A Systematic Analysis Revealed the Potential Gene Regulatory Processes of ATRA-Triggered Neuroblastoma Differentiation and Identified a Novel RA Response Sequence in the NTRK2 Gene.
ABSTRACT: Retinoic acid- (RA-) triggered neuroblastoma cell lines are widely used cell modules of neuronal differentiation in neurodegenerative disease studies, but the gene regulatory mechanism underlying differentiation is unclear now. In this study, system biological analysis was performed on public microarray data from three neuroblastoma cell lines (SK-N-SH, SH-SY5Y-A, and SH-SY5Y-E) to explore the potential molecular processes of all-trans retinoic acid- (ATRA-) triggered differentiation. RT-qPCR, functional genomics analysis, western blotting, chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP), and homologous sequence analysis were further performed to validate the gene regulation processes and identify the RA response element in a specific gene. The potential disturbed biological pathways (111 functional GO terms in 14 interactive functional groups) and gene regulatory network (10 regulators and 71 regulated genes) in neuroblastoma differentiation were obtained. 15 of the 71 regulated genes are neuronal projection-related. Among them, NTRK2 is the only one that was dramatically upregulated in the RT-qPCR test that we performed on ATRA-treated SH-SY5Y-A cells. We further found that the overexpression of the NTRK2 gene can trigger differentiation-like changes in SH-SY5Y-A cells. Functional genomic analysis and western blotting assay suggested that, in neuroblastoma cells, ATRA may directly regulate the NTRK2 gene by activating the RA receptor (RAR) that binds in its promoter region. A novel RA response DNA element in the NTRK2 gene was then identified by bioinformatics analysis and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay. The novel element is sequence conservation and position variation among different species. Our study systematically provided the potential regulatory information of ATRA-triggered neuroblastoma differentiation, and in the NTRK2 gene, we identified a novel RA response DNA element, which may contribute to the differentiation in a human-specific manner.
Project description:Recent data indicate that isomerisation to all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) is the key mechanism underlying the favourable clinical properties of 13-cis retinoic acid (13cisRA) in the treatment of neuroblastoma. Retinoic acid (RA) metabolism is thought to contribute to resistance, and strategies to modulate this may increase the clinical efficacy of 13cisRA. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that retinoids, such as acitretin, which bind preferentially to cellular retinoic acid binding proteins (CRABPs), or specific inhibitors of the RA hydroxylase CYP26, such as R116010, can increase the intracellular availability of ATRA. Incubation of SH-SY5Y cells with acitretin (50 microM) or R116010 (1 or 10 microM) in combination with either 10 microM ATRA or 13cisRA induced a selective increase in intracellular levels of ATRA, while 13cisRA levels were unaffected. CRABP was induced in SH-SY5Y cells in response to RA. In contrast, acitretin had no significant effect on intracellular retinoid concentrations in those neuroblastoma cell lines that showed little or no induction of CRABP after RA treatment. Both ATRA and 13cisRA dramatically induced the expression of CYP26A1 in SH-SY5Y cells, and treatment with R116010, but not acitretin, potentiated the RA-induced expression of a reporter gene and CYP26A1. The response of neuroblastoma cells to R116010 was consistent with inhibition of CYP26, indicating that inhibition of RA metabolism may further optimise retinoid treatment in neuroblastoma.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Our recent results show that all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA), an active metabolite of vitamin A, induces COX-dependent hyperalgesia and allodynia in rats. This effect was mediated by retinoic acid receptors (RARs) and was associated with increased COX-2 expression in the spinal cord. Since ATRA also up-regulated COX-2 expression in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells, the current study was undertaken to analyze in these cells the mechanism through which ATRA increases COX activity. METHODS: Cultured SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells were treated with ATRA. COX expression and kinase activity were analyzed by western blot. Transcriptional mechanisms were analyzed by RT-PCR and promoter assays. Pharmacological inhibitors of kinase activity