Single-Anastomosis Duodenal Jejunal Bypass Improve Glucose Metabolism by Regulating Gut Microbiota and Short-Chain Fatty Acids in Goto-Kakisaki Rats.
ABSTRACT: In recent years, bariatric surgery has emerged as a promising treatment for type 2 diabetes. Bariatric surgery is known to cause alterations in the relative abundance and composition of gut microbiota, which may lead to alterations in the levels of Short-Chain Fatty Acids (SCFAs) that are produced during fermentation by gut microbes. However, little is known about the mechanism of improved glucose metabolism mediated by gut microbiota following bariatric surgery. The aim of our study was to explore whether changes in gut microbiota and in fecal SCFA could be detected following single-anastomosis duodenal jejunal bypass (DJB-sa) surgery, a type of bariatric surgery, and whether these alterations might be related to the improvement of glucose metabolism. To this end, we performed DJB-sa or SHAM surgery on Goto-Kakisaki (GK) rats. We then compared the glucose metabolism as well as changes in gut microbiota and SCFAs levels between both groups. Our results showed that DJB-sa surgery was associated with a significant decrease in fasting blood glucose (FBG), intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT), and fasting serum insulin (FSI). And, DJB-sa led to a change in the composition of gut microbiota including an increase in the relative abundance of SCFA-producing bacteria (Bifidobacterium and Subdoligranulum). Moreover, the levels of six SCFAs in feces, as well as the intestinal expression of SCFA receptors including G-protein-coupled receptor 41 (GPR41), G-protein-coupled receptor 43 (GPR43), and G-protein-coupled receptor 109A (GPR109A), and the expression of Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) displayed a significant increase following DJB-sa compared with the Sham group. Thus, the gut microbiota may contribute to the improvement of glucose metabolism in type 2 diabetes following DJB-sa. In conclusion, our study shows that DJB-sa improves glucose metabolism by modulating gut microbiota and by increasing short-chain fatty acid production.
Project description:Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) and duodenal jejunal bypass (DJB), two different forms of bariatric surgery, are associated with improved glucose tolerance, but it is not clear whether the gut microbiota contributes to this effect. Here we used fa/fa rats as a model of impaired glucose tolerance to investigate whether (i) the microbiota varies between fa/fa and nondiabetic fa/+ rats; (ii) the microbiota of fa/fa rats is affected by RYGB and/or DJB; and (iii) surgically induced microbiota alterations contribute to glucose metabolism. We observed a profound expansion of Firmicutes (specifically, Lactobacillus animalis and Lactobacillus reuteri) in the small intestine of diabetic fa/fa compared with nondiabetic fa/+ rats. RYGB-, but not DJB-, treated fa/fa rats exhibited greater microbiota diversity in the ileum and lower L. animalis and L. reuteri abundance compared with sham-operated fa/fa rats in all intestinal segments, and their microbiota composition resembled that of unoperated fa/+ rats. To investigate the functional role of RYGB-associated microbiota alterations, we transferred microbiota from sham- and RYGB-treated fa/fa rats to germ-free mice. The metabolic phenotype of RYGB-treated rats was not transferred by the transplant of ileal microbiota. In contrast, postprandial peak glucose levels were lower in mice that received cecal microbiota from RYGB- versus sham-operated rats. Thus, diabetes-associated microbiota alterations in fa/fa rats can be modified by RYGB, and modifications in the cecal microbiota may partially contribute to improved glucose tolerance after RYGB.
