Supporting at-risk older adults transitioning from hospital to home: who benefits from an evidence-based patient-centered discharge planning intervention? Post-hoc analysis from a randomized trial.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Subgroups of older patients experience difficulty performing activities of daily living (ADL) following hospital discharge, as well as unplanned hospital readmissions and emergency department (ED) presentations. We examine whether these subgroups of "at-risk" older patients benefit more than their counterparts from an evidence-based discharge planning intervention, on the following outcomes: (1) independence in ADL, (2) participation in life roles, (3) unplanned re-hospitalizations, and (4) ED presentations. TRIAL DESIGN AND METHODS:This study used data from a randomized control trial involving 400 hospitalized older patients with acute and medical conditions, recruited through 5 sites in Australia. Participants receive either HOME, a patient-centered discharge planning intervention led by an occupational therapist; or a structured in-hospital consultation. HOME uses a collaborative approach for goal setting and includes pre and post-discharge home visits as well as telephone follow-up. Characteristics associated with higher risks of adverse outcomes were recorded and at-risk subgroups were created (mild cognitive impairment, walking difficulty, comorbidity, living alone and no support from family). Independence in ADL and participation in life roles were assessed with validated questionnaires. The number of unplanned re-hospitalizations and ED presentations were extracted from medical files. Linear regression models were conducted to detect variation in response to the intervention at 3-months, according to patients' characteristics. RESULTS:Analyses revealed significant interaction effects for intervention by cognitive status for unplanned re-hospitalization (p?=?0.003) and ED presentations (p?=?0.021) at 3?months. Within the at-risk subgroup of mild cognitively impaired, the HOME intervention significantly reduced unplanned hospitalizations (p?=?0.027), but the effect did not reach significance in ED visits. While the effect of HOME differed according to support received from family for participation in life roles (p?=?0.019), the participation observed in HOME patients with no support was not significantly improved. CONCLUSIONS:Findings show that hospitalized older adults with mild cognitive impairment benefit from the HOME intervention, which involves preparation and post-discharge support in the environment, to reduce unplanned re-hospitalizations. Improved discharge outcomes in this at-risk subgroup following an occupational therapist-led intervention may enable best care delivery as patients transition from hospital to home. TRIAL REGISTRATION:The trial was registered before commencement (ACTRN12611000615987).
Project description:Importance:The Medicare Hospital Readmissions Reduction Program (HRRP) is associated with reduced readmission rates, but it is unknown how this decrease occurred. Objective:To examine whether the HRRP was associated with changes in the probability of readmission at emergency department (ED) visits after hospital discharge (ED revisits) overall and depending on whether admission is typically indicated for the patient's condition at the ED revisit. Design, Setting, and Participants:This retrospective cohort study used hospital and ED discharge data from California, Florida, and New York from January 1, 2010, to December 31, 2014. A difference-in-differences analysis examined change in readmission probability at ED revisits for recently discharged patients; ED revisits with clinical presentations for which admission is typically indicated vs those for which admission is more variable (ie, discretionary) were examined separately. Inclusion criteria were Medicare patients 65 years and older who revisited an ED within 30 days of inpatient discharge. Data were analyzed from December 18, 2018, to September 11, 2019. Exposures:Before and after HRRP implementation among patients initially hospitalized for targeted vs nontargeted conditions. Main Outcomes and Measures:Thirty-day unplanned hospital readmissions at the ED revisit. Results:A total of 9?914?068 index hospitalizations were identified in California, Florida, and New York from 2010 to 2014. Of 2?052?096 discharges in 2010, 1?168?126 (56.9%) discharges were women and 566?957 discharges (27.6%) were among patients older than 85 years. Among 1?421?407 patients with an unplanned readmission within 30 days of discharge, 1?266?107 patients (89.1%) were admitted through the ED. A total of 1?906?498 ED revisits were identified. After adjusting for patient demographic and clinical characteristics from the index hospitalization, HRRP implementation was associated with fewer readmissions from the ED, with a difference-in-difference estimate of -0.9 (95% CI, -1.4 to -0.4) percentage points (P?