New codon 198 ?-tubulin polymorphisms in highly benzimidazole resistant Haemonchus contortus from goats in three different states in Sudan.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Benzimidazole (BZ) resistance in gastrointestinal nematodes is a worldwide problem for livestock production, particularly in small ruminants. Assignment of the emergence of resistance using sensitive and reliable methods is required to adopt the correct strategies for control. In Sudan, BZ resistant Haemonchus contortus populations were recently reported in goats in South Darfur. This study aimed to provide additional data regarding albendazole efficacy and to describe the prevailing molecular BZ resistance mechanisms. METHODS:Faecal egg count reduction and egg hatch tests (EHT) were used to evaluate albendazole efficacy in three different areas of South Darfur using naturally (Rehed Al-Birdi and Tulus) and experimentally infected (Tulus and Um Dafuq) goats. Using samples from Central, East and South Darfur, pyro- and Sanger sequencing were used to detect the polymorphisms F167Y, E198A and F200Y in H. contortus isotype 1 ?-tubulin in DNA extracted from pooled third-stage larval (L3) samples (n?=?36) on days 0 and 10 during trials, and from pooled adult male H. contortus (treated goats, n?=?14; abattoirs, n?=?83) including samples from populations previously found to be resistant in South Darfur. RESULTS:Albendazole efficacies at 5, 7.5 and 10 mg/kg doses were 73.5-90.2% on day 14 in natural and experimental infections while 12.5 mg/kg showed >?96.6% efficacy. EC50 in the EHT were 0.8 and 0.11 µg/ml thiabendazole in natural and experimental infection trials, respectively. PCRs detected Haemonchus, Trichostrongylus and Cooperia in L3 samples from albendazole-treated goats. Haemonchus contortus allele frequencies in codons 167 and 200 using pyrosequencing assays were ??7.4% while codon 198 assays failed. Sanger sequencing revealed five novel polymorphisms at codon 198. Noteworthy, an E198L substitution was present in 82% of the samples (L3 and adults) including all post-treatment samples. Moreover, E198V, E198K and potentially E198I, and E198Stop were identified in a few samples. CONCLUSIONS:To our knowledge, this is the first report of E198L in BZ resistant H. contortus and the second where this is the predominant genotype associated with resistance in any strongyle species. Since this variant cannot be quantified using pyrosequencing, the results highlight important limitations in the general applicability of pyrosequencing to quantify BZ resistance genotypes.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Benzimidazole (BZ) anthelmintics are widely used to control infections with parasitic nematodes, but BZ resistance is an emerging threat among several nematode species infecting humans and animals. In Sudan, BZ-resistant Haemonchus contortus populations were recently reported in goats in South Darfur State. The objective of this study was to collect data regarding the situation of BZ resistance in cattle parasitic nematodes in South Darfur using phenotypic and molecular approaches, besides providing some epidemiological data on nematodes in cattle.<h4>Methods</h4>The faecal egg count reduction test and the egg hatch test (EHT) were used to evaluate benzimidazole efficacy in cattle nematodes in five South Darfur study areas: Beleil, Kass, Nyala, Rehed Al-Birdi and Tulus. Genomic DNA was extracted from pools of third-stage larvae (L3) (n = 40) during trials, before and after treatment, and pools of adult male Haemonchus spp. (n = 18) from abattoirs. The polymorphisms F167Y, E198A and F200Y in isotype 1 β-tubulin genes of H. contortus and H. placei were analysed using Sanger and pyrosequencing.<h4>Results</h4>Prevalence of gastro-intestinal helminths in cattle was 71% (313/443). Reduced albendazole faecal egg count reduction efficacy was detected in three study areas: Nyala (93.7%), Rehed Al-Birdi (89.7%) and Tulus (88.2%). In the EHT, EC<sub>50</sub> values of these study areas ranged between 0.032 and 0.037 µg/ml thiabendazole. Genus-specific PCRs detected the genera Haemonchus, Trichostrongylus and Cooperia in L3 samples collected after albendazole treatment. Sanger sequencing followed by pyrosequencing assays did not detect elevated frequencies of known BZ resistance-associated alleles in codon F167Y, E198A and F200Y in isotype 1 β-tubulin gene of H. placei (≤ 11.38%). However, polymorphisms were detected in H. contortus and in samples with mixed infections with H. contortus and H. placei at codon 198, including E198L (16/58), E198V (2/58) and potentially E198Stop (1/58). All pooled L3 samples post-albendazole treatment (n = 13) were identified as H. contortus with an E198L substitution at codon 198.