Project description:Objective: Bariatric surgery can profoundly improve glucose and lipid metabolism in diabetic rats. Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is an important hormone with multiple metabolic beneficial effects. Alteration in serum FGF21 level after bariatric surgery has been reported with conflicting results. Here, we investigated the effect of bariatric surgeries on FGF21 expression and sensitivity. Methods: We performed duodenal-jejunal bypass (DJB), sleeve gastrectomy (SG) and sham surgery in diabetic rats induced by high fat diet and streptozotocin. Metabolic parameters, including body weight, food intake, glucose tolerance, and lipid profiles, were monitored. FGF21 levels in both serum and liver were measured after surgery. FGF21 signaling pathway including FGF receptor 1 (FGFR1), ?-klotho (KLB), and phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) was detected in the liver and white adipose tissue (WAT). We also determined FGF21 sensitivity post-operatively by acute recombinant human FGF21 injection. Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and insulin tolerance test (ITT) were conducted immediately after FGF21 injection. Serum triglyceride (TG) and non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) were measured and the mRNA levels of early growth response 1 (Egr1) and c-Fos in the liver and WAT were detected after FGF21 injection. Results: Improvements in glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity, and lipid profiles were observed after bariatric surgeries along with ameliorated lipid metabolism in the liver and WAT. Serum and hepatic FGF21 levels decreased in both DJB and SG groups. FGFR1 and phosphorylated ERK1/2 levels increased in both DJB and SG groups 8 weeks after surgery. The expression of KLB was downregulated only in the WAT after DJB and SG. Significant alteration of OGTT and ITT were observed after acute FGF21 administration in DJB and SG groups. Serum TG and NEFA in DJB and SG groups also decreased after FGF21 administration. And increased mRNA levels of Egr1 and c-Fos were detected in the liver and WAT after DJB and SG surgeries. Conclusions: DJB and SG surgeries can downregulate hepatic expression of FGF21, restore FGF21 signaling pathway and improve FGF21 sensitivity in high-fat diet/streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.
Project description:Fiber fermentation by gut microbiota yields short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) that are either absorbed by the gut or excreted in feces. Studies are conflicting as to whether SCFAs are beneficial or detrimental to cardiometabolic health, and how gut microbiota associated with SCFAs is unclear. In this study of 441 community-dwelling adults, we examined associations of fecal SCFAs, gut microbiota diversity and composition, gut permeability, and cardiometabolic outcomes, including obesity and hypertension. We assessed fecal microbiota by 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and SCFA concentrations by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Fecal SCFA concentrations were inversely associated with microbiota diversity, and 70 unique microbial taxa were differentially associated with at least one SCFA (acetate, butyrate or propionate). Higher SCFA concentrations were associated with a measure of gut permeability, markers of metabolic dysregulation, obesity and hypertension. Microbial diversity showed association with these outcomes in the opposite direction. Associations were significant after adjusting for measured confounders. In conclusion, higher SCFA excretion was associated with evidence of gut dysbiosis, gut permeability, excess adiposity, and cardiometabolic risk factors. Studies assessing both fecal and circulating SCFAs are needed to test the hypothesis that the association of higher fecal SCFAs with obesity and cardiometabolic dysregulation is due to less efficient SCFA absorption.
Project description:In recent years, short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) have been reported to play an important role in maintaining human health. Fecal SCFA concentrations correlate well with colonic SCFA status and gut microbiota composition. However, the associations with the gut microbiota functional pathway, dietary intake, blood SCFAs, and fecal SCFAs remain uncertain. To clarify these relationships, we collected fecal samples, blood samples, and dietary habit data from 12 healthy adults aged 22-51 years. The relative abundance of several SCFA-producing bacteria, gut microbiota diversity, and functional pathways related to SCFA biosynthesis were positively associated with fecal SCFAs even after adjusting for age and sex. Furthermore, fecal acetate was likely to be positively associated with serum acetate. By contrast, dietary intake was not associated with fecal SCFAs. Overall, the present study highlights the potential usefulness of fecal SCFAs as an indicator of the gut microbiota ecosystem and dynamics of SCFAs in the human body.
