CD47 Deficiency in Mice Exacerbates Chronic Fatty Diet-Induced Steatohepatitis Through Its Role in Regulating Hepatic Inflammation and Lipid Metabolism.
ABSTRACT: Inflammation is one of the hallmarks of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. CD47 is a widely expressed transmembrane protein that signals through inhibitory receptor signal regulatory protein ? (SIRP?) to inhibit macrophage activation and phagocytosis. In this study, we sought to investigate the role of CD47 in hepatosteatosis and fibrosis induced by a chronic high-fat diet (HFD), by comparing disease development in wild-type (WT) and CD47KO mice fed HFD for 40 weeks. The HFD induced remarkably more severe hepatic steatosis and fibrosis but less body weight gain and less subcutaneous fat accumulation in CD47KO mice compared to WT mice. Liver tissues from HFD-fed CD47KO mice exhibited enhanced inflammation characterized by increased proinflammatory cytokine production and increased nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) activation compared to similarly fed WT mice. Although higher expression of apolipoproteins was observed in CD47KO mice compared to WT mice under a low-fat diet (LFD), HFD-fed WT and CD47KO mice showed comparably prominent downregulation of these apolipoprotein genes, suggesting that the marked difference observed in lipid accumulation and hepatosteatosis between these mice cannot be explained by changes in apolipoproteins. Like apolipoproteins, sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor alpha (PPAR?), which are involved in regulation of both lipid metabolism and inflammation, were more highly expressed in CD47KO than WT mice under LFD but more severely suppressed in CD47KO than in WT mice under HFD. Taken together, our results indicate that CD47 plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of HFD-induced hepatosteatosis and fibrosis through its role in regulation of inflammation and lipid metabolism.
Project description:Ethanol-inducible cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) activity contributes to oxidative stress. However, CYP2E1 may have an important role in the pathogenesis of high-fat mediated non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Thus, the role of CYP2E1 in high-fat mediated NASH development was evaluated.Male wild type (WT) and Cyp2e1-null mice were fed a low-fat diet (LFD, 10% energy-derived) or a high-fat diet (HFD, 60% energy-derived) for 10 weeks. Liver histology and tissue homogenates were examined for various parameters of oxidative stress and inflammation.Liver histology showed that only WT mice fed a HFD developed NASH despite the presence of increased steatosis in both WT and Cyp2e1-null mice fed HFD. Markers of oxidative stress such as elevated CYP2E1 activity and protein amounts, lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation, nitration, and glycation with increased phospho-JNK were all markedly elevated only in the livers of HFD-fed WT mice. Furthermore, while the levels of inflammation markers osteopontin and F4/80 were higher in HFD-fed WT mice, TNF? and MCP-1 levels were lower compared to the corresponding LFD-fed WT. Finally, only HFD-fed WT mice exhibited increased insulin resistance and impaired glucose tolerance.These data suggest that CYP2E1 is critically important in NASH development by promoting oxidative/nitrosative stress, protein modifications, inflammation, and insulin resistance.
Project description:Both obesity and arsenic exposure are global public health problems that are associated with increased risk of renal disease. The effect of whole-life exposure to environmentally relevant levels of arsenic within dietary high fat diet on renal pathogenesis were examined. In this study, C57BL/6?J mice were parentally exposed to 100?ppb arsenic before conception. After weaning, both male and female offspring were maintained on 100?ppb arsenic and fed either a normal (LFD) or high fat diet (HFD). At 10 and 24 weeks of age, the offspring were sacrificed and kidneys collected. Exposure to arsenic led to an increase body-weight in LFD diet-fed female but not male mice. This response was not observed in HFD-fed female mice; however male mice showed significant increases in body weight in both As- and non-treated animals. Histological analysis shows that arsenic exposure significantly increases HFD-induced glomerular area expansion, mesangial matrix accumulation and fibrosis compared to LFD control animals. HFD alone increases renal inflammation and fibrosis; reflected by increases in IL-1?, ICAM-1 and fibronectin levels. Arsenic exposure significantly increases HFD-induced inflammatory and oxidative stress responses. In general, male mice have more severe responses than female mice to HFD or arsenic treatment. These results demonstrate that arsenic exposure causes sex-dependent alterations in HFD-induced kidney damage.
