Fructo-oligosaccharides ameliorate steatohepatitis, visceral adiposity, and associated chronic inflammation via increased production of short-chain fatty acids in a mouse model of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome. Within the spectrum of NAFLD, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) in combination with hepatic inflammation and fibrosis can lead to liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Dysbiosis was reported to contribute to NASH pathogenesis. This study aimed to determine the effects of fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) on steatohepatitis and visceral adiposity in an obese mouse model of NASH. METHODS:Twelve newborn C57BL/6?J male mice were subcutaneously injected with monosodium glutamate (MSG) to induce obesity on a conventional diet. Six mice were also administered 5% FOS via drinking water from 10?weeks of age. At 18?weeks, histological characteristics of the liver and epididymal fat were compared between the groups. Hepatic mRNA expression of lipid metabolism enzymes and SCFA in feces and sera were measured. RESULTS:Hepatic steatosis, inflammatory cell infiltration, and hepatocyte ballooning in the liver and increased hepatic mRNA expression of fatty acid synthase and glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase were observed in the MSG-treated mice. FOS treatment improved the liver pathology and blunted the increases in the mRNA expression levels of lipid metabolism enzymes. In addition, FOS inhibited adipocyte enlargement and formation of crown-like structures and reduced the M1 macrophage frequency in the epididymal fat of the MSG mice (39.4%?±?3.0% vs. 22.8%?±?0.7%; P?=?0.001). FOS increased not only the fecal concentrations of n-butyric acid (0.04?±?0.01 vs. 0.38?±?0.14?mg/g, P?=?0.02), propionic acid (0.09?±?0.03 vs. 0.42?±?0.16?mg/g, P?=?0.02), and acetic acid (0.65?±?0.16 vs. 1.48?±?0.29?mg/g, P?=?0.03) but also the serum concentration of propionic acid (3.9?±?0.5 vs. 8.2?±?0.5??mol/L, P?=?0.001). CONCLUSIONS:FOS ameliorates steatohepatitis, visceral adiposity, and chronic inflammation by increasing SCFA production.
Project description:Obesity and related metabolic abnormalities play a key role in liver carcinogenesis. Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), which is often complicated with obesity and diabetes mellitus, is associated with the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Sodium alginate (SA), which is extracted from brown seaweeds, is marketed as a weight loss supplement because of its high viscosity and gelling properties. In the present study, we examined the effects of SA on the progression of NASH and related liver carcinogenesis in monosodium glutamate (MSG)-treated mice, which show obesity, diabetes mellitus, and NASH-like histopathological changes. Male MSG-mice were intraperitoneally injected with diethylnitrosamine at 2 weeks of age, and, thereafter, they received a basal diet containing high- or low-molecular-weight SA throughout the experiment (16 weeks). At sacrifice, control MSG-treated mice fed the basal-diet showed significant obesity, hyperinsulinemia, steatosis and hepatic tumor development. SA administration suppressed body weight gain; improved insulin sensitivity, hyperinsulinemia, and hyperleptinemia; attenuated inflammation in the liver and white adipose tissue; and inhibited hepatic lipogenesis and progression of NASH. SA also reduced oxidative stress and increased anti-oxidant enzyme levels in the liver. Development of hepatic tumors, including liver cell adenoma and HCC, and hepatic pre-neoplastic lesions was significantly inhibited by SA supplementation. In conclusion, oral SA supplementation improves liver steatosis, insulin resistance, chronic inflammation, and oxidative stress, preventing the development of liver tumorigenesis in obese and diabetic mice. SA may have ability to suppress steatosis-related liver carcinogenesis in obese and diabetic subjects.
