Novel sources of variation in grain Zinc (Zn) concentration in bread wheat germplasm derived from Watkins landraces.
ABSTRACT: A diverse panel of 245 wheat genotypes, derived from crosses between landraces from the Watkins collection representing global diversity in the early 20th century and the modern wheat cultivar Paragon, was grown at two field sites in the UK in 2015-16 and the concentrations of zinc and iron determined in wholegrain using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Zinc concentrations in wholegrain varied from 24-49 mg kg-1 and were correlated with iron concentration (r = 0.64) and grain protein content (r = 0.14). However, the correlation with yield was low (r = -0.16) indicating little yield dilution. A sub-set of 24 wheat lines were selected from 245 wheat genotypes and characterised for Zn and Fe concentrations in wholegrain and white flour over two sites and years. White flours from 24 selected lines contained 8-15 mg kg-1 of zinc, which was positively correlated with the wholegrain Zn concentration (r = 0.79, averaged across sites and years). This demonstrates the potential to exploit the diversity in landraces to increase the concentration of Zn in wholegrain and flour of modern high yielding bread wheat cultivars.
Project description:In this study, 321 winter and spring wheat genotypes were analysed for twelve nutritionally important minerals (B, Cu, Fe, Se, Mg, Zn, Ca, Mn, Mo, P, S and K). Some of the genotypes used were from multiple locations and years, resulting in a total number of 493 samples. Investigated genotypes were divided into six genotype groups i.e., selections, old landraces, primitive wheat, spelt, old cultivars and cultivars. For some of the investigated minerals higher concentrations were observed in selections, primitive wheat, and old cultivars as compared to more modern wheat material, e.g., cultivars and spelt wheat. Location was found to have a significant effect on mineral concentration for all genotype groups, although for primitive wheat, genotype had a higher impact than location. Spring wheat was observed to have significantly higher values for B, Cu, Fe, Zn, Ca, S and K as compared to winter wheat. Higher levels of several minerals were observed in the present study, as compared to previous studies carried out in inorganic systems, indicating that organic conditions with suitable genotypes may enhance mineral concentration in wheat grain. This study also showed that a very high mineral concentration, close to daily requirements, can be produced by growing specific primitive wheat genotypes in an organic farming system. Thus, by selecting genotypes for further breeding, nutritional value of the wheat flour for human consumption can be improved.
Project description:Improving zinc (Zn) content in wheat and its processed foods is an effective way to solve human Zn deficiency, which can cause a variety of diseases. This article summarizes the works on Zn in wheat grain, wheat processing, and wheat-derived foods. Grain Zn content in wheat was 31.84 mg·kg-1 globally but varied across continents, for example, 25.10 mg·kg-1 in Europe, 29.00 mg·kg-1 in Africa, 33.63 mg·kg-1 in Asia, and 33.91 mg·kg-1 in North America. Grain Zn content in wheat improved from 28.96 to 36.61 mg·kg-1 and that in flour increased from 10.51 to 14.82 mg·kg-1 after Zn fortification. Furthermore, Zn content varied in the different processed components of wheat; that is, Zn content was 12.58 mg·kg-1 in flour, 70.49 mg·kg-1 in shorts, and 86.45 mg·kg-1 in bran. Zinc content was also different in wheat-derived foods, such as 13.65 mg·kg-1 in baked food, 10.65 mg·kg-1 in fried food, and 8.03 mg·kg-1 in cooking food. Therefore, the suitable Zn fortification, appropriate processing, and food type of wheat are important to meet people's Zn requirement through wheat.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Biofortification of staple food crops with zinc (Zn) can be one of the cost-effective and sustainable strategies to combat zinc deficiency and prevent morbidity among the target population. Agronomic approaches such as application of Zn fertilizers to soil and/or foliar spray seem to be a practical tool for Zn biofortification of wheat. However, there is a need to evaluate its efficacy from randomized controlled trials. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of zinc biofortified wheat flour on zinc status and its impact on morbidity among children aged 4-6 years and non-pregnant non lactating woman of child bearing age (WCBA) in Delhi, India.