Project description:Background:Sea vegetables are rich sources of nutrients as well as bioactive components that are linked to metabolic health improvement. Algal polysaccharides improve satiety and modulate gut microbiota while proteins, peptides, and phenolic fractions exert anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antidiabetic effects. Objective:We tested the hypothesis that dietary supplementation with either Pacific dulse (Palmaria mollis, red algae) or wakame (Undaria pinnatifida, brown algae) could remediate metabolic complications in high-fat diet-induced obesity. Methods:Individually caged C57BL/6J mice (n = 8) were fed ad libitum with either a low-fat diet (LFD), 10% kcal fat; high-fat diet (HFD), 60% kcal fat; HFD + 5% (wt:wt) dulse (HFD + D); or HFD + 5% (wt:wt) wakame (HFD + W) for 8 weeks. Food intake and weight gain were monitored weekly. Glucose tolerance, hepatic lipids, fecal lipids, and plasma markers were evaluated, and the gut microbiome composition was assessed. Results:Despite the tendency of higher food and caloric intake than the HFD (P = 0.04) group, the HFD + D group mice did not exhibit higher body weight, indicating lower food and caloric efficiency (P < 0.001). Sea vegetable supplementation reduced plasma monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP-1) (P < 0.001) and increased fecal lipid excretion (P < 0.001). Gut microbiome analysis showed that the HFD + D group had higher alpha-diversity than the HFD or LFD group, whereas beta-diversity analyses indicated that sea vegetable-supplemented HFD-fed mice (HFD + D and HFD + W groups) developed microbiome compositions more similar to those of the LFD-fed mice than those of the HFD-fed mice. Conclusion:Sea vegetable supplementation showed protective effects against obesity-associated metabolic complications in C57BL/6J male mice by increasing lipid excretion, reducing systemic inflammatory marker, and mitigating gut microbiome alteration. While the obese phenotype development was not prevented, metabolic issues related to lipid absorption, inflammation, and gut microbial balance were improved, showing therapeutic promise and warranting eventual mechanistic elucidations.
Project description:Exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) has been associated with the progression of chronic liver diseases, yet the contribution of POPs to the development of fibrosis in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), a condition closely linked to obesity, remains poorly documented.We investigated the effects of subchronic exposure to low doses of the POP 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), an aryl hydrocarbon receptor ligand, on NAFLD progression in diet-induced obese C57BL/6J mice.Male C57BL/6J mice were fed either a 10% low-fat (LFD) or a 45% high-fat (HFD) purified diet for 14 weeks and TCDD-exposed groups were injected once a week with 5 ?g/kg TCDD or the vehicle for the last 6 weeks of the diet.Liver histology and triglyceride levels showed that exposure of HFD fed mice to TCDD worsened hepatic steatosis, as compared to either HFD alone or LFD plus TCDD and the mRNA levels of key genes of hepatic lipid metabolism were strongly altered in co-treated mice. Further, increased liver collagen staining and serum transaminase levels showed that TCDD induced liver fibrosis in the HFD fed mice. TCDD in LFD fed mice increased the expression of several inflammation and fibrosis marker genes with no additional effect from a HFD.Exposure to TCDD amplifies the impairment of liver functions observed in mice fed an enriched fat diet as compared to a low fat diet. The results provide new evidence that environmental pollutants promote the development of liver fibrosis in obesity-related NAFLD in C57BL/6J mice. Citation: Duval C, Teixeira-Clerc F, Leblanc AF, Touch S, Emond C, Guerre-Millo M, Lotersztajn S, Barouki R, Aggerbeck M, Coumoul X. 2017. Chronic exposure to low doses of dioxin promotes liver fibrosis development in the C57BL/6J diet-induced obesity mouse model. Environ Health Perspect 125:428-436;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP316.
