Yogurt consumption in relation to mortality from cardiovascular disease, cancer, and all causes: a prospective investigation in 2 cohorts of US women and men.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Although a link between regular yogurt consumption and mortality appears plausible, data are sparse and have yielded inconsistent results. OBJECTIVES:We examined the association between regular yogurt consumption and risk of all-cause and cause-specific mortality among US women and men. METHODS:A total of 82,348 women in the Nurses' Health Study and 40,278 men in the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study without a history of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer in 1980 (women) or 1986 (men) were followed up until 2012. Yogurt consumption was assessed by updated validated FFQs. RESULTS:During 3,354,957 person-years of follow-up, 20,831 women and 12,397 men died. Compared with no yogurt consumption, the multivariable-adjusted HRs (95% CIs) of mortality were 0.89 (0.86, 0.93), 0.85 (0.81, 0.89), 0.88 (0.84, 0.91), and 0.91 (0.85, 0.98) for ?1-3 servings/mo, 1 serving/wk, 2-4 servings/wk, and >4 servings/wk in women (P-trend = 0.34), respectively. For men, the corresponding HRs (95% CIs) were 0.99 (0.94, 1.03), 0.98 (0.91, 1.05), 1.04 (0.98, 1.10), and 1.05 (0.95, 1.16), respectively. We further noted inverse associations for cancer mortality (multivariable-adjusted HR comparing extreme categories: 0.87; 95% CI: 0.78, 0.98; P-trend = 0.04) and CVD mortality (HR: 0.92; 95% CI: 0.79, 1.08; P-trend = 0.41) in women, although the latter was attenuated in the multivariable-adjusted model. Replacement of 1 serving/d of yogurt with 1 serving/d of nuts (women and men) or whole grains (women) was associated with a lower risk of all-cause mortality, whereas replacement of yogurt with red meat, processed meat (women and men), and milk or other dairy foods (women) was associated with a greater mortality. CONCLUSIONS:In our study, regular yogurt consumption was related to lower mortality risk among women. Given that no clear dose-response relation was apparent, this result must be interpreted with caution.
Project description:Walnut consumption is associated with health benefits. We aimed to (1) examine the association between walnut consumption and mortality and (2) estimate life expectancy in relation to walnut consumption in U.S. adults. We included 67,014 women of the Nurses' Health Study (1998-2018) and 26,326 men of the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (1998-2018) who were free of cancer, heart disease, and stroke at baseline. We used Cox regression models to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). During up to 20 years of follow-up, we documented 30,263 deaths. The hazard ratios for total mortality across categories of walnut intake (servings/week), as compared to non-consumers, were 0.95 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.91, 0.98) for <1 serving/week, 0.94 (95% CI, 0.89, 0.99) for 1 serving/week, 0.87 (95% CI, 0.82, 0.93) for 2-4 servings/week, and 0.86 (95% CI, 0.79, 0.93) for >=5 servings/week (<i>p</i> for trend <0.0001). A greater life expectancy at age 60 (1.30 years in women and 1.26 years in men) was observed among those who consumed walnuts more than 5 servings/week compared to <i>non</i>-consumers. Higher walnut consumption was associated with a lower risk of total and CVD mortality and a greater gained life expectancy among U.S. elder adults.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Yogurt consumption and low-fat dairy consumption have been associated with reduced incidence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) in some studies.<h4>Objective</h4>We assessed the relation of yogurt and other dairy consumption to incidence of T2D in black women, a population group with a disproportionately high incidence of T2D.<h4>Methods</h4>The Black Women's Health Study has followed 59,000 US black women since 1995 through biennial questionnaires which update health information. Each questionnaire inquired about doctor-diagnosed diabetes in the previous 2 y. FFQs completed by participants in 1995 and 2001 provided information on yogurt and other dietary intake. HRs with 95% CIs for yogurt (nonfrozen or frozen) and other dairy consumption in relation to incident T2D (n = 8061 cases) were estimated with Cox proportional hazards regression, controlling for risk factors for T2D.<h4>Results</h4>The HR for consumption of ≥1 serving of yogurt/d relative to <1 serving/mo was 0.99 (95% CI: 0.87, 1.13, P trend = 0.65) after control for dietary and nondietary risk factors for T2D. The multivariable HR was 0.97 (95% CI: 0.75, 1.27; P trend = 0.74) for 2 or more servings/d of low-fat dairy other than yogurt relative to <1 serving/mo and 1.06 (95% CI: 0.91, 1.25, P trend = 0.36) for 2 or more servings/d of regular dairy relative to <1 serving/mo.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Results from this study do not support an inverse association of yogurt consumption or other dairy consumption with T2D risk in black women.