<h4>Conclusions</h4>To the knowledge of the authors, this is the first report of reduced albendazole efficacy in cattle in Sudan and is the first study describing an E198L substitution in phenotypically BZ-resistant nematodes collected from cattle.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Since pastoralists in South Darfur, Sudan, had complained about lack of albendazole (ABZ) efficacy to control nematodes in goats, the frequency of infection with gastrointestinal helminths was studied before in vivo faecal egg count reduction tests (FECRT) were conducted using ABZ orally either at the dose recommended for sheep, 5?mg/kg body weight (bw) or at 10?mg/kg bw. Experiments included goats naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes or experimentally infected with local Haemonchus contortus isolates. Three study areas (Nyala, Beleil and Kass) were visited in autumn or winter.<h4>Results</h4>Out of 478 screened goats, 82.4% were infected with gastrointestinal helminths and 82% were shedding eggs of strongyle nematodes with 90% of the strongyle larvae representing Haemonchus spp. A FECRT using naturally infected goats (n?=?225: 71 untreated, 104 and 50 treated with 5 and 10?mg ABZ/kg bw, respectively) detected reduced ABZ efficacy in Nyala and Kass. Paired and unpaired FECRT calculations detected reductions of 72-92% with samples taken at 8 days post treatment with 5?mg ABZ/kg bw and of 85-94% with 10?mg ABZ/kg bw. The FECRT based on day 14 post treatment samples showed reductions of 69-77% with 5?mg/kg and of 75-87% with 10?mg ABZ/kg bw. In Beleil, ABZ efficacy was 95%. In the egg hatch test EC<sub>50</sub> values for Nyala and Kass ranged from 0.12-0.24??g thiabendazole/ml, corresponding to benzimidazole resistant phenotypes. Only Haemonchus spp. larvae were present after treatments in coprocultures. When the efficacy was evaluated experimentally using isolates of H. contortus from Nyala and Kass, the 5?mg ABZ/kg dose revealed reductions of 76-78% on day 8 and of 62-70% on day 14 with the unpaired method. Using 10?mg ABZ/kg, the FECR was still only 77-82%.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Both, in vivo and in vitro methods detected resistant H. contortus populations in goats from South Darfur State. The time point 14?days post treatment was more sensitive for detection of ABZ resistance than 8?days post treatment. This is the first report on the occurrence of anthelmintic resistance in Sudan confirming that anthelmintic resistance selection is occurring in African subsistence farming systems.
Project description:A previous study identified that isoform 2 (Hcftt-2) of the 14-3-3 protein of Haemonchus contortus (H. contortus) could suppress immune functions of goat peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and might be a potential vaccine target, as neutralization of the protein function may enhance anti-parasite immunity. In this research, the recombinant Hcftt-2 was evaluated for its immunoprotective efficacy against H. contortus infection in goats. Five experimental goats were immunized twice with rHcftt-2 along with Freund's adjuvant. The five immunized goats and five nonimmunized goats (adjuvant only) were challenged with 5000 L3-stage H. contortus larvae after 14 days of second immunization. Five nonimmunized and uninfected goats (adjuvant only) were set as the uninfected group. A significant increase in the serum immunoglobin G(IgG) and serum IgA levels were identified in the rHcftt-2 immunized animals. The mean eggs per gram in feces (EPG) and the worm burdens of rHcftt-2 immunized group were reduced by 26.46% (p < 0.05) and 32.33%, respectively. In brief, immunization of goats with rHcftt-2 induced moderate protection against H. contortus challenge.