Project description:BACKGROUND:An influx of lipid-loaded macrophages characterizes visceral adipose tissue (VAT) inflammation, which is an important factor in the development of insulin resistance (IR) in obesity. Depletion of macrophage lipids accompanies increased whole body insulin sensitivity, but the underlying mechanism is unknown. Deficiency of autophagy protein ATG16L1 is associated with increases in inflammatory diseases and lipid metabolism, but the connection between ATG16L1, IR, and obesity remains elusive. We hypothesize that myeloid ATG16L1 contributes to lipid loading in macrophages and to IR. METHODS:Wild-type (WT) bone marrow derived macrophages (BMDMs) were treated with fatty acids and assessed for markers of autophagy. Myeloid-deficient Atg16l1 and littermate control male mice were fed high fat diet (HFD) or low fat diet (LFD) for 3 months starting at 8 weeks of age. Mice were assessed for body mass, fat and lean mass, glucose and insulin sensitivity, food consumption and adipose inflammation. Fluorescence-activated cell sorted VAT macrophages were assessed for lipid content and expression of autophagy related genes. RESULTS:VAT and VAT macrophages from HFD-fed WT mice did not show differences in autophagy protein and gene expression compared to tissue from LFD-fed mice. Fatty acid-treated BMDMs increased neutral lipid content but did not change autophagy protein expression. HFD-fed Atg16l1 myeloid-deficient and littermate mice demonstrated no differences in body mass, glucose or insulin sensitivity, food consumption, fat or lean mass, macrophage lipid content, or adipose tissue inflammation. CONCLUSION:ATG16L1 does not contribute to obesity, IR, adipose tissue inflammation or lipid loading in macrophages in mice fed HFD.
Project description:Western diets contribute to metabolic diseases. However, the effects of various diets and epigenetic mechanisms are mostly unknown. Here, six week-old C57BL/6J male and female mice were fed with a low-fat diet (LFD), high-fat diet (HFD), and high-fat high-fructose diet (HFD-HF) for 20 weeks. We determined that HFD-HF or HFD mice experienced significant metabolic dysregulation compared to the LFD. HFD-HF and HFD-fed male mice showed significantly increased body weight, liver size, and fasting glucose levels with downregulated PPAR?, SCD1, and FAS protein expression. In contrast, female mice were less affected by HFD and HFD-HF. As miR-27b contains a seed sequence in PPAR?, it was discovered that these changes are accompanied by male-specific upregulation of miR-27b-5p, which is even more pronounced in the HFD-HF group (<i>p</i> < 0.01 vs. LFD) compared to the HFD group (<i>p</i> < 0.05 vs. LFD). Other miR-27 subtypes were increased but not significantly. HFD-HF showed insignificant changes in fibrosis markers when compared to LFD. Interestingly, fat ballooning in hepatocytes was increased in HFD-fed mice compared to HFD-HF fed mice, however, the HFD-HF liver showed an increase in the number of small cells. Here, we concluded that chronic Western diet-composition administered for 20 weeks may surpass the non-alcoholic fatty liver (NAFL) stage but may be at an intermediate stage between fatty liver and fibrosis via miR-27b-5p-induced PPAR? downregulation.
Project description:Mitochondrial lysine acetylation regulates several metabolic pathways in cardiac cells. The current study investigated whether GCN5L1-mediated lysine acetylation regulates cardiac mitochondrial metabolic proteins in response to a high fat diet (HFD). GCN5L1 cardiac-specific knockout (cKO) mice showed significantly reduced mitochondrial protein acetylation following a HFD relative to wildtype (WT) mice. GCN5L1 cKO mice did not display any decrease in ex vivo cardiac workload in response to a HFD. In contrast, ex vivo cardiac function in HFD-fed WT mice dropped?~?50% relative to low fat diet (LFD) fed controls. The acetylation status of electron transport chain Complex I protein NDUFB8 was significantly increased in WT mice fed a HFD, but remained unchanged in GCN5L1 cKO mice relative to LFD controls. Finally, we observed that inhibitory acetylation of superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2) at K122 was increased in WT (but not cKO mice) on a HFD. This correlated with significantly increased cardiac lipid peroxidation in HFD-fed WT mice relative to GCN5L1 cKO animals under the same conditions. We conclude that increased GCN5L1 expression in response to a HFD promotes increased lysine acetylation, and that this may play a role in the development of reactive oxygen species (ROS) damage caused by nutrient excess.
Project description:Adenosine 2A receptor (A2AR) exerts anti-inflammatory effects. However, the role of A2AR in obesity-associated adipose tissue inflammation remains to be elucidated. The present study examined the expression of A2AR in adipose tissue of mice with diet-induced obesity and determined the effect of A2AR disruption on the status of obesity-associated adipose tissue inflammation. WT C57BL/6J mice and A2AR-disrupted mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 12 weeks to induce obesity and adipose tissue inflammation. In vitro, bone marrow-derived macrophages from A2AR-disrupted mice and WT control mice were treated with palmitate and examined for macrophage proinflammatory activation. Compared with that of low-fat diet (LFD)-fed WT mice, A2AR expression in adipose tissue of HFD-fed WT mice was increased significantly and was present predominantly in adipose tissue macrophages. The increase in adipose tissue A2AR expression in HFD-fed mice was accompanied with increased phosphorylation states of c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1 p46 and nuclear factor kappa B p65 and mRNA levels of interleukin (Il)-1beta, Il6 and tumor necrosis factor alpha. In A2AR-disrupted mice, HFD feeding induced significant increases in adipose tissue inflammation, indicated by enhanced proinflammatory signaling and increased proinflammatory cytokine expression, and adipose tissue insulin resistance, indicated by a decrease in insulin-stimulated Akt phosphorylation relative to those in WT mice. Lastly, A2AR disruption enhanced palmitate-induced macrophage proinflammatory activation. Taken together, these results suggest that A2AR plays a protective role in obesity-associated adipose tissue inflammation, which is attributable to, in large part, A2AR suppression of macrophage proinflammatory activation.
