promotes cancer progression remain unclear. Here, we report that NRF2 suppresses hedgehog (Hh) signaling through Patched 1 (PTCH1) and primary ciliogenesis via p62/sequestosome 1 (SQSTM1). PTCH1, a negative regulator of Hh signaling, is an NRF2 target gene, and as such, hyperactivation of NRF2 impairs Hh signaling. NRF2 also suppresses primary cilia formation through p62-dependent inclusion body formation and blockage of Bardet-Biedl syndrome 4 (BBS4) entrance into cilia. Simultaneous ablation of PTCH1 and p62 completely abolishes NRF2-mediated inhibition of both primary ciliogenesis and Hh signaling. Our findings reveal a previously unidentified role of NRF2 in controlling a cellular organelle, the primary cilium, and its associated Hh signaling pathway and also uncover a mechanism by which NRF2 hyperactivation promotes tumor progression via primary cilia degeneration and aberrant Hh signaling. A better understanding of the crosstalk between NRF2 and primary cilia/Hh signaling could not only open new avenues for cancer therapeutic discovery but could also have significant implications regarding pathologies other than cancer, including developmental disorders, in which improper primary ciliogenesis and Hh signaling play a major role.
Project description:Inturned (INTU), a cilia and planar polarity effector, performs prominent ciliogenic functions during morphogenesis, such as in the skin. INTU is expressed in adult tissues but its role in tissue maintenance is unknown. Here, we report that the expression of the INTU gene is aberrantly elevated in human basal cell carcinoma (BCC), coinciding with increased primary cilia formation and activated hedgehog (Hh) signaling. Disrupting Intu in an oncogenic mutant Smo (SmoM2)-driven BCC mouse model prevented the formation of BCC through suppressing primary cilia formation and Hh signaling, suggesting that Intu performs a permissive role during BCC formation. INTU is essential for intraflagellar transport A complex assembly during ciliogenesis. To further determine whether Intu is directly involved in the activation of Hh signaling downstream of ciliogenesis, we examined the Hh signaling pathway in mouse embryonic fibroblasts, which readily responds to the Hh pathway activation. Depleting Intu blocked Smo agonist-induced Hh pathway activation, whereas the expression of Gli2?N, a constitutively active Gli2, restored Hh pathway activation in Intu-deficient cells, suggesting that INTU functions upstream of Gli2 activation. In contrast, overexpressing Intu did not promote ciliogenesis or Hh signaling. Taken together, data obtained from this study suggest that INTU is indispensable during BCC tumorigenesis and that its aberrant upregulation is likely a prerequisite for primary cilia formation during Hh-dependent tumorigenesis.
Project description:Congenital brain and craniofacial defects often occur together as a consequence of their developmental dependency on common progenitor tissue interactions and signaling pathways during embryogenesis. A classic example of this is perturbation of midline embryo development, and disruption of Hedgehog (Hh) signaling in the pathogenesis of holoprosencephaly. However, our understanding of how Hh signaling governs cell and tissue survival remains incomplete. Patched1 (Ptch1) is a well-known receptor for Hh ligands and Ptch1 overexpression is associated with cell and tissue-specific apoptosis. Here, we demonstrate that the X-linked inhibitory apoptosis protein (XIAP) associates with the C terminus of Ptch1 (Ptch1-C) in primary cilia to inhibit Ptch1-mediated cell death. Consistent with this observation, inhibition of XIAP suppresses cell proliferation, resulting in cell death and pathogenesis of an Hh loss-of-function phenotype. Thus, co-ordinated development of the brain and face is dependent in part upon XIAP mediation of Hh/Ptch1-regulated cell survival and apoptosis during embryogenesis.
Project description:The Hedgehog (Hh) pathway is a highly conserved signaling cascade crucial for cell fate determination during embryogenesis. Response to the Hh ligands is mediated by the receptor Patched-1 (Ptch1), a 12-pass transmembrane glycoprotein. Despite its essential role in Hh signaling and its activity as a tumor suppressor, Ptch1 remains largely uncharacterized. We demonstrate here that Ptch1 binds to itself to form oligomeric structures. Oligomerization is mediated by two distinct, structurally disordered, intracellular domains spanning amino acids 584-734 ("middle loop") and 1162-1432 (C terminus). However, oligomerization is not required for Ptch1-dependent regulation of the canonical Hh pathway operating through Smo. Expression of a mutant protein that deletes both regions represses the Hh pathway and responds to the addition of Hh ligand independent of its inability to bind other factors such as Smurf2. Additionally, deletion of the cytoplasmic middle loop domain generates a Ptch1 mutant that, despite binding to Hh ligand, constitutively suppresses Hh signaling and increases the length of primary cilia. Constitutive activity because of deletion of this region is reversed by further deletion of specific sequences in the cytoplasmic C-terminal domain. These data reveal an interaction between the cytoplasmic domains of Ptch1 and that these domains modulate Ptch1 activity but are not essential for regulation of the Hh pathway.