Project description:We assessed the gut microbial ecology of 11 severely obese patients before and after bilio-intestinal bypass (BIB). Fecal samples were evaluated for microbial communities using 16S rDNA Illumina sequencing, real-time PCR targeting functional genes, and gas chromatography of short chain fatty acids (SCFAs). At 6 months after surgery, subjects exhibited significant improvements in metabolic markers (body weight, glucose, and lipid metabolism) compared with baseline. The fecal microbiota of post-surgery individuals was characterized by an overall decrease of bacterial diversity, with a significant reduction in Lachnospiraceae, Clostridiaceae, Ruminococcaceae, Eubacteriaceae, and Coriobacteriaceae. On the contrary, there were significant increases of genera Lactobacillus, Megasphaera, and Acidaminococcus and the family Enterobacteriaceae. The pH was decreased in fecal samples from patients after BIB and SCFA profiles were altered, with lower percentages of acetate and propionate and higher levels of valerate and hexanoate. Some changes in the bacterial populations were associated with variations in the patients' metabolic health parameters, namely Gemmiger and glucose, Lactobacillus and glucose, and Faecalibacterium and triglycerides. The results from this study of BIB patients furthers our understanding of the composition of gut microbiota and the functional changes that may be involved in improving obesity-related conditions following weight-loss surgery.
Project description:Background:Dietary fiber, including inulin, promotes health via fermentation products, such as short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), produced from the fiber by gut microbiota. SCFAs exert positive physiological effects on energy metabolism, gut immunity, and the nervous system. Most of the commercial inulin is extracted from plant sources such as chicory roots, but it can also be enzymatically synthesized from sucrose using inulin producing enzymes. Studies conducted on rodents fed with a cafeteria diet have suggested that while increasing plasma propionic acid, synthetic inulin modulates glucose and lipid metabolism in the same manner as natural inulin. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the effects of a synthetic inulin, Fuji FF, on energy metabolism, fecal SCFA production, and microbiota profiles in mice fed with a high-fat/high-sucrose diet. Methods:Three-week-old male C57BL/6J mice were fed a high-fat/high-sucrose diet containing cellulose or Fuji FF for 12 weeks, and the effects on energy metabolism, SCFA production, and microbiota profiles were evaluated. Results:Body weight gain was inhibited by Fuji FF supplementation in high-fat/high-sucrose diet-fed C57BL/6J mice by reducing white adipose tissue weight while increasing energy expenditure, compared with the mice supplemented with cellulose. Fuji FF also elevated levels of acetic, propionic and butyric acids in mouse feces and increased plasma propionic acid levels in mice. Moreover, 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing of fecal samples revealed an elevated abundance of Bacteroidetes and a reduced abundance of Firmicutes at the phylum level in mice supplemented with Fuji FF compared to those supplemented with cellulose. Fuji FF also resulted in abundance of the family Bacteroidales S24-7 and reduction of Desulfovibrionaceae in the feces. Conclusion:Long term consumption of Fuji FF improved the gut environment in mice by altering the composition of the microbiota and increasing SCFA production, which might be associated with its anti-obesity effects.
Project description:Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs, mainly acetate, propionate, and butyrate), which are primarily derived from the gut microbiome, may exert anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects, and regulate energy homeostasis. It has been suggested that weight loss may affect SCFA metabolism, but a systematic review of intervention studies is lacking. We aimed to systematically assess the effects of dietary, physical activity-based, and surgical weight-loss interventions among overweight [body mass index (BMI) 25-29.9 kg/m2)] or obese (BMI ?30 kg/m2) adults (?18 y) on concentrations of acetate, propionate, butyrate, and total SCFAs in blood, urine, or feces. We conducted a systematic literature search in PubMed, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) up to April 30, 2018 for randomized and nonrandomized weight-loss trials among overweight or obese adults, in which the concentrations of individual and total SCFAs were assessed. A total of 9 studies consisting of 2 randomized parallel-arm trials, 4 crossover trials, and 3 nonrandomized clinical or surgical trials were included. In the majority of studies, changes in fecal SCFA concentrations were assessed, whereas changes in serum SCFAs were reported from 1 trial. Individual and total SCFA concentrations either remained unchanged or decreased significantly following weight loss. Three of the dietary interventions that resulted in decreased SCFA concentrations were low (?5% of energy) in total carbohydrates. Most of the studies had a high risk of bias. Decreases in SCFA concentrations may accompany weight loss induced by bariatric surgery or dietary restriction among overweight or obese adults, particularly when carbohydrate intake is reduced. However, findings were inconsistent and based on studies with high to unclear risk of bias, and small sample sizes. Because measurements of fecal SCFAs may not be ideal due to limited sample standardization, well-powered trials with repeated blood measurements of SCFAs are required. This review was registered at PROSPERO as CRD42018088716.