and pan-antagonists of RAR or RXR were used to assess the relevance of these signaling pathways. Production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) was quantified by enzyme immunoabsorbent assay. Statistical significance between individual groups was tested using the non-parametric unpaired Mann-Whitney U test. RESULTS: ATRA induced a significant increase of COX-2 expression in a dose- and time-dependent manner in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells, while COX-1 expression remained unchanged. Morphological features of differentiation were not observed in ATRA-treated cells. Up-regulation of COX-2 protein expression was followed by increased production of PGE2. ATRA also up-regulated COX-2 mRNA expression and increased the activity of a human COX-2 promoter construct. We next explored the participation of RARs and mitogen-activated peptide kinases (MAPK). Pre-incubation of SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells with either RAR-pan-antagonist LE540 or MAP kinase kinase 1 (MEK-1) inhibitor PD98059 resulted in the abolition of ATRA-induced COX-2 promoter activity, COX-2 protein expression and PGE2 production whereas the retinoid X receptor pan-antagonist HX531, the p38 MAPK inhibitor SB203580 or the c-Jun kinase inhibitor SP600125 did not have any effect. The increase in RAR-beta expression and extracellular-regulated kinase 1/2(ERK1/2) phosphorylation in ATRA-incubated cells suggested that RARs and ERK1/2 were in fact activated by ATRA in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells. CONCLUSION: These results highlight the importance of RAR-dependent and kinase-dependent mechanisms for ATRA-induced COX-2 expression and activity.
Project description:The vitamin A metabolite, all-trans retinoic acid (atRA), plays an important role in neuronal development, including neurite outgrowth. However, the genes that lie downstream of atRA and its receptors in neuronal cells are largely unknown. By using the human neuroblastoma cell line, SH-SY5Y, we have identified an atRA-responsive gene (RAINB1: retinoic acid inducible in neuroblastoma cells) that is induced within 4 h after exposure of SH-SY5Y cells to atRA. RAINB1 mRNA is highly expressed in the nervous system (10.5- to 11-kb transcript) in both developing embryos and adults. Its expression is perturbed in developing rat embryos exposed to excess or insufficient atRA. RAINB1 is present on chromosome 11 and is spread over 38 exons, resulting in a putative ORF of 2,429 amino acids. The RAINB1 protein shows high similarity to a gene in Caenorhabditis elegans, unc-53, that is required for axonal elongation of mechanosensory neurons, suggesting that these proteins are orthologs. Thus, RAINB1 may represent a critical downstream gene in atRA-mediated neurite outgrowth.
Project description:MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are an emerging class of non-coding endogenous RNAs involved in multiple cellular processes, including cell differentiation. Treatment with retinoic acid (RA) results in neural differentiation of neuroblastoma cells. We wanted to elucidate whether miRNAs contribute to the gene expression changes induced by RA in neuroblastoma cells and whether miRNA regulation is involved in the transduction of the RA signal. We show here that RA treatment of SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells results in profound changes in the expression pattern of miRNAs. Up to 42 different miRNA species significantly changed their expression (26 up-regulated and 16 down-regulated). Among them, the closely related miR-10a and -10b showed the most prominent expression changes. Induction of miR-10a and -10b by RA also could be detected in LA-N-1 neuroblastoma cells. Loss of function experiments demonstrated that miR-10a and -10b are essential mediators of RA-induced neuroblastoma differentiation and of the associated changes in migration, invasion, and in vivo metastasis. In addition, we found that the SR-family splicing factor SFRS1 (SF2/ASF) is a target for miR-10a -and -10b in HeLa and SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. We show here that changes in miR-10a and -10b expression levels may regulate SFRS1-dependent alternative splicing and translational functions. Taken together, our results give support to the idea that miRNA regulation plays a key role in RA-induced neuroblastoma cell differentiation. The discovery of SFRS1 as direct target of miR-10a and -10b supports the emerging functional interaction between two post-transcriptional mechanisms, microRNAs and splicing, in the neuronal differentiation context.