Project description:Health concerns have been raised about rice consumption, which may significantly contribute to arsenic exposure. However, little is known regarding whether habitual rice consumption is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk.We examined prospectively the association of white rice and brown rice consumption with CVD risk.We followed a total of 207,556 women and men [73,228 women from the Nurses' Health Study (1984-2010), 92,158 women from the Nurses' Health Study II (1991-2011), and 42,170 men from the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study (1986-2010)] who were free of CVD and cancer at baseline. Validated semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaires were used to assess consumption of white rice, brown rice, and other food items. Fatal and nonfatal CVD (coronary artery disease and stroke) was confirmed by medical records or self-reports.During 4,393,130 person-years of follow-up, 12,391 cases of CVD were identified. After adjustment for major CVD risk factors, including demographics, lifestyle, and other dietary intakes, rice consumption was not associated with CVD risk. The multivariable-adjuted HR of developing CVD comparing ?5 servings/wk with <1 serving/wk was 0.98 (95% CI: 0.84, 1.14) for white rice, 1.01 (0.79, 1.28) for brown rice, and 0.99 (0.90, 1.08) for total rice. To minimize the potential impact of racial difference in rice consumption, we restricted the analyses to whites only and obtained similar results: the HRs of CVD for ?5 servings/wk compared with <1 serving/wk were 1.04 (95% CI: 0.88, 1.22) for white rice and 1.01 (0.78, 1.31) for brown rice.Greater habitual consumption of white rice or brown rice is not associated with CVD risk. These findings suggest that rice consumption may not pose a significant CVD risk among the U.S. population when consumed at current amounts. More prospective studies are needed to explore these associations in other populations.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Whether changes in dairy product consumption are related to subsequent risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D) remains unknown. OBJECTIVE:We evaluated the association of long-term changes in dairy product consumption with subsequent risk of T2D among US men and women. METHODS:We followed up 34,224 men in the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study (1986-2012), 76,531 women in the Nurses' Health Study (1986-2012), and 81,597 women in the Nurses' Health Study II (1991-2013). Changes in dairy consumption were calculated from consecutive quadrennial FFQs. Multivariable Cox proportional regression models were used to calculate HRs for T2D associated with changes in dairy product consumption. Results of the 3 cohorts were pooled using an inverse variance-weighted, fixed-effect meta-analysis. RESULTS:During 2,783,210 person-years, we documented 11,906 incident T2D cases. After adjustment for initial and changes in diet and lifestyle covariates, decreasing total dairy intake by >1.0 serving/d over a 4-y period was associated with an 11% (95% CI: 3%, 19%) higher risk of T2D in the subsequent 4 y compared with maintaining a relatively stable consumption (i.e., change in intake of ±1.0 serving/wk). Increasing yogurt consumption by >0.5 serving/d was associated with an 11% (95% CI: 4%, 18%) lower T2D risk, whereas increasing cheese consumption by >0.5 serving/d was associated with a 9% (95% CI: 2%, 16%) higher risk compared with maintaining stable intakes. Substituting 1 serving/d of yogurt or reduced-fat milk for cheese was associated with a 16% (95% CI: 10%, 22%) or 12% (95% CI: 8%, 16%) lower T2D risk, respectively. CONCLUSIONS:Increasing yogurt consumption was associated with a moderately lower risk of T2D, whereas increasing cheese consumption was associated with a moderately higher risk among US men and women. Our study suggests that substituting yogurt or reduced-fat milk for cheese is associated with a lower risk of T2D.