Project description:Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common form of chronic liver disease in developed countries. NAFLD describes a wide range of liver pathologies from simple steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and cirrhosis. NASH is distinguished from simple steatosis by inflammation, cell death and fibrosis. In this study we found that mice lacking triacylglycerol hydrolase (TGH, also known as carboxylesterase 3 or carboxylesterase 1d) are protected from high-fat diet (HFD) - induced hepatic steatosis via decreased lipogenesis, increased fatty acid oxidation and improved hepatic insulin sensitivity. To examine the effect of the loss of TGH function on the more severe NAFLD form NASH, we ablated Tgh expression in two independent NASH mouse models, Pemt(-/-) mice fed HFD and Ldlr(-/-) mice fed high-fat, high-cholesterol Western-type diet (WTD). TGH deficiency reduced liver inflammation, oxidative stress and fibrosis in Pemt(-/-) mice. TGH deficiency also decreased NASH in Ldlr(-/-) mice. Collectively, these findings indicate that TGH deficiency attenuated both simple hepatic steatosis and irreversible NASH.
Project description:The innate immune system plays a major role in the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Recently we reported complement activation in human NASH. However, it remained unclear whether the alternative pathway of complement, which amplifies C3 activation and which is frequently associated with pathological complement activation leading to disease, was involved. Here, alternative pathway components were investigated in liver biopsies of obese subjects with healthy livers (n?=?10) or with NASH (n?=?12) using quantitative PCR, Western blotting, and immunofluorescence staining. Properdin accumulated in areas where neutrophils surrounded steatotic hepatocytes, and colocalized with the C3 activation product C3c. C3 activation status as expressed by the C3c/native C3 ratio was 2.6-fold higher (p<0.01) in subjects with NASH despite reduced native C3 concentrations (0.94±0.12 vs. 0.57±0.09; p<0.01). Hepatic properdin levels positively correlated with levels of C3c (rs?=?0.69; p<0.05) and C3c/C3 activation ratio (rs?=?0.59; p<0.05). C3c, C3 activation status (C3c/C3 ratio) and properdin levels increased with higher lobular inflammation scores as determined according to the Kleiner classification (C3c: p<0.01, C3c/C3 ratio: p<0.05, properdin: p<0.05). Hepatic mRNA expression of factor B and factor D did not differ between subjects with healthy livers and subjects with NASH (factor B: 1.00±0.19 vs. 0.71±0.07, p?=?0.26; factor D: 1.00±0.21 vs. 0.66±0.14, p?=?0.29;). Hepatic mRNA and protein levels of Decay Accelerating Factor tended to be increased in subjects with NASH (mRNA: 1.00±0.14 vs. 2.37±0.72; p?=?0.22; protein: 0.51±0.11 vs. 1.97±0.67; p?=?0.28). In contrast, factor H mRNA was downregulated in patients with NASH (1.00±0.09 vs. 0.71±0.06; p<0.05) and a similar trend was observed with hepatic protein levels (1.12±0.16 vs. 0.78±0.07; p?=?0.08). Collectively, these data suggest a role for alternative pathway activation in driving hepatic inflammation in NASH. Therefore, alternative pathway factors may be considered attractive targets for treating NASH by inhibiting complement activation.
Project description:<b>Background:</b>The prevalence of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) in menopausal women is increasing, but current treatments have not been proven effective. The objective of this study was to investigate the treatment effects of genistein and running exercise in ovariectomized (OVX) rats with NASH.<br><br><b>Methods:</b>Thirty-six female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 6 groups, control; OVX with standard diet; OVX with high fat and high fructose (HFHF) diet for 4?weeks; OVX with HFHF and genistein treatment (16?mg/kg BW/day) for 5?weeks (OVX?+?HFHF+GEN); OVX with HFHF and moderate intensity exercise for 5?weeks (OVX?+?HFHF+EX); OVX with HFHF and combined treatments (OVX?+?HFHF+GEN?+?EX). Serum interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels, hepatic free fatty acid (FFA), hepatic glutathione (GSH), and hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were measured. Liver histology was examined to determine NASH severity.<br><br><b>Results:</b>OVX?+?HFHF group had the highest levels of hepatic FFA compared with OVX and control groups (5.92?±?0.84 vs. 0.37?±?0.01 vs. 0.42?±?0.04?nmol/mg protein, respectively, p?<?0.01). Serum IL-6 levels were significantly elevated in both OVX and OVX?