Project description:Acrylamide (ACR) is a known neurotoxicant which crosses the blood–brain barrier, passes the placenta and has been detected in breast milk. Hence, early-life exposure to ACR could lead to developmental neurotoxicity. The aim of this study was to elucidate if non-cytotoxic concentrations of ACR alter neuronal differentiation by studying gene expression of markers significant for neurodevelopment in the human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cell model. Firstly, by using RNASeq we identified two relevant pathways that are activated during 9 days of retinoic acid (RA) induced differentiation i.e. RA receptor (RAR) activation and the cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) signalling pathways. Next, by qPCR we showed that 1 and 70 µM ACR after 9 days exposure alter the expression of 13 out of 36 genes in the RAR activation pathway and 18 out of 47 in the CREB signalling pathway. Furthermore, the expression of established neuronal markers i.e. BDNF, STXBP2, STX3, TGFB1 and CHAT were down-regulated. Decreased protein expression of BDNF and altered ratio of phosphorylated CREB to total CREB were confirmed by western blot. Our results reveal that micromolar concentrations of ACR sustain proliferation, decrease neurite outgrowth and interfere with signalling pathways involved in neuronal differentiation in the SH-SY5Y cell model.
Project description:BACKGROUND: SH-SY5Y cells exhibit a neuronal phenotype when treated with all-trans retinoic acid (RA), but the molecular mechanism of activation in the signalling pathway mediated by phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) is unclear. To investigate this mechanism, we compared the gene expression profiles in SK-N-SH cells and two subtypes of SH-SY5Y cells (SH-SY5Y-A and SH-SY5Y-E), each of which show a different phenotype during RA-mediated differentiation. FINDINGS: SH-SY5Y-A cells differentiated in the presence of RA, whereas RA-treated SH-SY5Y-E cells required additional treatment with brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) for full differentiation. After exposing cells to a PI3K inhibitor, LY294002, we identified 386 genes and categorised these genes into two clusters dependent on the PI3K signalling pathway during RA-mediated differentiation in SH-SY5Y-A cells. Transcriptional regulation of the gene cluster, including 158 neural genes, was greatly reduced in SK-N-SH cells and partially impaired in SH-SY5Y-E cells, which is consistent with a defect in the neuronal phenotype of these cells. Additional stimulation with BDNF induced a set of neural genes that were down-regulated in RA-treated SH-SY5Y-E cells but were abundant in differentiated SH-SY5Y-A cells. CONCLUSION: We identified gene clusters controlled by PI3K- and TRKB-mediated signalling pathways during the differentiation of two subtypes of SH-SY5Y cells. The TRKB-mediated bypass pathway compensates for impaired neural function generated by defects in several signalling pathways, including PI3K in SH-SY5Y-E cells. Our expression profiling data will be useful for further elucidation of the signal transduction-transcriptional network involving PI3K or TRKB.
Project description:SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells are susceptible to differentiation using retinoic acid (RA) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), providing a model of neuronal differentiation. We compared SH-SY5Y cells proteome before and after RA/BDNF treatment using iTRAQ and phosphopeptide enrichment strategies. We identified 5587 proteins, 366 of them with differential abundance. Differentiated cells expressed proteins related to neuronal development, and, undifferentiated cells expressed proteins involved in cell proliferation. Interactive network covered focal adhesion, cytoskeleton dynamics and neurodegenerative diseases processes and regulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase-related signaling pathways; key proteins involved in those processes might be explored as markers for neuronal differentiation.