Project description:Male Tsumura Suzuki obese diabetes (TSOD) mice spontaneously develop obesity and obesity-related metabolic syndrome. Gut dysbiosis, an imbalance of gut microbiota, has been implicated in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome, but its mechanisms are unknown. Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) are the main fermentation products of gut microbiota and a link between the gut microbiota and the host's physiology. Here, we investigated a correlation among gut dysbiosis, SCFAs, and metabolic syndrome in TSOD mice. We detected enriched levels of Gram-positive bacteria and corresponding decreases in Gram-negative bacteria in 24-wk-old metabolic syndrome-affected TSOD mice compared with age-matched controls. The abundance of Bacteroidetes species decreased, the abundance of Firmicutes species increased, and nine genera of bacteria were altered in 24-wk-old TSOD mice. The total plasma SCFA level was significantly lower in the TSOD mice than in controls. The major plasma SCFA-acetate-decreased in TSOD mice, whereas propionate and butyrate increased. TSOD mice had no minor SCFAs (valerate and hexanoate) but normal mice did. We thus concluded that gut dysbiosis and consequent disruptions in plasma SCFA profiles occurred in metabolic syndrome-affected TSOD mice. We also propose that the TSOD mouse is a useful model to study gut dysbiosis, SCFAs, and metabolic syndrome.
Project description:Gut microbiota and its metabolites, short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), play important roles in diarrheal diseases. Gegen Qinlian decoction (GQD), a Chinese herb formula, has been widely used to treat infectious diarrhea for centuries. However, little is known about the mechanism underlying its efficacy and whether it is mediated by gut microbiota and SCFAs. In this study, the composition of gut microbiota from bacterial diarrheal piglets was assessed using 16S rRNA analysis. The concentrations of fecal SCFAs were determined using a gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS). The expression of mucosal pro-inflammatory cytokines in the colon was ascertained. Results showed that GQD reverses the reduction in the richness of gut microbiota, changes its structure, and significantly increases the relative abundances of SCFA-producing bacteria, including <i>Akkermansia, Bacteroides, Clostridium, Ruminococcus</i>, and <i>Phascolarctobacterium</i>. Moreover, GQD increased the levels of fecal SCFAs, including acetic acid, propionic acid, and butyric acid. GQD thus attenuates diarrhea in piglets. Further, our results suggest that the SCFAs could help to attenuate mucosal pro-inflammatory responses following GQD treatment by inhibiting histone deacetylase and the NF-?B pathway. We thus suggseted that gut microbiota play an important role during diarrhea treatment, an effect may be promoted by the GQD-induced structural changes of the gut microbial community and production of SCFAs. The increased levels of SCFAs probably provide further help to attenuate mucosal inflammation and diarrhea. In conclusion, our study might provide evidence that GQD treats diarrhea maybe involved in modulating gut microbiota and increasing SCFA levels.
Project description:Bariatric surgery is highly successful in improving health compared to conventional dietary treatments. It has been suggested that the gut microbiota is a relevant factor in weight loss after bariatric surgery. Considering that bariatric procedures cause different rearrangements of the digestive tract, they probably have different effects on the gut microbiota. In this study, we compared the impact of medical treatment, sleeve gastrectomy and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass on the gut microbiota from obese subjects. Anthropometric and clinical parameters were registered before, 6 and 12 months after treatment. Fecal samples were collected and microbiota composition was studied before and six months post treatment using 16S rRNA gene sequencing and qPCR. In comparison to dietary treatment, changes in intestinal microbiota were more pronounced in patients subjected to surgery, observing a bloom in Proteobacteria. Interestingly, Bacteroidetes abundance was largely different after six months of each surgical procedure. Furthermore, changes in weight and BMI, or glucose metabolism, correlated positively with changes in these two phyla in these surgical procedures. These results indicate that distinct surgical procedures alter the gut microbiota differently, and changes in gut microbiota might contribute to health improvement. This study contributes to our understanding of the impact of weight loss surgery on the gut microbiota, and could be used to replicate this effect using targeted therapies.