2016-01-01 | S-EPMC5016153 | BioStudies
Project description:Nrf2 signaling is vital for protecting cells against oxidative stress. However, its hyperactivation is frequently found in liver cancer through excessive build-up of p62/SQSTM1 bodies that sequester Keap1, an adaptor of the E3-ubiquitin ligase complex for Nrf2. Here we report that the Bax-binding protein MOAP-1 regulates p62-Keap1-Nrf2 signaling through disruption of p62 bodies. Upon induction of cellular stresses that stimulate formation of p62 bodies, MOAP-1 is recruited to p62 bodies and reduces their levels independent of the autophagy pathway. MOAP-1 interacts with the PB1-ZZ domains of p62 and interferes with its self-oligomerization and liquid-liquid phase separation, thereby disassembling the p62 bodies. Loss of MOAP-1 can lead to marked upregulation of p62 bodies, enhanced sequestration of Keap1 by p62 and hyperactivation of Nrf2 antioxidant target genes. MOAP-1 deficient mice exhibit an elevated tumor burden with excessive levels of p62 bodies and Nrf2 signaling in a diethylnitrosamine (DEN)-induced hepatocarcinogenesis model. Together, our data define MOAP-1 as a negative regulator of Nrf2 signaling via dissociation of p62 bodies.
Project description:Primary cilia are present on most mammalian cells and are implicated in transducing Hedgehog (Hh) signals during development; however, the prevalence of cilia on human tumors remains unclear, and the role of cilia in cancer has not been examined. Here we show that human basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) are frequently ciliated, and we test the role of cilia in BCC by conditionally deleting Kif3a (encoding kinesin family member 3A) or Ift88 (encoding intraflagellar transport protein 88), genes required for ciliogenesis, in two Hh pathway-dependent mouse tumor models. Ciliary ablation strongly inhibited BCC-like tumors induced by an activated form of Smoothened. In contrast, removal of cilia accelerated tumors induced by activated Gli2, a transcriptional effector of Hh signaling. These seemingly paradoxical effects are consistent with a dual role for cilia in mediating both the activation and the repression of the Hh signaling pathway. Our findings demonstrate that cilia function as unique signaling organelles that can either mediate or suppress tumorigenesis depending on the nature of the oncogenic initiating event.
Project description:Mammalian Hedgehog (Hh) signaling plays key roles in embryogenesis and uniquely requires primary cilia. Functional analyses of several ciliogenesis-related genes led to the discovery of the developmental diseases known as ciliopathies. Hence, identification of mammalian factors that regulate ciliogenesis can provide insight into the molecular mechanisms of embryogenesis and ciliopathy. Here, we demonstrate that DYRK2 acts as a novel mammalian ciliogenesis-related protein kinase. Loss of Dyrk2 in mice causes suppression of Hh signaling and results in skeletal abnormalities during in vivo embryogenesis. Deletion of Dyrk2 induces abnormal ciliary morphology and trafficking of Hh pathway components. Mechanistically, transcriptome analyses demonstrate down-regulation of Aurka and other disassembly genes following Dyrk2 deletion. Taken together, the present study demonstrates for the first time that DYRK2 controls ciliogenesis and is necessary for Hh signaling during mammalian development.
Project description:Hair follicle morphogenesis requires precisely controlled reciprocal communications, including hedgehog (Hh) signaling. Activation of the Hh signaling pathway relies on the primary cilium. Disrupting ciliogenesis results in hair follicle morphogenesis defects due to attenuated Hh signaling; however, the loss of cilia makes it impossible to determine whether hair follicle phenotypes in these cilia mutants are caused by the loss of cilia, disruption of Hh signaling, or a combination of these events. In this study, we characterized the function of Ift27, which encodes a subunit of intraflagellar transport (IFT) complex B. Hair follicle morphogenesis of Ift27-null mice was severely impaired, reminiscent of phenotypes observed in cilia and Hh mutants. Furthermore, the Hh signaling pathway was attenuated in Ift27 mutants, which was in association with abnormal ciliary trafficking of SMO and GLI2, and impaired processing of Gli transcription factors; however, formation of the ciliary axoneme was unaffected. The ciliary localization of IFT25 (HSPB11), the binding partner of IFT27, was disrupted in Ift27 mutant cells, and Ift25-null mice displayed hair follicle phenotypes similar to those of Ift27 mutants. These data suggest that Ift27 and Ift25 operate in a genetically and functionally dependent manner during hair follicle morphogenesis. This study suggests that the molecular trafficking machineries underlying ciliogenesis and Hh signaling can be segregated, thereby providing important insights into new avenues of inhibiting Hh signaling, which might be adopted in the development of targeted therapies for Hh-dependent cancers, such as basal cell carcinoma.