<h4>Methods</h4>In a community based, double-masked randomized controlled trial, 6005 participants (WCBA and child pairs) were enrolled and randomly allocated to receive either high zinc biofortified wheat flour (HZn, 30 ppm zinc daily) or low zinc biofortified wheat flour (LZn, 20 ppm zinc daily) for 6 months (WCBA @ 360 g/day and children @ 120 g/day). Baseline and endline blood samples were obtained for assessing hematological markers; zinc status and data on compliance and morbidity were collected.<h4>Results</h4>Compliance rates were high; ~?88% of the WCBAs in both the groups consumed 50% or more of recommended amount of biofortfied wheat flour during the follow up. Similarly 86.9% children in HZn and 87.5% in LZn consumed 50% or more of recommended wheat flour intake. There was no significant difference in mean zinc levels between the groups at end study. This observation might be due to a marginal difference in zinc content (10 ppm) between the HZn and LZn wheat flour, and a short intervention period. However a positive impact of bio-fortification on self-reported morbidity was observed. Compared to children in LZn group, children in HZn group had 17% (95% CI: 6 to 31%, p?=?0.05) and 40% (95% CI: 16 to 57%; p?=?0.0019) reduction in days with pneumonia and vomiting respectively. WCBA in the HZn group also showed a statistically significant 9% fewer days with fever compared to LZn group.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Biofortified wheat flour had a good compliance among children and WCBAs. Significant improvement on some of the self-reported morbidity indicators suggests that evaluating longer-term effects of biofortification with higher grain zinc content would be more appropriate.<h4>Trial registration</h4>http://ctri.nic.in/Clinicaltrials/ , CTRI/2014/04/004527, Registered April 7, 2014.
Project description:Wheat is an important staple that acts as a primary source of dietary energy, protein, and essential micronutrients such as iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) for the world's population. Approximately two billion people suffer from micronutrient deficiency, thus breeders have crossed high Zn progenitors such as synthetic hexaploid wheat, T. dicoccum, T. spelta, and landraces to generate wheat varieties with competitive yield and enhanced grain Zn that are being adopted by farmers in South Asia. Here we report a genome-wide association study (GWAS) using the wheat Illumina iSelect 90 K Infinitum SNP array to characterize grain Zn concentrations in 330 bread wheat lines. Grain Zn phenotype of this HarvestPlus Association Mapping (HPAM) panel was evaluated across a range of environments in India and Mexico. GWAS analysis revealed 39 marker-trait associations for grain Zn. Two larger effect QTL regions were found on chromosomes 2 and 7. Candidate genes (among them zinc finger motif of transcription-factors and metal-ion binding genes) were associated with the QTL. The linked markers and associated candidate genes identified in this study are being validated in new biparental mapping populations for marker-assisted breeding.
Project description:Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is cultivated on more land than any other crop and produces a fifth of the calories consumed by humans. Wheat endosperm is rich in starch yet contains low concentrations of dietary iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn). Biofortification is a micronutrient intervention aimed at increasing the density and bioavailability of essential vitamins and minerals in staple crops; Fe biofortification of wheat has proved challenging. In this study we employed constitutive expression (CE) of the rice (Oryza sativa L.) nicotianamine synthase 2 (OsNAS2) gene in bread wheat to up-regulate biosynthesis of two low molecular weight metal chelators - nicotianamine (NA) and 2'-deoxymugineic acid (DMA) - that play key roles in metal transport and nutrition. The CE-OsNAS2 plants accumulated higher concentrations of grain Fe, Zn, NA and DMA and synchrotron X-ray fluorescence microscopy (XFM) revealed enhanced localization of Fe and Zn in endosperm and crease tissues, respectively. Iron bioavailability was increased in white flour milled from field-grown CE-OsNAS2 grain and positively correlated with NA and DMA concentrations.
