Nrf2 Suppresses Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in App Knock-In Alzheimer's Disease Model Mice.
ABSTRACT: Nrf2 (NF-E2-related-factor 2) is a stress-responsive transcription factor that protects cells against oxidative stresses. To clarify whether Nrf2 prevents Alzheimer's disease (AD), AD model AppNL-G-F/NL-G-F knock-in (AppNLGF ) mice were studied in combination with genetic Nrf2 induction model Keap1FA/FA mice. While AppNLGF mice displayed shorter latency to escape than wild-type mice in the passive-avoidance task, the impairment was improved in AppNLGF ::Keap1FA/FA mice. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-mass spectrometry imaging revealed that reduced glutathione levels were elevated by Nrf2 induction in AppNLGF ::Keap1FA/FA mouse brains compared to AppNLGF mouse brains. Genetic Nrf2 induction in AppNLGF mice markedly suppressed the elevation of the oxidative stress marker 8-OHdG and Iba1-positive microglial cell number. We also determined the plasmalogen-phosphatidylethanolamine (PlsPE) level as an AD biomarker. PlsPE containing polyunsaturated fatty acids was decreased in the AppNLGF mouse brain, but Nrf2 induction attenuated this decline. To evaluate whether pharmacological induction of Nrf2 elicits beneficial effects for AD treatment, we tested the natural compound 6-MSITC [6-(methylsulfinyl)hexyl isothiocyanate]. Administration of 6-MSITC improved the impaired cognition of AppNLGF mice in the passive-avoidance task. These results demonstrate that the induction of Nrf2 ameliorates cognitive impairment in the AD model mouse by suppressing oxidative stress and neuroinflammation, suggesting that Nrf2 is an important therapeutic target of AD.
Project description:Failure to translate successful neuroprotective preclinical data to a clinical setting in Alzheimer's disease (AD) indicates that amyloidopathy and tauopathy alone provide an incomplete view of disease. We have tested here the relevance of additional homeostatic deviations that result from loss of activity of transcription factor NRF2, a crucial regulator of multiple stress responses whose activity declines with ageing. A transcriptomic analysis demonstrated that NRF2-KO mouse brains reproduce 7 and 10 of the most dysregulated pathways of human ageing and AD brains, respectively. Then, we generated a mouse that combines amyloidopathy and tauopathy with either wild type (AT-NRF2-WT) or NRF2-deficiency (AT-NRF2-KO). AT-NRF2-KO brains presented increased markers of oxidative stress and neuroinflammation as well as higher levels of insoluble phosphorylated-TAU and A?*56 compared to AT-NRF2-WT mice. Young adult AT-NRF2-KO mice exhibited deficits in spatial learning and memory and reduced long term potentiation in the perforant pathway. This study demonstrates the relevance of normal homeostatic responses that decline with ageing, such as NRF2 activity, in the protection against proteotoxic, inflammatory and oxidative stress and provide a new strategy to fight AD.
Project description:Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an age-related neurodegenerative disorder with cognitive deficits, which is becoming markedly more common in the world. Currently, the exact cause of AD is still unclear, and no curative therapy is available for preventing or mitigating the disease progression. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), a natural phenolic compound derived from honeybee hive propolis, has been reported as a potential therapeutic agent against AD, while its application is limited due to the low water solubility and poor bioavailability. Here, caffeic acid phenethyl ester 4-O-glucoside (FA-97) is synthesized. We validate that FA-97 attenuates H2O2-induced apoptosis in SH-SY5Y and PC12 cells and suppresses H2O2-induced oxidative stress by inhibiting the ROS level, malondialdehyde (MDA) level, and protein carbonylation level, as well as induces cellular glutathione (GSH) and superoxide dismutase (SOD). Mechanistically, FA-97 promotes the nuclear translocation and transcriptional activity of Nrf2 associated with the upregulated expression of HO-1 and NQO-1. The prime importance of Nrf2 activation in the neuroprotective and antioxidant effects of FA-97 is verified by Nrf2 siRNA transfection. In addition, FA-97 prevents scopolamine- (SCOP-) induced learning and memory impairments in vivo via reducing neuronal apoptosis and protecting against cholinergic system dysfunction in the hippocampus and cortex. Moreover, the increased MDA level and low total antioxidant capacity in SCOP-treated mouse brains are reversed by FA-97, with the increased expression of HO-1, NQO-1, and nuclear Nrf2. In conclusion, FA-97 protects against oxidative stress-mediated neuronal cell apoptosis and SCOP-induced cognitive impairment by activating Nrf2/HO-1 signaling, which might be developed as a therapeutic drug for AD.