<?.001), or a 1.4% relative decrease from the 65.8% pre-HRRP readmission rates. Implementation of the HRRP was associated with fewer readmissions at the ED revisit involving clinical presentations for which admission is typically indicated (difference-in-differences estimate, -1.1 [95% CI, -1.6 to -0.6] percentage points; P?<?.001), or a 1.2% relative decrease from the 93.6% pre-HRRP rate. These results appear to be associated with patients presenting at the ED revisit with congestive heart failure (difference-in-difference estimate, -1.2 [95% CI, -2.0 to -0.4] percentage points; P?=?.003). Conclusions and Relevance:These findings suggest that implementation of the HRRP was associated with a lower likelihood of readmission for recently discharged patients presenting to the ED, specifically for congestive heart failure. This highlights the critical role of the ED in readmission reduction under the HRRP and suggests that patient outcomes after HRRP implementation should be further studied.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>In polypharmacy patients under home health management, pharmacogenetic testing coupled with guidance from a clinical decision support tool (CDST) on reducing drug, gene, and cumulative interaction risk may provide valuable insights in prescription drug treatment, reducing re-hospitalization and emergency department (ED) visits. We assessed the clinical impact of pharmacogenetic profiling integrating binary and cumulative drug and gene interaction warnings on home health polypharmacy patients.<h4>Methods and findings</h4>This prospective, open-label, randomized controlled trial was conducted at one hospital-based home health agency between February 2015 and February 2016. Recruitment came from patient referrals to home health at hospital discharge. Eligible patients were aged 50 years and older and taking or initiating treatment with medications with potential or significant drug-gene-based interactions. Subjects (n = 110) were randomized to pharmacogenetic profiling (n = 57). The study pharmacist reviewed drug-drug, drug-gene, and cumulative drug and/or gene interactions using the YouScript® CDST to provide drug therapy recommendations to clinicians. The control group (n = 53) received treatment as usual including pharmacist guided medication management using a standard drug information resource. The primary outcome measure was the number of re-hospitalizations and ED visits at 30 and 60 days after discharge from the hospital. The mean number of re-hospitalizations per patient in the tested vs. untested group was 0.25 vs. 0.38 at 30 days (relative risk (RR), 0.65; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.32-1.28; P = 0.21) and 0.33 vs. 0.70 at 60 days following enrollment (RR, 0.48; 95% CI, 0.27-0.82; P = 0.007). The mean number of ED visits per patient in the tested vs. untested group was 0.25 vs. 0.40 at 30 days (RR, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.31-1.21; P = 0.16) and 0.39 vs. 0.66 at 60 days (RR, 0.58; 95% CI, 0.34-0.99; P = 0.045). Differences in composite outcomes at 60 days (exploratory endpoints) were also found. Of the total 124 drug therapy recommendations passed on to clinicians, 96 (77%) were followed. These findings should be verified with additional prospective confirmatory studies involving real-world applications in larger populations to broaden acceptance in routine clinical practice.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Pharmacogenetic testing of polypharmacy patients aged 50 and older, supported by an appropriate CDST, considerably reduced re-hospitalizations and ED visits at 60 days following enrollment resulting in potential health resource utilization savings and improved healthcare.<h4>Trial registration</h4>ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02378220.