Project description:Zinc (Zn) nutrition is of key relevance in India, as a large fraction of the population suffers from Zn malnutrition and many soils contain little plant available Zn. In this study we compared organic and conventional wheat cropping systems with respect to DTPA (diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid)-extractable Zn as a proxy for plant available Zn, yield, and grain Zn concentration. We analyzed soil and wheat grain samples from 30 organic and 30 conventional farms in Madhya Pradesh (central India), and conducted farmer interviews to elucidate sociological and management variables. Total and DTPA-extractable soil Zn concentrations and grain yield (3400 kg ha-1) did not differ between the two farming systems, but with 32 and 28 mg kg-1 respectively, grain Zn concentrations were higher on organic than conventional farms (t = -2.2, p = 0.03). Furthermore, multiple linear regression analyses revealed that (a) total soil zinc and sulfur concentrations were the best predictors of DTPA-extractable soil Zn, (b) Olsen phosphate taken as a proxy for available soil phosphorus, exchangeable soil potassium, harvest date, training of farmers in nutrient management, and soil silt content were the best predictors of yield, and (c) yield, Olsen phosphate, grain nitrogen, farmyard manure availability, and the type of cropping system were the best predictors of grain Zn concentration. Results suggested that organic wheat contained more Zn despite same yield level due to higher nutrient efficiency. Higher nutrient efficiency was also seen in organic wheat for P, N and S. The study thus suggests that appropriate farm management can lead to competitive yield and improved Zn concentration in wheat grains on organic farms.
Project description:Mycoremediation is an on-site remediation strategy, which employs fungi to degrade or sequester contaminants from the environment. The present work focused on the bioremediation of soils contaminated with zinc by the use of a native mycorrhizal fungi (AM) called Funneliformis geosporum (Nicol. & Gerd.) Walker & Schüßler. Experiments were performed using Triticum aestivum L. cv. Gemmeza-10 at different concentrations of Zn (50, 100, 200 mg kg-1) and inoculated with or without F. geosporum. The results showed that the dry weight of mycorrhizal wheat increased at Zn stressed plants as compared to the non-Zn-stressed control plants. The concentrations of Zn also had an inhibitory effect on the yield of dry root and shoot of non-mycorrhizal wheat. The photosynthetic pigment fractions were significantly affected by Zn treatments and mycorrhizal inoculation, where in all treatments, the content of the photosynthetic pigment fractions decreased as the Zn concentration increased in the soil. However, the level of minerals of shoots, roots, and grains was greatly influenced by Zn-treatment and by inoculation with F. geosporum. Treatment with Zn in the soil increased Cu and Zn concentrations in the root, shoot and grains, however, other minerals (P, S, K, Ca and Fe) concentration was decreased. Inoculation of wheat with AM fungi significantly reduced the accumulation of Zn and depressed its translocation in shoots and grains of wheat. In conclusion, inoculation with a native F. geosporum-improves yields of wheat under higher levels of Zn and is possible to be applied for the improvement of zinc contaminated soil.