Project description:There is increasing evidence for the involvement of chronic inflammation and oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is an anti-inflammatory transcription factor that regulates the oxidative stress defense. Our previous experiments demonstrated that kavalactones protect neuronal cells against Amyloid ? (A?)-induced oxidative stress in vitro by Nrf2 pathway activation. Here, we tested an in vivo kavalactone treatment in a mouse model of AD.The kavalactone methysticin was administered once a week for a period of 6 months to 6 month old transgenic APP/Psen1 mice by oral gavage. Nrf2 pathway activation was measured by methysticin treatment of ARE-luciferase mice, by qPCR of Nrf2-target genes and immunohistochemical detection of Nrf2. A? burden was analyzed by CongoRed staining, immunofluorescent detection and ELISA. Neuroinflammation was assessed by immunohistochemical stainings for microglia and astrocytes. Pro-inflammatory cytokines in the hippocampus was determined by Luminex multi-plex assays. The hippocampal oxidative damage was detected by oxyblot technique and immunohistochemical staining against DT3 and 4-HNE. The cognitive ability of mice was evaluated using Morris water maze.Methysticin treatment activated the Nrf2 pathway in the hippocampus and cortex of mice. The A? deposition in brains of methysticin-treated APP/Psen1 mice was not altered compared to untreated mice. However, methysticin treatment significantly reduced microgliosis, astrogliosis and secretion of the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-? and IL-17A. In addition, the oxidative damage of hippocampi from APP/Psen1 mice was reduced by methysticin treatment. Most importantly, methysticin treatment significantly attenuated the long-term memory decline of APP/Psen1 mice.In summary, these findings show that methysticin administration activates the Nrf2 pathway and reduces neuroinflammation, hippocampal oxidative damage and memory loss in a mouse model of AD. Therefore, kavalactones might be suitable candidates to serve as lead compounds for the development of a new class of neuroprotective drugs.
Project description:Carboxy-dehydroevodiamine·HCl (cx-DHED) is a derivative of DHED, which improves memory impairment. Carboxyl modification increases solubility in water, indicating that its bioavailability is higher than that of DHED. Cx-DHED is expected to have better therapeutic effects on Alzheimer's disease (AD) than DHED. In this study, we investigated the therapeutic effects of cx-DHED and the underlying mechanism in 5xFAD mice, transgenic (Tg) mouse model of AD model mice. In several behavioral tests, such as Y-maze, passive avoidance, and Morris water maze test, memory deficits improved significantly in cx-DHED-treated transgenic (Tg) mice compared with vehicle-treated Tg mice. We also found that AD-related pathologies, including amyloid plaque deposition and tau phosphorylation, were reduced after the treatment of Tg mice with cx-DHED. We determined the levels of synaptic proteins, such as GluN1, GluN2A, GluN2B, PSD-95 and Rabphilin3A, and Rab3A in the brains of mice of each group and found that GluN2A and PSD-95 were significantly increased in the brains of cx-DHED-treated Tg mice when compared with the brains of Tg-vehicle mice. These results suggest that cx-DHED has therapeutic effects on 5xFAD, AD model mice through the improvement of synaptic stabilization.
Project description:Age-related hearing loss (AHL) is a progressive sensorineural hearing loss in elderly people. Although no prevention or treatments have been established for AHL, recent studies have demonstrated that oxidative stress is closely related to pathogenesis of AHL, suggesting that suppression of oxidative stress leads to inhibition of AHL progression. NRF2 is a master transcription factor that regulates various antioxidant proteins and cytoprotection factors. To examine whether NRF2 pathway activation prevents AHL, we used Keap1-knockdown (Keap1FA/FA) mice, in which KEAP1, a negative regulator of NRF2, is decreased, resulting in the elevation of NRF2 activity. We compared 12-month-old Keap1FA/FA mice with age-matched wild-type (WT) mice in the same breeding colony. In the Keap1FA/FA mice, the expression levels of multiple NRF2 target genes were verified to be significantly higher than the expression levels of these genes in the WT mice. Histological analysis showed that cochlear degeneration at the apical and middle turns was ameliorated in the Keap1FA/FA mice. Auditory brainstem response (ABR) thresholds in the Keap1FA/FA mice were significantly lower than those in the WT mice, in particular at low–mid frequencies. Immunohistochemical detection of oxidative stress markers suggested that oxidative stress accumulation was attenuated in the Keap1FA/FA cochlea. Thus, we concluded that NRF2 pathway activation protects the cochlea from oxidative damage during aging, in particular at the apical and middle turns. KEAP1-inhibiting drugs and phytochemicals are expected to be effective in the prevention of AHL.