Project description:Outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy (OPAT) prescribing has increased along with the trend toward early discharge of hospitalized patients who have infections. There is limited literature that assesses unplanned hospitalizations during OPAT. This study aims to elucidate the predictors of unplanned hospitalization in OPAT patients after discharge from acute-care facilities within Carolinas HealthCare System (CHS). Understanding these predictors may inform future interventions to improve treatment efficacy and patient outcomes.The study cohort included hospitalized patients aged >19 years who initiated OPAT in an acute-care facility within CHS in 2014-2015. Patients who had OPAT prescribed at an ambulatory-care facility were excluded. The primary outcome was unplanned hospitalization anytime during the at-risk time from discharge through 90 days.The unplanned hospitalization rate for the cohort was 18.5%. In adjusted analysis, having OPAT delivered at a skilled nursing facility was associated with a 46% (incident risk ratio = 1.46; 95% confidence interval = 1.04-2.06) increased risk of an unplanned hospitalization compared with patients receiving OPAT at home after adjustment for demographics, comorbidities, indication, treatment duration, and antimicrobial prescribed. Infusion, dialysis, and rehabilitation centers had the lowest rates of unplanned hospitalizations.These results suggest that the location of OPAT delivery is associated with unplanned hospitalizations and that older patients need additional support during OPAT.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:To evaluate the impact of nurse practitioner (NP) service in Australian public hospital emergency departments (EDs) on service and patient safety and quality indicators. DESIGN AND SETTING:Cohort study comprising ED presentations (July 2013-June 2014) for a random sample of hospitals, stratified by state/territory and metropolitan versus non-metropolitan location; and a retrospective medical record audit of ED re-presentations. METHODS:Service indicator data (patient waiting times for Australasian Triage Scale categories 2, 3, 4 and 5; number of patients who did not-wait; length of ED stay for non-admitted patients) were compared between EDs with and without NPs using logistic regression and Cox proportional hazards regression, adjusting for hospital and patient characteristics and correlation of outcomes within hospitals. Safety and quality indicator data (rates of ED unplanned re-presentations) for a random subset of re-presentations were compared using Poisson regression. RESULTS:Of 66 EDs, 55 (83%) provided service indicator data on 2 463 543 ED patient episodes while 58 (88%) provided safety and quality indicator data on 2853 ED re-presentations. EDs with NPs had significantly (p<0.001) higher rates of waiting times compared with EDs without NPs. Patients presenting to EDs with NPs spent 13 min (8%) longer in ED compared with EDs without NPs (median, (first quartile-third quartile): 156 (93-233) and 143 (84-217) for EDs with and without NPs, respectively). EDs with NPs had 1.8% more patients who did not wait, but similar re-presentations rates as EDs with NPs. CONCLUSIONS:EDs with NPs had statistically significantly lower performance for service indicators. However, these findings should be treated with caution. NPs are relatively new in the ED workforce and low NP numbers, staffing patterns and still-evolving roles may limit their impact on service indicators. Further research is needed to explain the dichotomy between the benefits of NPs demonstrated in individual clinical outcomes research and these macro system-wide observations.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To investigate the appropriateness of cases presenting to the emergency department (ED) following ambulance-based secondary telephone triage. DESIGN:A pragmatic retrospective cohort analysis of all the planned and unplanned ED presentations within 48 hours of a secondary telephone triage. SETTING:The secondary telephone triage service, called the Referral Service, and the hospitals were located in metropolitan Melbourne, Australia and operated 24 hours a day, servicing 4.25 million people. The Referral Service provides an in-depth secondary triage of cases classified as low acuity when calling the Australian emergency telephone number. POPULATION:Cases triaged by the Referral Service between September 2009 and June 2012 were linked to ED and hospital admission records (N=44,523). Planned ED presentations were cases referred to the ED following the secondary triage, unplanned ED presentations were cases that presented despite being referred to alternative care pathways. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:Appropriateness was measured using an ED suitability definition and hospital admission rates. These were compared with mean population data which consisted of all of the ED presentations for the state (termed the 'average Victorian ED presentation'). RESULTS:Planned ED presentations were more likely to be ED suitable than unplanned ED presentations (OR 1.62; 95% CI 1.5 to 1.7; p<0.001) and the average Victorian ED presentation (OR 1.85; 95% CI 1.01 to 3.4; p=0.046). They were also more likely to be admitted to the hospital than the unplanned ED presentation (OR 1.5; 95% CI 1.4 to 1.6; p<0.001) and the average Victorian ED presentation (OR 2.3, 95% CI 2.24 to 2.33; p<0.001). Just under 15% of cases diverted away from the emergency care pathways presented in the ED (unplanned ED attendances), and 9.5% of all the alternative care pathway cases were classified as ED suitable and 6.5% were admitted to hospital. CONCLUSIONS:Secondary telephone triage was able to appropriately identify many ED suitable cases, and while most cases referred to alternative care pathways did not present in the ED. Further research is required to establish that these were not inappropriately triaged away from the emergency care pathways.