Evaluation of Intense Androgen Deprivation Before Prostatectomy: A Randomized Phase II Trial of Enzalutamide and Leuprolide With or Without Abiraterone.
ABSTRACT: PURPOSE:Patients with locally advanced prostate cancer have an increased risk of cancer recurrence and mortality. In this phase II trial, we evaluate neoadjuvant enzalutamide and leuprolide (EL) with or without abiraterone and prednisone (ELAP) before radical prostatectomy (RP) in men with locally advanced prostate cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS:Eligible patients had a biopsy Gleason score of 4 + 3 = 7 or greater, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) greater than 20 ng/mL, or T3 disease (by prostate magnetic resonance imaging). Lymph nodes were required to be smaller than 20 mm. Patients were randomly assigned 2:1 to ELAP or EL for 24 weeks followed by RP. All specimens underwent central pathology review. The primary end point was pathologic complete response or minimal residual disease (residual tumor ? 5 mm). Secondary end points were PSA, surgical staging, positive margins, and safety. Biomarkers associated with pathologic outcomes were explored. RESULTS:Seventy-five patients were enrolled at four centers. Most patients had high-risk disease by National Comprehensive Cancer Network criteria (n = 65; 87%). The pathologic complete response or minimal residual disease rate was 30% (n = 15 of 50) in ELAP-treated patients and 16% (n = four of 25) in EL-treated patients (two-sided P = .263). Rates of ypT3 disease, positive margins, and positive lymph nodes were similar between arms. Treatment was well-tolerated. Residual tumors in the two arms showed comparable levels of ERG, PTEN, androgen receptor PSA, and glucocorticoid receptor expression. Tumor ERG positivity and PTEN loss were associated with more extensive residual tumors at RP. CONCLUSION:Neoadjuvant hormone therapy followed by RP in locally advanced prostate cancer resulted in favorable pathologic responses in some patients, with a trend toward improved pathologic outcomes with ELAP. Longer follow-up is necessary to evaluate the impact of therapy on recurrence rates. The potential association of ERG and PTEN alterations with worse outcomes warrants additional investigation.
Project description:Prostate cancer (PC) is the most commonly diagnosed noncutaneous malignancy in American men. PC, which exhibits a slow growth rate and multiple potential target epitopes, is an ideal candidate for immunotherapy. GVAX for prostate cancer is a cellular immunotherapy, composed of PC-3 cells (CG1940) and LNCaP cells (CG8711). Each of the components is a prostate adenocarcinoma cell line that has been genetically modified to secrete granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor. Hypothesizing that GVAX for prostate cancer could be effective in a neoadjuvant setting in patients with locally advanced disease, we initiated a phase II trial of neoadjuvant docetaxel and GVAX. For the trial, the clinical effects of GVAX were assessed in patients undergoing radical prostatectomy (RP).Patients received docetaxel administered at a dose of 75 mg/m(2) every 3 weeks for 4 cycles. GVAX was administered 2-3 days after chemotherapy preoperatively for four courses of immunotherapy. The first dose of GVAX was a prime immunotherapy of 5×10(8) cells. The subsequent boost immunotherapies consisted of 3×10(8) cells. After RP, patients received an additional six courses of immunotherapy. Pathologic complete response, toxicity, and clinical response were assessed. The primary endpoint of the trial was a pathologic state of pT0, which is defined as no evidence of cancer in the prostate.Six patients completed neoadjuvant docetaxel and GVAX therapy. No serious drug-related adverse events were observed. Median change in prostate-specific antigen (PSA) following neoadjuvant therapy was 1.47 ng/ml. One patient did not undergo RP due to the discovery of positive lymph nodes during exploration. Of the five patients completing RP, four had a downstaging of their Gleason score. Undetectable PSA was achieved in three patients at 2 months after RP and in two patients at 3 years after RP.Neoadjuvant docetaxel/GVAX is safe and well tolerated in patients with high-risk locally advanced PC. No evidence of increased intraoperative hemorrhage or increased length of hospital stay postoperatively was noted. These results justify further study of neoadjuvant immunotherapy.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Patients with high-risk prostate cancer have an increased likelihood of experiencing a relapse following radical prostatectomy (RP). We previously conducted three neoadjuvant androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) trials prior to RP in unfavorable intermediate and high-risk disease. METHODS:In this analysis, we report on the post-RP outcomes of a subset of patients enrolled on these studies. We conducted a pooled analysis of patients with available follow-up data treated on three neoadjuvant trials at three institutions. All patients received intense ADT prior to RP. The primary endpoint was time to biochemical recurrence (BCR). BCR was defined as a PSA???0.2?ng/mL or treatment with radiation or androgen-deprivation therapy for a rising PSA?