Project description:Extensive and indiscriminate use of the benzimidazole class of drugs has led to the onset of anthelmintic resistance. In tropical countries like India, Haemonchus contortus is the most pathogenic parasite infecting sheep and goats. The widespread presence of resistant helminths (especially H. contortus) threatens the livestock farming. The use of various drugs has led to single nucleotide polymorphism that causes specific amino acid substitutions in ?-tubulin protein of H. contortus to confer resistance. This emphasizes the need for a survey on the present status of resistance in India. In this study, allele specific PCR was employed to screen the presence of a SNP, a thymine-to-adenine transversion which leads to substitution of amino acid in codon 200 of ?-tubulin gene that is correlated specifically with BZ resistance. Third stage larvae (L3) from pooled faecal cultures of four organized sheep farms served as a source of genomic DNA for identification of H. contortus and further genotype analysis. A total of 1000 larvae was screened, out of which 673 larvae were identified as H. contortus. Among 673 H. contortus larvae, 539 larvae (80 %) were genotyped as homozygous resistant (rr) and remaining 134 (20 %) were heterozygous susceptible (Sr) by allele specific PCR. The concluded resistance status reasons out the failure of anthelmintic drug in treating ruminants. Immediate steps are needed to avoid further aggravation of the problem. Target selective treatment by reviewing the resistance status of individual drugs, appropriate use of anthelmintic drugs and other control strategies will provide a pragmatic option for delaying the further spread of anthelmintic resistance.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Genetic resistance against benzimidazole (BZ) anthelmintics is widespread in cyathostomins, the commonest group of intestinal parasitic nematodes of horses. Studies of BZ-resistant nematodes of sheep, particularly Haemonchus contortus, have indicated that an anthelmintic resistance-conferring T/A polymorphism, encoding an F (phenylalanine) to Y (tyrosine) substitution, in beta-tubulin isotype 1 is present at two loci, codons 167 and 200 (F167Y, F200Y). Recent studies using complementary (c) DNA derived from BZ-susceptible and -resistant cyathostomins identified statistical differences in the frequency of the BZ-resistant A allele at these loci. However, the lack of high-throughput genomic DNA-based detection of polymorphisms limits the study of eggs or larvae from field isolates. In the present study, we report genomic DNA sequences for beta-tubulin isotype 1 from multiple cyathostomin species, thus facilitating the development of pyrosequencing assays to genetically characterize third-stage larvae (L3s) of cyathostomins from mixed-species field isolates. RESULTS: Sequence analysis of the beta-tubulin isotype 1 gene in a common species, Cylicocyclus nassatus, indicates a revised genomic structure to published data, revealing that codons 167 and 200 are located on separate exons. A consensus sequence was generated from 91 and 76 individual cyathostomins for the regions spanning codons 167 and 200, respectively. A multi-species genomic DNA-based assay was established to directly pyrosequence individual L3 from field samples of unknown species and BZ sensitivity in a 96-well plate. In this format, the assay to detect F167Y gave a 50-90% success rate. The optimisation of the assay at codon 200 is currently underway. Subsequently, the genotype at F167Y was determined for 241 L3s, collected prior to and after BZ treatment. These results demonstrated a reduction in the heterozygous genotype, TTC/TAC, and an increase in the homozygous resistant genotype TAC/TAC in post-treatment samples. However, the differences in allele frequencies determined before and after BZ treatment were not statistically significant. CONCLUSION: Extensive genomic DNA sequence, spanning codons 167 and 200 of the beta-tubulin isotype 1 gene, was generated from multiple cyathostomin species. The data facilitated the development of a pyrosequencing assay, capable of detecting the genotype of individual cyathostomin L3s derived from mixed-species field samples. Differences in codon 167 allele frequencies were observed in L3s isolated pre- and post-BZ treatment.