Project description:BACKGROUND:High blood pressure (HBP) is a major cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factor. Clinical trials including Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) have demonstrated beneficial effects of dairy consumption on risks of HBP and CVD. Yogurt, a fermented dairy product, may independently be related to CVD risk. OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the association between yogurt consumption and CVD risk among hypertensive individuals in 2 large cohorts and to determine whether the association differs among those whose eating pattern more closely resembles the DASH diet. METHODS:Overall, 55,898 female Nurses' Health Study (NHS) and 18,232 male Health Professionals Follow-Up Study (HPFS) participants with prevalent HBP were included. Cumulative average estimates of yogurt intake from validated food frequency questionnaires were related to verified self-reported CVD outcomes using Cox proportional hazards models. Hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were adjusted for CVD risk factors, medications, and diet covariates. RESULTS:Yogurt intake was inversely associated with CVD risk (myocardial infarction and stroke) among hypertensive participants (P <0.01 in both cohorts). Among participants consuming ?2 servings/week of yogurt, NHS women had a 17% (95% CI: 0.74-0.92) lower risk while HPFS men experienced a 21% (95% CI: 0.66-0.96) lower CVD risk compared to those who consumed <1 serving/month. Regular yogurt consumers with higher DASH diet scores had 16% (95% CI: 0.73-0.96) and 30% (95% CI: 0.57-0.85) CVD risk reductions in the 2 cohorts, respectively. CONCLUSION:Hypertensive men and women who consumed ?2 servings/week of yogurt, especially in the context of a healthy diet, were at lower risk for developing CVD.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To examine the association of consumption of dairy foods with risk of total and cause specific mortality in women and men. DESIGN:Three prospective cohort studies with repeated measures of diet and lifestyle factors. SETTING:Nurses' Health Study, Nurses' Health Study II, and the Health Professionals Follow-up Study, in the United States. PARTICIPANTS:168?153 women and 49?602 men without cardiovascular disease or cancer at baseline. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE:Death confirmed by state vital records, the national death index, or reported by families and the postal system. During up to 32 years of follow-up, 51?438 deaths were documented, including 12?143 cardiovascular deaths and 15?120 cancer deaths. Multivariable analysis further adjusted for family history of cardiovascular disease and cancer, physical activity, overall dietary pattern (alternate healthy eating index 2010), total energy intake, smoking status, alcohol consumption, menopausal status (women only), and postmenopausal hormone use (women only). RESULTS:Compared to the lowest category of total dairy consumption (average 0.8 servings/day), the multivariate pooled hazard ratio for total mortality was 0.98 (95% confidence interval 0.96 to 1.01) for the second category of dairy consumption (average 1.5 servings/day), 1.00 (0.97 to 1.03) for the third (average 2.0 servings/day), 1.02 (0.99 to 1.05) for the fourth (average 2.8 servings/day), and 1.07 (1.04 to 1.10) for highest category (average 4.2 servings/day; P for trend <0.001). For the highest compared to the lowest category of total dairy consumption, the hazard ratio was 1.02 (0.95 to 1.08) for cardiovascular mortality and 1.05 (0.99 to 1.11) for cancer mortality. For subtypes of dairy products, whole milk intake was significantly associated with higher risks of total mortality (hazard ratio per 0.5 additional serving/day 1.11, 1.09 to 1.14), cardiovascular mortality (1.09, 1.03 to 1.15), and cancer mortality (1.11, 1.06 to 1.17). In food substitution analyses, consumption of nuts, legumes, or whole grains instead of dairy foods was associated with a lower mortality, whereas consumption of red and processed meat instead of dairy foods was associated with higher mortality. CONCLUSION:These data from large cohorts do not support an inverse association between high amount of total dairy consumption and risk of mortality. The health effects of dairy could depend on the comparison foods used to replace dairy. Slightly higher cancer mortality was non-significantly associated with dairy consumption, but warrants further investigation.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Among potentially modifiable factors, dairy product consumption has been inconsistently associated with hypertension risk. The objective of this study was to investigate the relation between dairy product consumption and the risk of hypertension among middle-aged women. METHODS:In a prospective cohort of 40,526 French women, there were 9340 new cases of hypertension after an average 12.2?years of follow up. Consumptions of milk, yogurt, and types of cheese were assessed at baseline using a validated dietary questionnaire. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for hypertension were estimated with multivariate Cox models with age as the time scale. RESULTS:The mean dairy consumption was 2.2 + 1.2 servings/day, as cottage cheese (0.2 + 0.2 servings/day), yogurt (0.6 + 0.5 servings/day), milk (0.4 + 0.7 servings/day), and cheese (1.1 + 0.8 servings/day). There was no association between risk of hypertension and total dairy consumption (multivariate HR for the fifth vs. first quintile HR5vs.1?=?0.97 [0.91; 1.04]). There was no association with any specific type of dairy, except for a positive association between processed cheese consumption and hypertension (multivariate HR4vs.1 = 1.12 [1.06; 1.18]; p trend?=?<?0.003). CONCLUSIONS:In this large prospective cohort of French women, overall consumption of dairy products was not associated with the risk of hypertension. Results regarding processed cheese must be further confirmed.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The elevated consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) in Mexico is an important public health concern. However, the association between SSB consumption and hyperuricemia has been scarcely studied and not well documented.<h4>Objectives</h4>To prospectively evaluate the association between SSB consumption and risk of hyperuricemia in Mexican adults.<h4>Methods</h4>A longitudinal analysis was conducted using data from the Health Workers Cohort Study. Participants were followed from 2004 to 2018, with measurements every 6 y. The analysis sample consisted of 1300 adults, aged 18 to 85 y. SSB consumption during the previous year was evaluated through a semiquantitative FFQ. Hyperuricemia was defined as a concentration of uric acid ≥7.0 mg/dL in men and ≥5.7 mg/dL in women. We evaluated the association of interest using 2 methodologies: fixed-effects logistic regression and generalized estimating equations (GEEs). Potential confounders were included in both approaches.<h4>Results</h4>At baseline, median intake of SSBs was 472.1 mL/wk (IQR: 198.8-1416.4 mL/wk), and 233 participants had hyperuricemia. Uric acid was higher in participants with an SSB intake ≥7 servings/wk, compared with those with an intake <1 serving/wk (P < 0.001). Participants who changed from the lowest to the highest category of servings consumption experienced 2.6 increased odds of hyperuricemia (95% CI: 1.27, 5.26). Results from the GEE model indicated the odds of hyperuricemia increased by 44% (OR=1.44; 95% CI: 1.13, 1.84) in the 2-6 servings/wk group, and by 89% (OR=1.89; 95% CI: 1.39, 2.57) in the ≥7 servings/wk categories, compared with the <1 serving/wk category. Diet soft drinks were not associated with hyperuricemia.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Our results suggest that the consumption of SSBs is associated with an increased risk of hyperuricemia in Mexican adults, but diet soft drink consumption is not, which supports the need to strengthen existing recommendations to reduce the intake of SSBs.The Health Workers Cohort Study (HWCS) has been approved by the Institutional Review Board of the Mexican Social Security Institute (12CEI 09 006 14), and the National Institute of Public Health of Mexico (13CEI 17 007 36).
Project description:The role of dairy foods for hip fracture prevention remains controversial. In this study, among US men and women, a glass of milk per day was associated with an 8% lower risk of hip fracture. This contrasts with a reported increased risk with higher milk intake in Swedish women. INTRODUCTION:The purpose of this study was to examine whether higher milk and dairy food consumption are associated with risk of hip fracture in older adults following a report of an increased risk for milk in Swedish women. METHODS:In two US cohorts, 80,600 postmenopausal women and 43,306 men over 50 years of age were followed for up to 32 years. Cox proportional hazards models were used to calculate the relative risks (RR) of hip fracture per daily serving of milk (240 mL) and other dairy foods that were assessed every 4 years, controlling for other dietary intakes, BMI, height, smoking, activity, medications, and disease diagnoses. RESULTS:Two thousand one hundred thirty-eight incident hip fractures were identified in women and 694 in men. Each serving of milk per day was associated with a significant 8% lower risk of hip fracture in men and women combined (RR = 0.92, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.87 to 0.97). A suggestive inverse association was found for cheese in women only (RR = 0.91, CI 0.81 to 1.02). Yogurt consumption was low and not associated with risk. Total dairy food intake, of which milk contributed about half, was associated with a significant 6% lower risk of hip fracture per daily serving in men and women (RR = 0.94, CI 0.90 to 0.98). Calcium, vitamin D, and protein from non-dairy sources did not modify the association between milk and hip fracture, nor was it explained by contributions of these nutrients from milk. CONCLUSIONS:In this group of older US adults, higher milk consumption was associated with a lower risk of hip fracture.