<?0.2?ng/mL. RESULTS:Overall, 72 patients were included of whom the majority had a Gleason score???8 (n?=?46, 63.9%). Following neoadjuvant therapy, 55.7% of patients (n?=?39/70) had pT3 disease, 40% (n?=?28) had seminal vesicle invasion, 12.9% (n?=?9) had positive margins, and 11.4% (n?=?8) had lymph node involvement. Overall, 11 (15.7%) had tumor measuring???0.5?cm, which included four patients (5.7%) with a pathologic complete response and seven (10.0%) with residual tumor measuring 0.1-0.5?cm. Compared to pretreatment clinical staging, 10 patients (14.3%) had pathologic T downstaging at RP. The median follow-up was 3.4 years. Overall, the 3-year BCR-free rate was 70% (95% CI 57%, 90%). Of the 15 patients with either residual tumor???0.5?cm or pathologic T downstaging, no patient experienced a recurrence. CONCLUSION:In this exploratory pooled clinical trials analysis, we highlight that neoadjuvant therapy prior to RP in unfavorable intermediate and high-risk patients may potentially have a positive impact on recurrence rates. Larger studies with longer follow-up periods are warranted to evaluate the impact of neoadjuvant hormone therapy on pathologic and long-term outcomes.
Project description:We have previously demonstrated a significant correlative relationship between PTEN deletion and ERG rearrangement, both in the development of clinically localized prostate cancers and metastases. Herein, we evaluate the cooperative role of ERG and PTEN in oncological outcomes after radical prostatectomy for clinically localized prostate cancer. We evaluated ERG and PTEN status using three previously described cohorts. The first cohort included 235 clinically localized prostate cancer cases represented on tissue microarrays (TMA), evaluated using previously validated FISH assays for ERG and PTEN. The second cohort included 167 cases of clinically localized prostate cancer on TMAs evaluated for PTEN by FISH, and for PTEN and ERG by dual IHC. The third cohort comprised 59 clinically localized prostate cancer cases assessed by array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH). Kaplan-Meir plots and long rank tests were used to assess the association of ERG and PTEN status with biochemical recurrence after radical prostatectomy for clinically localized prostate cancer. Of the 317 cases eligible for analyses with evaluable ERG and PTEN status, 88 (27.8%) patients developed biochemical recurrence over a median follow-up of 5.7 years. Overall, 45% (142/317) of cases demonstrated ERG rearrangement and 20% (62/317) of cases demonstrated PTEN loss. Hemizygous and homozygous deletion of PTEN was seen in 10% (18/175) and 3% (5/175) of ERG-negative cases, respectively. In contrast, hemizygous and homozygous deletion of PTEN was seen in 11% (15/142) and 17% (24/123) of ERG-positive cases, respectively. PTEN loss (heterozygous or homozygous) was significantly associated with shorter time to biochemical recurrence compared to no PTEN loss (p?<?0.001). However, ERG rearrangement versus no rearrangement was not associated with time to PSA recurrence (p?=?0.15). Patients who exhibited ERG rearrangement and loss of PTEN had no significant difference in time to recurrence compared to patients with wild-type ERG and loss of PTEN (p?=?0.30). Our findings confirm a mutual cooperative role of ERG and PTEN in the pathogenesis of prostate cancer, particularly for homozygous PTEN deletion. ERG did not stratify outcome either alone or in combination with PTEN in this cohort.
Project description:The transcription factor SOX9 plays a crucial role in normal prostate development and has been suggested to drive prostate carcinogenesis in concert with PTEN inactivation. To evaluate the clinical impact of SOX9 and its relationship with key genomic alterations in prostate cancer, SOX9 expression was analyzed by immunohistochemistry on a tissue microarray containing 11,152 prostate cancers. Data on ERG status and deletions of PTEN, 3p13, 5q21 and 6q15 were available from earlier studies. SOX9 expression levels were comparable in luminal cells of normal prostate glands (50% SOX9 positive) and 3,671 cancers lacking TMPRSS2:ERG fusion (55% SOX9 positive), but was markedly increased in 3,116 ERG-fusion positive cancers (81% SOX9 positive, p<0.0001). While no unequivocal changes in the SOX9 expression levels were found in different stages of ERG-negative cancers, a gradual decrease of SOX9 paralleled progression to advanced stage, high Gleason grade, metastatic growth, and presence of PTEN deletions in ERG-positive cancers (p<0.0001 each). SOX9 levels were unrelated to deletions of 3p, 5q, and 6q. Down-regulation of SOX9 expression was particularly strongly associated with PSA recurrence in ERG-positive tumors harboring PTEN deletions (p=0.001), but had no significant effect in ERG-negative cancers or in tumors with normal PTEN copy numbers. In summary, the results of our study argue against a tumor-promoting role of SOX9 in prostate cancer, but demonstrate that loss of SOX9 expression characterizes a particularly aggressive subset of ERG positive cancers harboring PTEN deletions.