Project description:The increasing [CO2] in the atmosphere increases crop productivity. However, grain quality of cereals and pulses are substantially decreased and consequently compromise human health. Meta-analysis techniques were employed to investigate the effect of elevated [CO2] (e[CO2]) on protein, zinc (Zn), and iron (Fe) concentrations of major food crops (542 experimental observations from 135 studies) including wheat, rice, soybean, field peas, and corn considering different levels of water and nitrogen (N). Each crop, except soybean, had decreased protein, Zn, and Fe concentrations when grown at e[CO2] concentration (?550 ?mol/mol) compared to ambient [CO2] (a[CO2]) concentration (?380 ?mol/mol). Grain protein, Zn, and Fe concentrations were reduced under e[CO2]; however, the responses of protein, Zn, and Fe concentrations to e[CO2] were modified by water stress and N. There was an increase in Fe concentration in soybean under medium N and wet conditions but nonsignificant. The reductions in protein concentrations for wheat and rice were ~5%-10%, and the reductions in Zn and Fe concentrations were ~3%-12%. For soybean, there was a small and nonsignificant increase of 0.37% in its protein concentration under medium N and dry water, while Zn and Fe concentrations were reduced by ~2%-5%. The protein concentration of field peas decreased by 1.7%, and the reductions in Zn and Fe concentrations were ~4%-10%. The reductions in protein, Zn, and Fe concentrations of corn were ~5%-10%. Bias in the dataset was assessed using a regression test and rank correlation. The analysis indicated that there are medium levels of bias within published meta-analysis studies of crops responses to free-air [CO2] enrichment (FACE). However, the integration of the influence of reporting bias did not affect the significance or the direction of the [CO2] effects.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Micronutrient deficiencies, commonly referred to as 'hidden hunger', affect more than two billion people worldwide, with zinc and iron-deficiency frequently reported. The aim of this study is to examine the impact of consuming zinc biofortified flour (Zincol-2016) on biochemical and functional measures of status in adolescent girls and children living in a low-resource setting in Pakistan. METHODS AND ANALYSIS:We are conducting a pragmatic, cluster-randomised, double-blind, controlled trial. A total of 482 households have been recruited from two catchment areas approximately 30-40 km distance from Peshawar. Household inclusion criteria are the presence of both an adolescent girl, aged 10-16 years, and a child aged 1-5 years. The study duration is 12 months, divided into two 6-month phases. During phase 1, all households will be provided with locally procured flour from standard varieties of wheat. During phase 2, clusters will be paired, and randomised to either the control or intervention arm of the study. The intervention arm will be provided with zinc biofortified wheat flour, with a target zinc concentration of 40 mg/kg. The control arm will be provided with locally procured wheat flour from standard varieties with an expected zinc concentration of 20 mg/kg. The primary outcome measure is plasma zinc concentration. Secondary outcomes include anthropometric measurements, biomarkers of iron and zinc status, and the presence and duration of respiratory tract infections and diarrhoea. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION:Ethical approval was granted from the University of Central Lancashire STEMH Ethics Committee (reference number: STEMH 1014) and Khyber Medical University Ethics Committee (DIR/KMU-EB/BZ/000683). The final study methods will be published in peer-reviewed journals, alongside the study outcomes. In addition, findings will be disseminated to the scientific community via conference presentations and abstracts and communicated to the study participants through the village elders at an appropriate community forum. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER:ISRCTN17107812; Pre-results.
Project description:Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is one of the major staple food crops worldwide. Despite efforts in improving wheat quality, micronutrient levels are still below the optimal range for human nutrition. In particular, zinc (Zn) deficiency is a widespread problem in human nutrition in countries relying mainly on a cereal diet; hence improving Zn accumulation in grains is an imperative need. This study was designed to understand the genetic architecture of Zn grain concentrations in wheat grains. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) for grain Zn concentrations in 369 European wheat genotypes, using field data from 3 years. The complete wheat panel was genotyped by high-density arrays of single nucleotide polymorphic (SNP) markers (90k iSELECT Infinium and 35k Affymetrix arrays) resulting in 15,523 polymorphic markers. Additionally, a subpanel of 183 genotypes was analyzed with a novel 135k Affymetrix marker array resulting in 28,710 polymorphic SNPs for high-resolution mapping of the potential genomic regions. The mean grain Zn concentration of the genotypes ranged from 25.05-52.67 ?g g-1 dry weight across years with a moderate heritability value. Notably, 40 marker-trait associations (MTAs) were detected in the complete panel of varieties on chromosomes 2A, 3A, 3B, 4A, 4D, 5A, 5B, 5D, 6D, 7A, 7B, and 7D. The number of MTAs in the subpanel was increased to 161 MTAs whereas the most significant and consistent associations were located on chromosomes 3B (723,504,241-723,611,488 bp) and 5A (462,763,758-466,582,184 bp) having major effects. These genomic regions include newly identified putative candidate genes, which are related to Zn uptake and transport or represent bZIP and mitogen-activated protein kinase genes. These findings provide the basis for understanding the genetic background of Zn concentration in wheat grains that in turn may help breeders to select high Zn-containing genotypes to improve human health and grain quality.