Project description:The transcription factor NRF2 is a master regulator of cellular antioxidant and detoxification responses, but it also regulates other processes such as autophagy and pluripotency. In human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), NRF2 antagonizes neuroectoderm differentiation, which only occurs after NRF2 is repressed via a Primary Cilia-Autophagy-NRF2 (PAN) axis. However, the functional connections between NRF2 and primary cilia, microtubule-based plasma membrane protrusions that function as cellular antennae, remain poorly understood. For instance, nothing is known about whether NRF2 affects cilia, or whether cilia regulation of NRF2 extends beyond hESCs. Here, we show that NRF2 and primary cilia reciprocally regulate each other. First, we demonstrate that fibroblasts lacking primary cilia have higher NRF2 activity, which is rescued by autophagy-activating mTOR inhibitors, indicating that the PAN axis also operates in differentiated cells. Furthermore, NRF2 controls cilia formation and function. NRF2-null cells grow fewer and shorter cilia and display impaired Hedgehog signaling, a cilia-dependent pathway. These defects are not due to increased oxidative stress or ciliophagy, but rather to NRF2 promoting expression of multiple ciliogenic and Hedgehog pathway genes. Among these, we focused on GLI2 and GLI3, the transcription factors controlling Hh pathway output. Both their mRNA and protein levels are reduced in NRF2-null cells, consistent with their gene promoters containing consensus ARE sequences predicted to bind NRF2. Moreover, GLI2 and GLI3 fail to accumulate at the ciliary tip of NRF2-null cells upon Hh pathway activation. Given the importance of NRF2 and ciliary signaling in human disease, our data may have important biomedical implications.
Project description:Primary cilia can act as either a negative or positive regulator of the hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway. Many cartilage tumors are characterized by abnormal activation of the Hh pathway. Here, we report that the presence of primary cilia occurs at a low frequency (12.4%) in neoplastic chondrocytes from malignant human chondrosarcomas, compared with chondrocytes from normal articular cartilage (67.7%). To determine the function of primary cilia in cartilaginous neoplasia, we studied benign cartilage tumors that are formed in mice by chondrocyte-specific overexpression of Gli2, a downstream transcriptional activator of the Hh pathway. Col2A1-Gli2 mice were crossed with Ift88+/- mice, which display a partial loss of ciliogenesis. Surprisingly, cartilage tumors developed in Ift88+/- mice that were phenotypically similar to those that arise in Col2A1-Gli2 mice. Further activation of the Hh pathway was observed in Col2A1-Gli2; Ift88+/- mice compared with either Col2A1-Gli2 or Ift88+/- mice, which was associated with an increased incidence of cartilage tumors. Chondrosarcomas were established in explant cultures, and treated with choral hydrate, which disrupts the functional primary cilia. Thus, treatment resulted in hyperactivity of the Hh signaling pathway, as well as cellular changes that could promote tumor growth. Primary cilia functions to inhibit Hh signaling in neoplastic chondrocytes. The activation of Hh signaling is sufficient to induce benign cartilage tumors without another oncogenic initiating event. Moreover, as primary cilia suppress Hh pathway activation in chondrosarcoma, cellular mechanisms inhibiting proper cilia function may be important in maintaining the neoplastic phenotype.
Project description:The primary cilium is a microtubule-based organelle required for Hedgehog (Hh) signaling and consists of a basal body, a ciliary axoneme and a compartment between the first two structures, called the transition zone (TZ). The TZ serves as a gatekeeper to control protein composition in cilia, but less is known about its role in ciliary bud formation. Here, we show that centrosomal protein Dzip1l is required for Hh signaling between Smoothened and Sufu. Dzip1l colocalizes with basal body appendage proteins and Rpgrip1l, a TZ protein. Loss of Dzip1l results in reduced ciliogenesis and dysmorphic cilia in vivo Dzip1l interacts with, and acts upstream of, Cby, an appendage protein, in ciliogenesis. Dzip1l also has overlapping functions with Bromi (Tbc1d32) in ciliogenesis, cilia morphogenesis and neural tube patterning. Loss of Dzip1l arrests ciliogenesis at the stage of ciliary bud formation from the TZ. Consistent with this, Dzip1l mutant cells fail to remove the capping protein Cp110 (Ccp110) from the distal end of mother centrioles and to recruit Rpgrip1l to the TZ. Therefore, Dzip1l promotes ciliary bud formation and is required for the integrity of the TZ.