Project description:Although 19p13.13 microdeletion syndrome has been consistently associated with intellectual disability, overgrowth, and macrocephaly, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. MAST1, a member of the microtubule-associated serine/threonine kinase family, has been suggested as a potential candidate gene responsible for neurologic abnormalities in 19p13.13 microdeletion syndrome, but its role in nervous system development remains to be elucidated. Here, we investigated how MAST1 contributes to neuronal development. We report that MAST1 is upregulated during neuronal differentiation of the human neuroblastoma cell line, SH-SY5Y. Inhibition of MAST1 expression by RNA interference attenuated neuronal differentiation of SH-SY5Y cells. Cell cycle analyses revealed that MAST1-depleted cells did not undergo cell cycle arrest after RA treatment. Consistent with this observation, the number of EdU-positive cells significantly increased in MAST1 knockdown cells. Intriguingly, levels of P27, a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, were also increased during neuronal differentiation, and MAST1 knockdown reduced the expression of P27. Moreover, reduced neuronal differentiation caused by MAST1 depletion was rescued partially by P27 overexpression in SH-SY5Y cells. Collectively, these results suggest that MAST1 influences nervous system development by affecting neuronal differentiation through P27.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Ultra-conserved regions (UCRs) are segments of the genome (? 200 bp) that exhibit 100% DNA sequence conservation between human, mouse and rat. Transcribed UCRs (T-UCRs) have been shown to be differentially expressed in cancers versus normal tissue, indicating a possible role in carcinogenesis. All-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) causes some neuroblastoma (NB) cell lines to undergo differentiation and leads to a significant decrease in the oncogenic transcription factor MYCN. Here, we examine the impact of ATRA treatment on T-UCR expression and investigate the biological significance of these changes. METHODS: We designed a custom tiling microarray to profile the expression of 481 T-UCRs in sense and anti-sense orientation (962 potential transcripts) in untreated and ATRA-treated neuroblastoma cell lines (SH-SY5Y, SK-N-BE, LAN-5). Following identification of significantly differentially expressed T-UCRs, we carried out siRNA knockdown and gene expression microarray analysis to investigate putative functional roles for selected T-UCRs. RESULTS: Following ATRA-induced differentiation, 32 T-UCRs were differentially expressed (16 up-regulated, 16 down-regulated) across all three cell lines. Further insight into the possible role of T-UC.300A, an independent transcript whose expression is down-regulated following ATRA was achieved by siRNA knockdown, resulting in the decreased viability and invasiveness of ATRA-responsive cell lines. Gene expression microarray analysis following knockdown of T-UC.300A revealed a number of genes whose expression was altered by changing T-UC.300A levels and that might play a role in the increased proliferation and invasion of NB cells prior to ATRA-treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that significant numbers of T-UCRs have altered expression levels in response to ATRA. While the precise roles that T-UCRs might play in cancer or in normal development are largely unknown and an important area for future study, our findings strongly indicate that the function of non-coding RNA T-UC.300A is connected with proliferation, invasion and the inhibition of differentiation of neuroblastoma cell lines prior to ATRA treatment.
Project description:Neuron navigator 2 (Nav2) was first identified as an all-trans retinoic acid (atRA)-responsive gene in human neuroblastoma cells (retinoic acid-induced in neuroblastoma 1, RAINB1) that extend neurites after exposure to atRA. It is structurally related to the Caenorhabditis elegans unc-53 gene that is required for cell migration and axonal outgrowth. To gain insight into NAV2 function, the full-length human protein was expressed in C. elegans unc-53 mutants under the control of a mechanosensory neuron promoter. Transgene expression of NAV2 rescued the defects in unc-53 mutant mechanosensory neuron elongation, indicating that Nav2 is an ortholog of unc-53. Using a loss-of-function approach, we also show that Nav2 induction is essential for atRA to induce neurite outgrowth in SH-SY5Y cells. The NAV2 protein is located both in the cell body and along the length of the growing neurites of SH-SY5Y cells in a pattern that closely mimics that of neurofilament and microtubule proteins. Transfection of Nav2 deletion constructs in Cos-1 cells reveals a region of the protein (aa 837-1065) that directs localization with the microtubule cytoskeleton. Collectively, this work supports a role for NAV2 in neurite outgrowth and axonal elongation and suggests this protein may act by facilitating interactions between microtubules and other proteins such as neurofilaments that are key players in the formation and stability of growing neurites.