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The majority of children receiving care in the emergency department (ED) are discharged home, making discharge communication a key component of quality emergency care. Parents must have the knowledge and skills to effectively manage their child's ongoing care at home. Parental fatigue and stress, health literacy, and the fragmented nature of communication in the ED setting may contribute to suboptimal parent comprehension of discharge instructions and inappropriate ED return visits. The aim of this study was to examine how and why discharge communication works in a pediatric ED context and develop recommendations for practice, policy, and research.<h4>Methods</h4>We systematically reviewed the published and gray literature. We searched electronic databases CINAHL, Medline, and Embase up to July 2017. Policies guiding discharge communication were also sought from pediatric emergency networks in Canada, USA, Australia, and the UK. Eligible studies included children less than 19 years of age with a focus on discharge communication in the ED as the primary objective. Included studies were appraised using relevant Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) checklists. Textual summaries, content analysis, and conceptual mapping assisted with exploring relationships within and between data. We implemented an integrated knowledge translation approach to strengthen the relevancy of our research questions and assist with summarizing our findings.<h4>Results</h4>A total of 5095 studies were identified in the initial search, with 75 articles included in the final review. Included studies focused on a range of illness presentations and employed a variety of strategies to deliver discharge instructions. Education was the most common intervention and the majority of studies targeted parent knowledge or behavior. Few interventions attempted to change healthcare provider knowledge or behavior. Assessing barriers to implementation, identifying relevant ED contextual factors, and understanding provider and patient attitudes and beliefs about discharge communication were identified as important factors for improving discharge communication practice.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Existing literature examining discharge communication in pediatric emergency care varies widely. A theory-based approach to intervention design is needed to improve our understanding regarding discharge communication practice. Strengthening discharge communication in a pediatric emergency context presents a significant opportunity for improving parent comprehension and health outcomes for children.<h4>Systematic review registration</h4>PROSPERO registration number: CRD42014007106.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Studies have shown that patients with hip fracture treated in a Comprehensive Geriatric Care (CGC) unit report better results in comparison to orthopaedic care. Furthermore, involving patients in their healthcare by encouraging patient participation can result in better quality of care and improved outcomes. To our knowledge no study has been performed comparing rehabilitation programmes within a CGC unit during the acute phase after hip fracture with focus on improving patients' perceived participation and subsequent effect on patients' function. METHODS:A prospective, controlled, intervention performed in a CGC unit and compared with standard care. A total of 126 patients with hip fracture were recruited who were prior to fracture; community dwelling, mobile indoors and independent in personal care. Intervention Group (IG): 63 patients, mean age 82.0 years and Control Group (CG): 63 patients mean age 80.5 years. INTERVENTION:coordinated rehabilitation programme with early onset of patient participation and intensified occupational therapy and physiotherapy after hip fracture surgery. The primary outcome measure was self-reported patient participation at discharge. Secondary outcome measures were: TLS-BasicADL; Bergs Balance Scale (BBS); Falls Efficacy Scale FES(S); Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) and Timed Up and Go (TUG) at discharge and 1 month and ADL staircase for instrumental ADL at 1 month. RESULTS:At discharge a statistically significant greater number of patients in the IG reported higher levels of participation (p?<?0.05) and independence in lower body hygiene (p?<?0.05) and dressing (p?<?0.001). There were however no statistically significant differences at discharge and 1 month between groups in functional balance and confidence, performance measures or risk for falls. CONCLUSION:This model of OT and PT coordinated inpatient rehabilitation had a positive effect on patients' perceived participation in their rehabilitation and ADL at discharge but did not appear to affect level of recovery or risk for future falls at 1 month. A large proportion of patients remained at risk for future falls at 1 month in both groups highlighting the need for continued rehabilitation after discharge. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03301584 (Retrospectively registered: 4th October 2017).