Project description:Consumption of diet rich in fat and cigarette smoking (CS) are independent risk factors of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), and they often occur together in some populations. The present study investigated the mechanisms of high-fat diet (HFD) and CS, individually and in combination, on the pathogenesis of NASH in mice. C57BL/6 male mice were subjected to either a low-fat chow (CH) or HFD with or without mainstream CS-exposure (4 cigarettes/day, 5 days/ week for 14 weeks). HFD alone caused hepatosteatosis (2.5-fold increase in TG content) and a significant increase in 3-nitrotyrisine (by ∼40-fold) but without an indication of liver injury, inflammation or fibrosis. CS alone in CH-fed mice increased in Tnfα expression and macrophage infiltration by 2-fold and relatively less increase in 3-nitrotyrosine (18-fold). Combination of HFD and CS precipitated hepatosteatosis to NASH reflected by exacerbated makers of liver inflammation and fibrosis which were associated with much severe liver oxidative stress (90-fold increase in 3-nitrotyrisine along with 6-fold increase in carbonylated proteins and 56% increase in lipid oxidations). Further studies were performed to administer the antioxidant tempol to CS exposed HFD mice and the results showed that the inhibition of liver oxidative stress prevented inflammatory and fibrotic changes in liver despite persisting hepatosteatosis. Our findings suggest that oxidative stress is a key mechanism underlying CS-promoted progression of simple hepatosteatosis to NASH. Targeting hepatic oxidative stress may be a viable strategy in halting the progression of metabolic associated fatty liver disease.
Project description:<h4>Introduction</h4>High-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity impairs clearance of cholesterol through the Reverse Cholesterol Transport (RCT) pathway, with downregulation in hepatic expression of cholesterol and bile acid transporters, namely ABCG5/8 and ABCB11, and reduced high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol efflux capacity (CEC). In the current study, we hypothesized that the development of hepatosteatosis, secondary to adipose-tissue dysfunction, contributes to obesity-impaired RCT and that such effects could be mitigated using the anti-inflammatory drug sodium salicylate (NaS).<h4>Materials and methods</h4>C57BL/6J mice, fed HFD ± NaS or low-fat diet (LFD) for 24 weeks, underwent glucose and insulin tolerance testing. The <sup>3</sup>H-cholesterol movement from macrophage-to-feces was assessed in vivo. HDL-CEC was determined ex vivo. Cytokine secretion from adipose-derived stromal vascular fraction (SVF) cells was measured ex vivo. Liver and HDL proteins were determined by mass spectrometry and analyzed using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis.<h4>Results</h4>NaS delayed HFD-induced weight gain, abrogated priming of pro-IL-1β in SVFs, attenuated insulin resistance, and prevented steatohepatitis (ectopic fat accumulation in the liver). Prevention of hepatosteatosis coincided with increased expression of PPAR-alpha/beta-oxidation proteins with NaS and reduced expression of LXR/RXR-induced proteins including apolipoproteins. The latter effects were mirrored within the HDL proteome in circulation. Despite remarkable protection shown against steatosis, HFD-induced hypercholesterolemia and repression of the liver-to-bile cholesterol transporter, ABCG5/8, could not be rescued with NaS.<h4>Discussions and conclusions</h4>The cardiometabolic health benefits of NaS may be attributed to the reprogramming of hepatic metabolic pathways to increase fatty acid utilization in the settings of nutritional overabundance. Reduced hepatic cholesterol levels, coupled with reduced LXR/RXR-induced proteins, may underlie the lack of rescue of ABCG5/8 expression with NaS. This remarkable protection against HFD-induced hepatosteatosis did not translate to improvements in cholesterol homeostasis.