Project description:Haemonchus contortus is one of the most important parasitic nematodes of small ruminants around the world, particularly in tropical and subtropical regions. The control of haemonchosis relies mainly on anthelmintics, but the excessive and prolonged use of anthelmintics is causing serious drug resistance issues in many countries. As benzimidazole (BZ) anthelmintics have been broadly used in China, we hypothesized that resistance is widespread. Given the link between three known single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, designated F167Y, E198A and F200Y) in the isotype-1 ?-tubulin gene and BZ resistance, our goal here was to explore the presence of these mutations in H. contortus from small ruminants (sheep and goats) from eight provinces in China using PCR-coupled sequencing. In addition, the genetic diversity and genetic relationship of isotype-1 ?-tubulin sequence haplotypes were also investigated. Among 192 H. contortus adult individuals representing the eight populations, we identified six distinct sequence types, five of which had SNP E198A (GCA) and/or F200Y (TAC). Sequence analysis showed that the frequencies of SNPs E198A and F200Y were 0-70% and 0-31%, respectively. SNP F167Y (TAC) was not detected in any population. In addition, high haplotype diversities (0.455-0.939) and nucleotide diversities (0.018-0.039) were calculated. A network analysis of the isotype-1 ?-tubulin gene sequences showed that SNPs E198A and F200Y occurred in multiple distinct groupings, suggesting multiple independent origins of these SNPs. The findings of this first study of SNPs in the isotype-1 ?-tubulin gene of H. contortus populations suggest that BZ resistance is prevalent in some regions of China, and that any control strategy might focus on monitoring BZ resistance in this country.
Project description:We have undertaken a detailed analysis of the biotransformation of five of the most therapeutically important benzimidazole anthelmintics - albendazole (ABZ), mebendazole (MBZ), thiabendazole (TBZ), oxfendazole (OxBZ) and fenbendazole (FBZ) - in Caenorhabditis elegans and the ruminant parasite Haemonchus contortus. Drug metabolites were detected by LC-MS/MS analysis in supernatants of C. elegans cultures with a hexose conjugate, most likely glucose, dominating for all five drugs. This work adds to a growing body of evidence that glucose conjugation is a major pathway of xenobiotic metabolism in nematodes and may be a target for enhancement of anthelmintic potency. Consistent with this, we found that biotransformation of albendazole by C. elegans reduced drug potency. Glucose metabolite production by C. elegans was reduced in the presence of the pharmacological inhibitor chrysin suggesting that UDP-glucuronosyl/glucosyl transferase (UGT) enzymes may catalyze benzimidazole glucosidation. Similar glucoside metabolites were detected following ex vivo culture of adult Haemonchus contortus. As a step towards identifying nematode enzymes potentially responsible for benzimidazole biotransformation, we characterised the transcriptomic response to each of the benzimidazole drugs using the C. elegans resistant strain CB3474 ben-1(e1880)III. In the case of albendazole, mebendazole, thiabendazole, and oxfendazole the shared transcriptomic response was dominated by the up-regulation of classical xenobiotic response genes including a shared group of UGT enzymes (ugt-14/25/33/34/37/41/8/9). In the case of fenbendazole, a much greater number of genes were up-regulated, as well as developmental and brood size effects suggesting the presence of secondary drug targets in addition to BEN-1. The transcriptional xenobiotic response of a multiply resistant H. contortus strain UGA/2004 was essentially undetectable in the adult stage but present in the L3 infective stage, albeit more muted than C. elegans. This suggests that xenobiotic responses may be less efficient in stages of parasitic nematodes that reside in the host compared with the free-living stages.
Project description:Gastrointestinal (GI) nematodes are among the most important causes of production loss in farmed ruminants, and anthelmintic resistance is emerging globally. We hypothesized that wild deer could potentially act as reservoirs of anthelmintic-resistant GI nematodes between livestock farms. Adult abomasal nematodes and faecal samples were collected from fallow (n = 24), red (n = 14) and roe deer (n = 10) from venison farms and areas of extensive or intensive livestock farming. Principal components analysis of abomasal nematode species composition revealed differences between wild roe deer grazing in the areas of intensive livestock farming, and fallow and red deer in all environments. Alleles for benzimidazole (BZ) resistance were identified in ?-tubulin of Haemonchus contortus of roe deer and phenotypic resistance confirmed in vitro by an egg hatch test (EC50 = 0.149 µg ml(-1) ± 0.13 µg ml(-1)) on H. contortus eggs from experimentally infected sheep. This BZ-resistant H. contortus isolate also infected a calf experimentally. We present the first account of in vitro BZ resistance in wild roe deer, but further experiments should firmly establish the presence of phenotypic BZ resistance in vivo. Comprehensive in-field studies should assess whether nematode cross-transmission between deer and livestock occurs and contributes, in any way, to the development of resistance on livestock farms.