+?HFHF groups as compared with controls (112.13?±?6.50 vs. 121.47?±?3.96 vs. 86.13?±?2.40?pg/mL, respectively, p?<?0.01). In OVX?+?HFHF group, hepatic MDA levels were higher, while GSH levels were lower than in OVX and control groups (MDA; 0.98?±?0.04 vs. 0.82?±?0.02 vs. 0.78?±?0.03?nmol/mg protein, and GSH; 46.01?±?0.91 vs. 55.21?±?1.40 vs. 57.94?±?0.32, respectively; p?<?0.01 for both). Comparing with OVX?+?HFHF group, rats that received genistein, exercise and combined treatments demonstrated an improvement in liver histopathology, decreased levels of hepatic FFA (1.44?±?0.21 vs. 0.45?±?0.04 vs. 0.49?±?0.05?nmol/mg protein, respectively, p?<?0.01), serum IL-6 (82.80?±?2.07 vs. 83.47?±?2.81 vs. 94.13?±?1.61?pg/mL, respectively, p?<?0.01), and hepatic MDA (0.80?±?0.03 vs. 0.76?±?0.02 vs. 0.76?±?0.03?nmol/mg protein, respectively, p?<?0.01).<br><br><b>Conclusions:</b>Genistein and moderate intensity exercise were effective in reducing the severity of NASH in OVX rats through the reduction in liver inflammation, oxidative stress and liver fat contents.
Project description:Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) represents the most common liver disease in Western countries and often progresses to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) leading ultimately to liver fibrosis and liver cancer. The occurrence of hepatocyte cell death-so far characterized as hepatocyte apoptosis-represents a fundamental step from benign steatosis toward progressive steatohepatitis. In contrast, the function of RIP3-dependent "necroptosis" in NASH and NASH-induced fibrosis is currently unknown. We show that RIP3 is upregulated in human NASH and in a dietary mouse model of steatohepatitis. RIP3 mediates liver injury, inflammation, induction of hepatic progenitor cells/activated cholangiocytes, and liver fibrosis through a pathway suppressed by Caspase-8. This function of RIP3 is mediated by a positive feedback loop involving activation of Jun-(N)-terminal Kinase (JNK). Furthermore, RIP3-dependent JNK activation promotes the release of pro-inflammatory mediators like MCP-1, thereby attracting macrophages to the injured liver and further augmenting RIP3-dependent signaling, cell death, and liver fibrosis. Thus, RIP3-dependent necroptosis controls NASH-induced liver fibrosis. This pathway might represent a novel and specific target for pharmacological strategies in patients with NASH.
Project description:BACKGROUND & AIMS:Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a consequence of defects in diverse metabolic pathways that involve hepatic accumulation of triglycerides. Features of these aberrations might determine whether NAFLD progresses to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). We investigated whether the diverse defects observed in patients with NAFLD are caused by different NAFLD subtypes with specific serum metabolomic profiles, and whether these can distinguish patients with NASH from patients with simple steatosis. METHODS:We collected liver and serum from methionine adenosyltransferase 1a knockout (MAT1A-KO) mice, which have chronically low levels of hepatic S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe) and spontaneously develop steatohepatitis, as well as C57Bl/6 mice (controls); the metabolomes of all samples were determined. We also analyzed serum metabolomes of 535 patients with biopsy-proven NAFLD (353 with simple steatosis and 182 with NASH) and compared them with serum metabolomes of mice. MAT1A-KO mice were also given SAMe (30 mg/kg/day for 8 weeks); liver samples were collected and analyzed histologically for steatohepatitis. RESULTS:Livers of MAT1A-KO mice were characterized by high levels of triglycerides, diglycerides, fatty acids, ceramides, and oxidized fatty acids, as well as low levels of SAMe and downstream metabolites. There was a correlation between liver and serum metabolomes. We identified a serum metabolomic signature associated with MAT1A-KO mice that also was present in 49% of the patients; based on this signature, we identified 2 NAFLD subtypes. We identified specific panels of markers that could distinguish patients with NASH from patients with simple steatosis for each subtype of NAFLD. Administration of SAMe reduced features of steatohepatitis in MAT1A-KO mice. CONCLUSIONS:In an analysis of serum metabolomes of patients with NAFLD and MAT1A-KO mice with steatohepatitis, we identified 2 major subtypes of NAFLD and markers that differentiate steatosis from NASH in each subtype. These might be used to monitor disease progression and identify therapeutic targets for patients.