Project description:African-American (AA) men have a higher risk of lethal prostate cancer (PCa) compared to European-American (EA) men. However, the molecular basis of this difference, if any, remains unclear. In EA PCa, PTEN loss, but not ERG rearrangement, has been associated with poor outcomes in most studies. Although ERG rearrangement is less common in AA compared to EA PCa, the relative frequency of PTEN loss and the association of PTEN/ERG molecular subtypes with outcomes is unknown for AA PCa. We examined PTEN/ERG status by immunohistochemistry in self-identified AA patients undergoing radical prostatectomy at Johns Hopkins with tumor tissue available on tissue microarray (TMA; n=169) and matched these cases by pathologic parameters to 169 EA patients from the same TMAs. The rate of PTEN loss was significantly lower in AA compared to EA PCa (18% vs 34%; p=0.001), similar to the lower rate of ERG expression (25% vs 51%; p<0.001). To examine the association of PTEN/ERG status with oncologic outcomes, we created an additional TMA of 87 AA tumors with Gleason score > 4 + 3 = 7. Among the total population of AA men with outcome data from all TMAs (n=222), PTEN loss was associated with higher risk of biochemical recurrence (hazard ratio [HR] 2.25, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.33-3.82) and metastasis (HR 3.90, 95% CI 1.46-10.4) in multivariable models.PTEN and ERG alterations in prostate cancer are less likely in African-American than in European-American men. However, PTEN loss remains associated with poor prostate cancer outcomes among African-American men.
Project description:Breast cancer anti-estrogen resistance 1 (BCAR1/p130cas) is a hub for diverse oncogenic signaling cascades and promotes tumor development and progression.To understand the effect of BCAR1 in prostate cancer, we analyzed its expression on more than 11,000 prostate cancer samples. BCAR1 expression levels were compared with clinical characteristics, PSA recurrence, molecular subtype defined by ERG status and 3p, 5q, 6q and PTEN deletion.BCAR1 staining was barely detectable in normal prostate glands but seen in 77.6% of 9472 interpretable cancers, including strong expression in 38.5%, moderate in 23.2% and weak in 15.9% of cases. BCAR1 up regulation was associated with positive ERG status (p?<?0.0001), high Gleason score (p?<?0.0001), advanced pathological tumor stage (p?=?0.0082), lower preoperative PSA level (p?<?0.0001), increased cell proliferation (p?<?0.0001), early PSA recurrence (p?=?0.0008), and predicted prognosis independently from clinico-pathological parameters available at the time of the initial biopsy. However, subset analyses revealed that the prognostic impact of BCAR1 expression was limited to ERG-negative cancer. That BCAR1 up regulation was linked to almost all analyzed deletions (p?<?0.0001 each for PTEN, 5q, 6q deletion) may suggest a functional link to genomic instability.The results of our study identify BCAR1 as a prognostic biomarker with potential clinical value for risk stratification of ERG-negative prostate cancer.
Project description:Loss of PTEN is a common genomic aberration in castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) and is frequently concurrent with ERG rearrangements, causing resistance to next-generation hormonal treatment (NGHT) including abiraterone. The relationship between PTEN loss and docetaxel sensitivity remains uncertain.To study the antitumor activity of docetaxel in metastatic CRPC in relation to PTEN and ERG aberrations.Single-centre, retrospective analysis of PTEN loss and ERG expression using a previously described immunohistochemistry (IHC) binary classification system. Patients received docetaxel between January 1, 2006 and July 31, 2016.Response correlations were analyzed using Pearson's ?2 tests and independent-sample t tests. Overall (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were analyzed using univariate and multivariate (MVA) Cox regression and Kaplan-Meier methods.Overall, 215 patients were eligible. Established metastatic CRPC prognostic factors were well balanced between PTEN loss (39%) and normal patients (61%). PTEN loss was associated with shorter median OS (25.4 vs 34.7 mo; hazard ratio [HR] 1.66, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.18-2.13; p = 0.001). There were no differences in median PFS (8.0 vs 9.1 mo; univariate HR 1.20, 95% CI 0.86-1.68; p = 0.28) and PSA response (53.4% vs 50.6%; p = 0.74). PTEN loss was an independent prognostics factor in MVA. ERG status was available for 100 patients. ERG positivity was not associated with OS or PFS. Limitations include the retrospective nature and the single-centre analysis.Our findings suggest that metastatic CRPC with PTEN loss might benefit more from docetaxel than from NGHT.In this study we found that metastatic prostate cancer with loss of the PTEN switch may benefit more from docetaxel than from abiraterone.