Project description:Resistance to benzimidazoles (BZs) in trichostrongyloid nematodes is a worldwide problem for livestock production, particularly regarding small ruminants. Sensitive and reliable methods are required to assess anthelmintic resistance status. Currently available methods for BZ resistance detection can be divided into three main groups, in vivo (e.g. faecal egg count reduction test), in vitro (e.g. egg hatch assay) and molecular tests. Three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the isotype-1 ?-tubulin gene of various nematode species correlate with BZ resistance. While PCR-based methods have been reported for the three most economically important nematodes of sheep, namely, Trichostrongylus, Haemonchus and Teladorsagia, pyrosequencing assays are so far only available for the latter two. Here, the design and evaluation of pyrosequencing assays for isotype-1 and isotype-2 ?-tubulin genes of Trichostrongylus colubriformis are described. PCR fragments carrying the susceptible and corresponding resistant genotype were combined in defined ratios to evaluate assay sensitivity and linearity. The correlation between the given and the measured allele frequencies of the respective SNPs (codons F167Y, E198A and F200Y) was very high. Pyrosequencing assays for Haemonchus, Teladorsagia and Trichostrongylus were subsequently used for a BZ resistance survey, carried out in the three European countries, namely Ireland, Italy and Switzerland. Larval cultures obtained from field survey samples in 2012 and 2013 were used for pyrosequencing. The test was applied when the target species represented at least 10% of the sample. Trichostrongylus and Teladorsagia were detected in all countries' samples whereas Haemonchus was not detected in samples from Ireland. SNPs in isotype-1 associated with resistance were detected for all three species, with frequencies at codon F200Y far exceeding those at codons F167Y and E198A. Elevated SNP frequencies in isotype-2 of Trichostrongylus were only rarely detected. Farms with BZ resistance-associated SNP frequencies above 10% were most often found in Switzerland followed by Ireland and Italy.
Project description:Haemonchus contortus is arguably one of the most economically important and ubiquitous parasites of livestock globally and commonly involved in cases of anthelmintic resistance. Here, we performed reciprocal genetic crosses using susceptible (MHco3(ISE)) and multiple anthelmintic resistant (MHco18(UGA2004)) H. contortus isolates. Resultant admixed populations were designated MHco3/18 or MHco18/3, where the lead isolate reflects the origin of the females. Three independent filial generations were generated for each cross, which were subjected to bioassays, molecular approaches and population genetic analyses to investigate the phenotypic and genotypic inheritance of benzimidazole (BZ) resistance at each stage. A panel of microsatellite markers confirmed the success of the genetic cross as markers from both parents were seen in the F<sub>1</sub> crosses. Egg hatch tests revealed a stark difference between the two F<sub>1</sub> crosses with ED<sub>50</sub> estimates for MHco18/3 being 9 times greater than those for MHco3/18. Resistance factors based on ED<sub>50</sub> estimates ranged from 6 to 57 fold in the filial progeny compared to MHco3(ISE) parents. Molecular analysis of the F167Y and F200Y SNP markers associated with BZ resistance were analysed by pyrosequencing and MiSeq deep amplicon sequencing, which showed that MHco3/18.F<sub>1</sub> and MHco18/3.F<sub>1</sub> both had similar frequencies of the F200Y resistant allele (45.3% and 44.3%, respectively), whereas for F167Y, MHco18/3.F<sub>1</sub> had a two-fold greater frequency of the resistant-allele compared to MHco3/18.F<sub>1</sub> (18.2% and 8.8%, respectively). Comparison between pyrosequencing and MiSeq amplicon sequencing revealed that the allele frequencies derived from both methods were concordant at codon 200 (r<sub>c</sub> = 0.97), but were less comparable for codon 167 (r<sub>c</sub> = 0.55). The use of controlled reciprocal genetic crosses have revealed a potential difference in BZ resistance phenotype dependent on whether the resistant allele is paternally or maternally inherited. These findings provide new insight and prompt further investigation into the inheritance of BZ resistance in H. contortus.