Project description:OBJECTIVE::To compare five-year outcomes and changes over time of a client-centred activities of daily living (ADL) intervention versus usual ADL interventions for people with stroke and their significant others. DESIGN::Five-year follow-up of a cluster-randomized controlled trial where a client-centred ADL intervention ( n?=?129) or usual ADL interventions ( n?=?151) were delivered to people with stroke. SETTING::Multicentre study including 16 inpatient or home-based rehabilitation units. PARTICIPANTS::People with stroke and significant others. INTERVENTION::The client-centred ADL intervention aimed at enabling agency in daily activities and participation in everyday life and at reducing caregiver burden. MAIN MEASURES::For people with stroke, perceived participation (Stroke Impact Scale), independence in ADL, life satisfaction, and use of formal/informal care were measured. For significant others, caregiver burden, life satisfaction, and mood (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale) were assessed. RESULTS::Five years post-intervention, data were collected from 145 people with stroke (intervention group: n?=?71/control group: n?=?74) and 75 significant others (intervention group: n?=?36/control group: n?=?39). For those with stroke, the Participation domain of the Stroke Impact Scale showed no group differences at year five (68.9 vs 75.4, P?=?0.062) or in changes over time. At year five, the control group had better outcomes regarding Other help/supervision. Significant others in the control group were more likely to show signs of depression at year five (odds ratio?=?22.3; P?<?0.001). CONCLUSION::The client-centred ADL intervention appears to render similar long-term effects as usual ADL interventions for people with stroke, but for significant others signs of depression might be reduced.
Project description:STUDY OBJECTIVE:We evaluate the effectiveness of interventions for pediatric patients with suicide-related emergency department (ED) visits. METHODS:We searched of MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, other electronic databases, references, and key journals/conference proceedings. We included experimental or quasiexperimental studies that evaluated psychosocial interventions for pediatric suicide-related ED visits. Inclusion screening, study selection, and methodological quality were assessed by 2 independent reviewers. One reviewer extracted the data and a second checked for completeness and accuracy. Consensus was reached by conference; disagreements were adjudicated by a third reviewer. We calculated odds ratios, relative risks (RRs), or mean differences for each study's primary outcome, with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Meta-analysis was deferred because of clinical heterogeneity in intervention, patient population, and outcome. RESULTS:We included 7 randomized controlled trials and 3 quasiexperimental studies, grouping and reviewing them according to intervention delivery: ED-based delivery (n=1), postdischarge delivery (n=6), and ED transition interventions (n=3). An ED-based discharge planning intervention increased the number of attended post-ED treatment sessions (mean difference=2.6 sessions; 95% CI 0.05 to 5.15 sessions). Of the 6 studies of postdischarge delivery interventions, 1 found increased adherence with service referral in patients who received community nurse home visits compared with simple placement referral at discharge (RR=1.28; 95% CI 1.06 to 1.56). The 3 ED transition intervention studies reported (1) reduced risk of subsequent suicide after brief ED intervention and postdischarge contact (RR=0.10; 95% CI 0.03 to 0.41); (2) reduced suicide-related hospitalizations when ED visits were followed up with interim, psychiatric care (RR=0.41; 95% CI 0.28 to 0.60); and (3) increased likelihood of treatment completion when psychiatric evaluation in the ED was followed by attendance of outpatient sessions with a parent (odds ratio=2.78; 95% CI 1.20 to 6.67). CONCLUSION:Transition interventions appear most promising for reducing suicide-related outcomes and improving post-ED treatment adherence. Use of similar interventions and outcome measures in future studies would enhance the ability to derive strong recommendations from the clinical evidence in this area.