Project description:HOXB13 is a prostate cancer susceptibility gene which shows a cancer predisposing (G84E) mutation in 0.1-0.6% of males. We analyzed the prognostic impact of HOXB13 expression by immunohistochemistry on a tissue microarray containing more than 12,400 prostate cancers. Results were compared to tumor phenotype, biochemical recurrence, androgen receptor (AR) and prostate specific antigen (PSA) as well as molecular subtypes defined by ERG status and genomic deletions of 3p, 5q, 6q, and PTEN. HOXB13 immunostaining was detectable in 51.7% of 10,216 interpretable cancers and considered strong in 9.6%, moderate in 19.7% and weak in 22.3% of cases. HOXB13 expression was linked to advanced pT stage, high Gleason grade, positive lymph node status (p < 0.0001 each), high pre-operative PSA levels (p = 0.01), TMPRSS2:ERG fusion, PTEN deletions, AR expression, cell proliferation, reduced PSA expression and early PSA recurrence (p < 0.0001 each). The prognostic value of HOXB13 was independent from established parameters including Gleason, stage, nodal stage and PSA. Co-expression analysis identified a subset of tumors with high HOXB13 and AR but low PSA expression that had a particularly poor prognosis. HOXB13 appears to be a promising candidate for clinical routine tests either alone or in combination with other markers, including AR and PSA.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES:Overexpression of the cytoskeleton-modulating kinase ROCK1 has been associated with unfavorable outcome in many cancers, but its impact in prostate cancer is largely unknown. RESULTS:A weak ROCK1 staining was found in >90% of normal, and cancerous prostate tissues, but was generally stronger in cancer cells as compared to adjacent normal glands. In cancer, ROCK1 staining was considered weak, moderate, and strong in 22%, 53%, and 18% of cases respectively. Higher ROCK1 expression levels were associated with tumor stage, and Gleason grade, positive nodal stage, positive surgical margin, accelerated cell proliferation and early PSA recurrence in multivariable analysis. ROCK1 up regulation was associated with androgen receptor (AR) expression, TMPRSS2:ERG fusion, genomic deletions of the PTEN tumor suppressor, as well as recurrent deletions at chromosomes 3p, 5q, 6q. Strong ROCK1 staining was found in 3% of AR-negative, but in 27% of strongly AR positive cancers, in 13% of ERG-negative but in 25% of ERG positive cancers, and in 12% of PTEN normal but in 26% of PTEN deleted cancers. CONCLUSIONS:This study identifies ROCK1 expression associated with prognosis in prostate cancer. METHODS:We tested ROCK1 expression in 12 427 prostate cancer specimens and followed PSA recurrence after prostatectomy.
Project description:Survivin is an inhibitor of apoptosis. Aberrant survivin expression occurs in malignant tumors and has often been linked to unfavorable patient outcome. Here we analyzed 12 432 prostate cancers by immunohistochemistry. Survivin immunostaining was regularly expressed at high levels in normal prostate epithelium but expression was often reduced in prostate cancers. Among 9492 evaluable prostate cancers, 9% expressed survivin strongly, 19% moderately, 28% weakly, and 44% lacked it. Loss of cytoplasmic survivin was seen in advanced tumor stage, higher Gleason score, preoperative PSA levels, and Ki-67 labeling index, and associated with earlier PSA recurrence (P < .0001). Survivin loss was significantly more common in cancers carrying TMPRSS2:ERG fusions (61% survivin negative) than in ERG wild-type cancers (32% survivin negative; P < .0001). Multivariate analysis revealed that reduced cytoplasmic survivin expression predicted poor prognosis independent from Gleason score, pT, pN, and serum PSA level. This was valid for ERG-positive and ERG-negative cancers. Survivin expression loss even retained its prognostic impact in 1020 PTEN deleted cancers, a group that is already characterized by dismal patient prognosis. In conclusion, reduced survivin expression is associated with more aggressive tumors and inferior prognosis in prostate cancer.