Project description:Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a progressive form of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) that can develop into liver cirrhosis and cancer. Elongation of very long chain fatty acids (ELOVL) family member 6 (Elovl6) is a microsomal enzyme that regulates the elongation of C12-16 saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids (FAs). We have previously shown that Elovl6 plays an important role in the development of hepatic insulin resistance and NASH by modifying FA composition. Recent studies have linked altered hepatic cholesterol homeostasis and cholesterol accumulation to the pathogenesis of NASH. In the present study, we further investigated the role of Elovl6 in the progression of lithogenic diet (LD)-induced steatohepatitis. We showed that the absence of Elovl6 suppresses hepatic lipid accumulation, plasma total cholesterol and total bile acid (BA) levels in LDL receptor-deficient (Ldlr(-/-)) mice challenged with a LD. The absence of Elovl6 also decreases hepatic inflammation, oxidative stress and liver injury, but increases the formation of cholesterol crystals in the less dilated gallbladder. These findings suggest that Elovl6-mediated changes in hepatic FA composition, especially oleic acid (C18:1n-9), control handling of hepatic cholesterol and BA, which protects against hepatotoxicity and steatohepatitis, but promotes gallstone formation in LD-fed Ldlr(-/-) mice.
Project description:Alcoholic steatohepatitis (ASH) and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) are among the most frequent causes of chronic liver disease in the United States. Although the two entities are triggered by different etiologies - chronic alcohol consumption (ASH) and obesity-associated lipotoxicity (NASH) - they share overlapping histological and clinical features owing to common pathogenic mechanisms. These pathogenic processes include altered hepatocyte lipid metabolism, organelle dysfunction (i.e., ER stress), hepatocyte apoptosis, innate immune system activation, and hepatic stellate cell activation. Nonetheless, there are several disease-specific molecular signaling pathways, such as differential pathway activation downstream of TLR4 (MyD88-dependence in NASH versus MyD88-independence in ASH), inflammasome activation and IL-1β signaling in ASH, insulin resistance and lipotoxicity in NASH, and dysregulation of different microRNAs, which clearly highlight that ASH and NASH are two distinct biological entities. Both pathogenic similarities and differences have therapeutic implications. In this Review, we discuss these pathogenic mechanisms and their therapeutic implications for each disease, focusing on both shared and distinct targets.
Project description:The liver lies at the intersection of multiple metabolic pathways and consequently plays a central role in lipid metabolism. Pathological disturbances in hepatic lipid metabolism are characteristic of chronic metabolic diseases, such as obesity-mediated insulin resistance, which can result in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Tissue damage induced in NAFLD activates and recruits liver-resident and non-resident immune cells, resulting in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Importantly, NASH is associated with an increased risk of significant clinical sequelae such as cirrhosis, cardiovascular diseases, and malignancies. In this review, we describe the immunopathogenesis of NASH by defining the known functions of immune cells in the progression and resolution of disease.
Project description:Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a leading cause of liver disease worldwide. However, the molecular basis of how benign steatosis progresses to NASH is incompletely understood, which has limited the identification of therapeutic targets. Here we show that the transcription regulator TAZ (WWTR1) is markedly higher in hepatocytes in human and murine NASH liver than in normal or steatotic liver. Most importantly, silencing of hepatocyte TAZ in murine models of NASH prevented or reversed hepatic inflammation, hepatocyte death, and fibrosis, but not steatosis. Moreover, hepatocyte-targeted expression of TAZ in a model of steatosis promoted NASH features, including fibrosis. In vitro and in vivo mechanistic studies revealed that a key mechanism linking hepatocyte TAZ to NASH fibrosis is TAZ/TEA domain (TEAD)-mediated induction of Indian hedgehog (Ihh), a secretory factor that activates fibrogenic genes in hepatic stellate cells. In summary, TAZ represents a previously unrecognized factor that contributes to the critical process of steatosis-to-NASH progression.