Project description:There is extensive evidence that oxidative stress induces cellular dysfunction in the brain and plays a critical role in Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis. Hypoxia increases factors involved in oxidative stress injury and contributes to the onset and progression of AD. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2), a major component regulating antioxidant response, is attenuated in the AD brain. Importantly, NRF2 directly regulates the alternative first exons of CD36, an important participant in oxidative and inflammatory processes. To explore the effects of hypoxia-induced deterioration of AD-like pathogenesis and investigate the correlation between hypoxia-induced NRF2 signal alterations and CD36 expression, we examined the NRF2 signaling, CD36, and oxidative stress events in hypoxia-treated APPswe/PSEN1dE9 (APP/PS1) mice brain.We observed that hypoxia treatment increased oxidative stress, exacerbated inflammation, and aggravated learning defects in aged APP/PS1 mice. Microglia from hypoxia-treated mice brain exhibited marked reduction in CD36 expression and inhibition of ?-amyloid (A?) degradation. Accordingly, hypoxia treatment caused a decrease in transactivation of NRF2 target genes in the aging mouse brain. Intranasal administration with a lentiviral vector encoding human NRF2 increased CD36 expression, ameliorated the weak antioxidant response triggered by hypoxia, diminished A? deposition, and improved spatial memory defects.In this study, we demonstrated for the first time that NRF2 intranasal treatment-induced increases of CD36 could enhance A? clearance in AD transgenic mouse.These results suggest that targeting NRF2-mediated CD36 expression might provide a beneficial intervention for cognitive impairment and oxidative stress in AD progression.
Project description:Introduction:Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most common neurodegenerative disorder, is characterized by the accumulation of amyloid-? (A?) peptide and hyperphosphorylated tau protein. Accumulating evidence has revealed that the slow progressive deterioration of AD is associated with oxidative stress and chronic inflammation in the brain. Nuclear factor erythroid 2- (NF-E2-) related factor 2 (Nrf2), which acts through the Nrf2/ARE pathway, is a key regulator of the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory response. Although recent data show a link between Nrf2 and AD-related cognitive decline, the mechanism is still unknown. Thus, we explored how Nrf2 protects brain cells against the oxidative stress and inflammation of AD in a mouse model of AD (APP/PS1 transgenic (AT) mice) with genetic removal of Nrf2. Methods:The spatial learning and memory abilities of 12-month-old transgenic mice were evaluated using a Morris water maze test. Hippocampal levels of Nrf2, A?, and p-tauS404 and of astrocytes and microglia were determined by immunostaining. Inflammatory cytokines were determined by ELISA and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Oxidative stress was measured by 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine immunohistochemistry, and the antioxidant response was determined by qRT-PCR. Results:The spatial learning and memory abilities of AT mice were impaired after Nrf2 deletion. A? and p-tauS404 accumulation was increased in the hippocampus of AT/Nrf2-KO mice. Astroglial and microglial activation was exacerbated, followed by upregulation of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1?, IL-6, and TNF-?. Conclusion:Our present results show that Nrf2 deficiency aggravates AD-like pathology in AT mice. This phenotype was associated with increased levels of oxidative and proinflammatory markers, which suggests that the Nrf2 pathway may be a promising therapeutic target for AD.
Project description:The amyloid hypothesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) postulates that amyloid-beta (Abeta) deposition and neurotoxicity play a causative role in AD; oxidative injury is thought to be central in the pathogenesis. An endogenous defense system against oxidative stress is induced by binding of the transcription factor nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) to the antioxidant response element (ARE) enhancer sequence. The Nrf2-ARE pathway is activated in response to reactive oxygen species to trigger the simultaneous expression of numerous protective enzymes and scavengers. To exploit the Nrf2-ARE pathway therapeutically, we delivered Nrf2 bilaterally into the hippocampus of 9-month-old transgenic AD mice (APP/PS1 mice) using a lentiviral vector encoding human Nrf2. The data indicate that significant reductions in spatial learning deficits of aged APP/PS1 mice in a Morris Water Maze can be achieved by modulating levels of Nrf2 in the brain. Memory improvement in APP/PS1 mice after Nrf2 transduction shifts the balance between soluble and insoluble Abeta toward an insoluble Abeta pool without concomitant change in total brain Abeta burden. Nrf2 gene transfer is associated with a robust reduction in astrocytic but not microglial activation and induction of Nrf2 target gene heme oxygenase 1, indicating overall activation of the Nrf2-ARE pathway in hippocampal neurons 6 months after injection. Results warrant further exploration of the Nrf2-ARE pathway for treatment of AD and suggest that the Nrf2-ARE pathway may represent a potential therapeutic strategy to pursue in AD in humans, particularly in view of the multiple mechanisms by which Nrf2 can exert its protective effects.
Project description:In this study, we evaluated the acute (24, 48, 72, and 96 h) and chronic (21 days) adverse effects induced by low doses (0.1, 0.5, 1, and 1.5 mg/L) of zinc chloride (ZnCl?) exposure in adult zebrafish by using behavioral endpoints like three-dimensional (3D) locomotion, passive avoidance, aggression, circadian rhythm, and predator avoidance tests. Also, brain tissues were dissected and subjected to analysis of multiple parameters related to oxidative stress, antioxidant responses, superoxide dismutase (SOD), neurotoxicity, and neurotransmitters. The results showed that ZnCl?-exposed fishes displayed decreased locomotor behavior and impaired short-term memory, which caused an Alzheimer's Disease (AD)-like syndrome. In addition, low concentrations of ZnCl? induced amyloid beta (amyloid ?) and phosphorylated Tau (p-Tau) protein levels in brains. In addition, significant induction in oxidative stress indices (reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malondialdehyde (MDA)), reduction in antioxidant defense system (glutathione (GSH), GSH peroxidase (GSH-Px) and SOD) and changes in neurotransmitters were observed at low concentrations of ZnCl?. Neurotoxic effects of ZnCl? were observed with significant inhibition of acetylcholine (ACh) activity when the exposure dose was higher than 1 ppm. Furthermore, we found that zinc, metallothionein (MT), and cortisol levels in brain were elevated compared to the control group. A significantly negative correlation was observed between memory and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity. In summary, these findings revealed that exposure to ZnCl? affected the behavior profile of zebrafish, and induced neurotoxicity which may be associated with damaged brain areas related to memory. Moreover, our ZnCl?-induced zebrafish model may have potential for AD-associated research in the future.
Project description:Oxidative stress triggers and exacerbates neurodegeneration in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Various antioxidants reduce oxidative stress, but these agents have little efficacy due to poor blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability. Additionally, single-modal antioxidants are easily overwhelmed by global oxidative stress. Activating nuclear factor erythroid 2 (NF-E2)-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and its downstream antioxidant system are considered very effective for reducing global oxidative stress. Thus far, only a few BBB-permeable agents activate the Nrf2-dependent antioxidant system. Here, we discovered a BBB-bypassing Nrf2-activating polysaccharide that may attenuate AD pathogenesis. Mini-GAGR, a 0.7-kDa cleavage product of low-acyl gellan gum, increased the levels and activities of Nrf2-dependent antioxidant enzymes, decreased reactive oxygen species (ROS) under oxidative stress in mouse cortical neurons, and robustly protected mitochondria from oxidative insults. Moreover, mini-GAGR increased the nuclear localization and transcriptional activity of Nrf2 similarly to known Nrf2 activators. Mechanistically, mini-GAGR increased the dissociation of Nrf2 from its inhibitor, Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1), and induced phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of Nrf2 in a protein kinase C (PKC)- and fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR1)-dependent manner. Finally, 20-day intranasal treatment of 3xTg-AD mice with 100 nmol of mini-GAGR increased nuclear p-Nrf2 and growth-associated protein 43 (GAP43) levels in hippocampal neurons, reduced p-tau and ?-amyloid (A?) peptide-stained neurons, and improved memory. The BBB-bypassing Nrf2-activating polysaccharide reported here may be effective in reducing oxidative stress and neurodegeneration in AD.